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Arabarches

(420 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἀραβάρχης; Arabárchēs) [German version] [1] Office in roman Egypt Office in Roman Egypt, attested as from 2nd cent. AD (OGIS 202), but it may have had Ptolemaic models. A college of arabarchai was responsible for levying the import tax in Coptus in the mid 2nd cent. (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). The distribution of tasks is unclear with the παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης ( paralḗmptēs tês Erýthras thalássēs), however, OGIS 202 indicates the offices were operating in parallel. The arabarches was also responsible for collecting the road taxes on the road from Coptus to …

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Diognetus

(335 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Διόγνητος; Diógnētos). [German version] [1] Athenian, victor at the Dionysia in 415 BC Athenian, son of Niceratus, from Cyantidae; brother of Nicias and Eucrates [2], father of Diomnestus. Winner at the Dionysia in 415 BC (Pl. Grg. 472a), afterwards exiled; in Athens in 404-03. Intervened in 403 with Pausanias on behalf of Nicias' sons. Died c. 396 (Lys. 18,4; 9f.; 21; And. 1,47). Perhaps identical with the person named by Traill (PAA 327535, 327540). Traill, PAA 327820; Davies 10808. Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) [German version] [2] Nauarch of Antiochus III c. 220 BC As nauarch of An…

Heracleon [1-4]

(362 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn). [German version] [1] Favourite of Antiochus [10] VII, 1st cent. BC from Beroea, a favourite of Antiochus [10] VIII, caused the latter's death in 96 BC during a plot to become king, but was foiled by the succession of Seleucus VI to the throne. H.'s son Dionysius ruled parts of northern Syria incl. Bambyce, Beroea and Heraclea (Pomp. Trog. prologus 39; Str. 16,2; 7; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,365; Ath. 4,153b). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Pirate leader, 1st cent. BC Pirate leader, defeated the fleet of Syracuse in 72 BC ( Heraclius [2]) and pe…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Leptines

(618 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης; Leptínēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian politician, suggested an alliance with Sparta in 369 BC. In 356, L. carried through a law according to which all exemptions from liturgies which had been granted were to be lifted, and no more were to be granted in the future (Dem. Or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippus brought an action against it on the grounds of illegality, but died shortly thereafter (Dem. Or. 20,144f.). In 355, a new action was brought against the …

Philetaerus

(662 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Φιλέταιρος; Philétairos). [German version] [1] Attic poet of the Middle Comedy, 4th cent. BC Attic poet of the Middle Comedy (1st half of 4th cent. BC), according to Dicaearchus, son of the comic poet Aristophanes [3] [1. test. 1; 2. 192], though this remains uncertain owing to some discrepancies in ancient tradition [3]. In the list of victors at the Lenaea, P. has two victories immediately after Anaxandrides and before Eubulus. Of the total of 21 pieces attributed to P. by the Suda [1. test. 1], the titles…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Athenaios

(2,265 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg) | Et al.
(Ἀθηναῖος). [English version] [1] Lakedaimonier, 423 v. Chr. am Waffenstillstand mit Athen beteiligt Lakedaimonier, Sohn des Perikleidas, war 423 v.Chr. am Waffenstillstand mit Athen beteiligt (Thuk. 4,119), den er wenig später zusammen mit dem Athener Aristonymos dem Brasidas offiziell verkündete (Thuk. 4,122). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] Sohn Attalos' I. von Pergamon, Mitglied des Kronrates A. war als jüngster Sohn Attalos' I. von Pergamon Mitglied des “Kronrates”; auch als Agonothet ist er nachgewiesen (Alt. Perg. 8,3,3; OGIS 3…

Arabarches

(372 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] [1] Amt im röm. Ägypten Amt im röm. Ägypten, zuerst 2 n. Chr. belegt (OGIS 202), aber vielleicht mit ptolemäischen Vorbildern. Ein Kollegium von A. war Mitte des 2. Jh. für die Erhebung der Einfuhrsteuer in Koptos zuständig (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). Unklar ist die Aufgabenteilung mit dem παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης, doch zeigt OGIS 202 das Nebeneinander der Ämter. Der A. war auch für den Einzug der Straßengebühren auf der Straße von Koptos zum Roten Meer zuständig (OGIS 674 …

Garsyeris

(92 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] (Γαρσύηρις, wegen -υηρις/υερις späthethit.-luw.? [1. 669]). Als Vertriebener Offizier des Achaios [5], riet diesem 221/220 v.Chr. zum Abfall von Antiochos III. In eine Auseinandersetzung der pisidischen Städte Pednelissos und Selge griff er 218 zusammen mit mehreren Städten der Region, aber ohne die Hilfe von Side gegen Pednelissos ein und zwang gemeinsam mit Achaios Selge zu Frieden und Geldzahlung (Pol. 5,57; 72-76). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 Zgusta. A. Bouché-Leclercq, Histoire des Séleucides (323-64 avant J.-C.), 1913/14, 140, 148 H.…

Antiochos

(3,851 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος). [English version] [1] Steuermann auf der Flotte des Alkibiades [3] Steuermann auf der Flotte des Alkibiades [3]. Seine fehlende Disziplin führte zu einer Niederlage der Athener bei Notion 407 v. Chr., worauf Alkibiades als Strategos abgesetzt wurde (Hell. Oxyrh. 8 Chambers; Xen. hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [English version] [2] I. Soter König des Seleukidenreiches (281-261 v. Chr.) (für Sieg über Galater: Beginn des seleukidischen H…

Kome

(894 words)

Author(s): Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(κώμη; kṓmē, plural κῶμαι; kômai). [German version] A. Greece in the 5th and 4th cents. BC With the meaning ‘village’, kome signified in the Greek world a small community. Thucydides regarded life in scattered, unfortified kômai as the older and more primitive form of communal living in a political unit (Thuc. 1,5,1; on Sparta: 1,10,1; on the Aetolians: 3,94,4). Under the Aristotelian model of pólis formation, families first group together in a kṓmē, and then the kômai group together in a pólis (Aristot. Pol. 1,1252b 15-28; cf. 3,1280b 40-1281a 1). Scattered living in a kome is typical f…

Aristonicus

(1,329 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστόνικος; Aristónikos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (2nd half 4th cent. BC) of Marathon, a wealthy man whose political allegiances lay with  Lycurgus and  Demosthenes (Plut. Mor. 846a); in 336/335 BC, he proposed the act about the  Panathenaea (LSCG no. 33), in 335/334 BC, together with Lycurgus, the psephisma for the deployment of the Athenian fleet against pirates (IG II2 1623, B 276-285), and prior to 322 BC, several laws to the   nomothetai (Alexis PCG 2, fr. 131,2). In 324/323 BC, A. faced prosecution in the trials of Harpa…

Zariadris

(61 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Ζαρίαδρις/ Zaríadris). Antiochus [5] III's governor in Armenia, together with Artaxias [1]. The two defected after Antiochus's defeat by the Romans in 189 BC and assumed royal titles, Z. in the western part of Armenia (particularly Sophene, Acilisene, Odomantis; capital probably at Carcathiocerta). Successors may have ruled until c. 93 BC (Str. 11,14,2; 5; 15). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography Will 2, 55.

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Xenoetas

(62 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Ξενοίτας; Xenoítas) from Achaea. In 221 BC Antiochus [5] III sent him as a stratēgós with full authority against the renegade Molon [1] who defeated him with a ruse after an early victory, despite support from the governors of Susiana and Mesene (Pol. 5,45,6; 46,9-48,9). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography H. H. Schmitt, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte Antiochos' des Großen, 1964, 116; 127-131; 178 f.

Ptolemaeus

(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Laodice

(2,285 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Λαοδίκη; Laodíkē). I. Mythology [German version] [I 1] Daughter of Priamus and Hecuba Daughter of Priamus and Hecabe; her husbands are given as Helicaon (Hom. Il. 3,122-124; 6,252), through whom she was spared enslavement after the fall of Troy (Paus. 10,26,3), or Acamas (Parthenius 16 MythGr), Demophon [2] (Plut. Thes. 34,2) or Telephus (Hyg. Fab. 101). According to Apollodorus (Epit. 5,25), after the fall of Troy she was swallowed up by a cleft in the earth (cf. also Lycoph. 316f.; Tryphiodorus 660f.). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [I 2] Daughter of Agamemnon …

Paroikoi

(244 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(πάροικοι; pároikoi). [German version] [1] Free non-citizens in Hellenistic states and Roman provinces In the Hellenistic states of Asia Minor and the Near East and the Roman provinces that arose out of them, free people, mostly indigenous but without citizenship, living in kṓmai ( kṓmē ) in the territory of a pólis were predominantly called paroikoi. In emergency situations, freed and non-free people, particularly those belonging to the (royal) farmers ( láoi), could be made paroikoi, and paroikoi from a pólis's synoikismós could be made citizens of that pólis. In legal status wi…
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