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Medontidae

(117 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μεδοντίδαι; Medontídai). Aristocratic Athenian family, whose ancestor Medon [5] renounced the royal title in 1069 BC, and was supposedly the first to hold the archonship ( árchontes) for life. The office was then said to have become hereditary within his family, until the term of office was limited to ten years in 753. The ten-year archonship was also said to have been held exclusively by the M. down to 713 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3,3; Paus. 4,5,10). However, there is no authentic evi…

Helixus

(59 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἕλιξος; Hélixos). Strategos from Megara. In 411 BC, H. led a fleet contingent of the  Peloponnesian League, which caused Byzantium to break away from Athens (Thuc. 8,80). When the city was later besieged by the Athenians, H. defended it until it capitulated in the winter of 409/8 (Xen. Hell. 1,3,15; 17; 21). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Medismos

(229 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (μηδισμός/ mēdismós). The term medismos was used to describe the voluntary collaboration of individual Greeks or whole cities with the Persians, whom the Greeks often referred to as ‘Medes’. Apart from active political-military collaboration with the Great King, the verb mēdízein also refers to the adoption of Persian customs and practices together with a luxurious way of life. Medismos was perceived as a graver offence than the betrayal of the home town to another Greek town, because it affected pan-Greek interests as well as the intere…

Arthmius

(177 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἄρθμιος; Árthmios). Son of Pythonax, probably proxenos of the Athenians in his home town of Zeleia in Propontis. Between 477 and 461 BC, he worked in the service of the Persians and was sent with bribe money to the Peloponnese in order to fan the flames of resentment against the Athenians and thus reinforce the rivalry between the Greek cities. Following this expedition, the city of Athens took measures against A. by declaring him and his entire lineage as dishonoured and as an enemy ( átimos,  Atimia). This measure was probably requested by  Cimon and applied no…

Lycidas

(52 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυκίδας; Lykídas). Athenian, member of the boule , was the only one to vote in 479 BC for the creation of the alliance with the Persians offered by Mardonius [1]. He was stoned by the angry crowd when he left the council building (Hdt. 9,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Cynaegeirus

(85 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Κυναίγειρος; Kynaígeiros) from Athens, son of Euphorion, brother of Aeschylus [1], fell in battle at  Marathon (490 BC;  Persian War). Herodotus (6,114) reports that his arm was chopped off while trying to hold on to the stern of an enemy ship. This heroic act was represented in the painting of Marathon at the Stoa Poikile in Athens (Ael. NA 7,38) and was a favourite exemplum for later rhetors (Lucian.e, Iupp. Trag. 32; Luciane, Rhetorum praeceptor 18). Traill, PAA 588715. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Labda

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Λάβδα; Lábda). Daughter of the Bacchiad Amphion of Corinth. According to Herodotus (5,92), L. was lame and therefore could not find a husband in the strictly endogamous circle of nobility of the Bacchiadae. Therefore she was said to have married Eëtion from the deme of Petra who did not belong this circle. As there had been a prophecy even before the birth of their son Cypselus [2] that he would rule over Corinth, the Bacchiadae were said to have planned his murder. The tradition available to Herodotus says that L. succeeded in hiding the child in a kypsélē (‘chest’) thus sa…

Philaidae

(447 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Φιλαΐδαι; Philaïdai). [German version] [1] Attican deme P. was an Attic mesogeia deme of the Aigeis phyle with three bouleutaí on the east coast of Attica. The shrine of Artemis at Brauron was on its territory. Peisistratus [4] came from P. (Pl. Hipparch. 228b; Plut. Solon 10,2). It is unsubstantiated that Cleisthenes [2] did not therefore name the deme Brauron [4. 11 with fn. 30, 24 with fn. 83]. The location of the deme centre of P. to the west of the early Christian basilica of Brauron [1. 41; 2. 127] is hypothetical [3. 56]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 41, 6…

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be determined whether he was deposed at the beginning of the Ionian Revolt. Nevertheless, he was able to resume his reign after the Persians' victory (in 493/2 BC). In 479 he was able to elude a conspiracy (Hdt. 8,132). At the liberation of Ionia after the battle of Mycale in 479 S. may also have been toppled. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 5th/4th cents. BC Attic comi…

Agariste

(126 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Ἀγαρίστη; Agarístē). [German version] [1] Mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens (6th cent. BC) Daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, wife of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens. The story of the long courtship before her marriage around 575 BC can be regarded as the paradigmatic depiction of the lifestyle of the archaic aristocracy (Hdt. 6,126 ff.).  Aristocracy Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography E. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Adelskultur und Polisges., 1989, 117-119. [German version] [2] Athenian, mother of Pericles Athenian, great-grandda…

Leontiades

(211 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λεοντιάδης; Leontiádēs). [German version] [1] Theban leader at the Battle of Thermopylae, 5th cent. BC Theban, leader of the contingent which, on the order of Leonidas [1], had to take part in the battle about the Thermopylae (480 BC). The Thebans were suspected of pro-Persian sympathies, and during the battle they did indeed defect to the Persians (Hdt. 7,205; 233). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Theban politician, c. 400 BC (Plut.: Λεωντίδης/ Leōntídēs), Theban politician, leader of a party of pro-Spartan property owners (Hell. Oxy. 15 Barto…

Cylon

(336 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κύλων; Kýlon). [German version] [1] Athenian aristocrat, victor in Olympia in 640 BC, attempted to establish tyrannical rule in 632 BC Athenian aristocrat, son-in-law of  Theagenes of Megara, became Olympic victor in 640 BC. C. and his hetaireíahetairía  [2]) occupied the Acropolis in Athens around 632 in order to establish  tyrannical rule there -- possibly with support from Megara. C. did not manage to mobilize the population to support him. The rebels initially were besieged by a contingent of citizens, b…

Adeimantus

(325 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀδείμαντος; Adeímantos). [German version] [1] Corinthian (5 cent. BC) Corinthian, son of Ocytus, fled in a cowardly manner, according to Herodotus (8,94), in the war against Xerxes with the Corinthian contingent before the naval battle at  Salamis in 480 BC. In fact, he was probably supposed to guard an area apart from the scene of the battle, namely the western entrance to the gulf, and then became involved in the battle (cf. ML 24; Dio Chrys. 37,18; Plut. Mor. 870b-871a). His son Aristeas (Aristeus) c…

Agesias

(150 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀγησίας; Agēsías). [German version] [1] Seer and captain in the service of Hieron I of Syracuse (5th cent. BC) Son of Sostratus, stemming from one of the branches of the Jamides, who had migrated from Stymphalus (in Arcadia) to Syracuse and functioned in Olympia as priests of Zeus. Active as a seer and captain in the service of  Hieron I of Syracuse, A. was killed by the people after Hieron's death in 467 BC (schol. Pind. Ol. 6,165). Pindar's sixth ode celebrates A.'s victory with the mule team, which probably occurred during the Olympic games in 468. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2…

Harmodius

(193 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Ἁρμόδιος; Harmódios). [German version] [1] Harmodius of Athens Tyrantmurderer, 514 BC conspired with  Aristogiton [1] and others in order to murder the tyrants  Hippias [1] and  Hipparchus [1] during the Panathenaea in 514 BC. However, they only managed to kill Hipparchus. H. was also killed during this assassination attempt (Hdt. 5,55-58; Thuc. 1,20; 6,54-59; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 18). For Thucydides, the motivation for the conspiracy was purely personal: H. and his sister had suffered humiliation after H. …

Aristogiton

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἀριστογείτων; Aristogeítōn). [German version] [1] Athenian 'Tyrant killer' (514 BC) A. and  Harmodius, both of the family of Gephyraei, plotted with others to kill the tyrant  Hippias and his brother  Hipparchus at the Panathenaic festival of 514 BC. The plot miscarried; only Hipparchus was assassinated, Hippias remained unharmed. His tyranny was only ended in 511/510 BC, with Sparta's military support. Harmodius was killed immediately after the assassination. A. was arrested, tortured and then executed …

Cedon

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Κήδων; Kḗdōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the Peisistratids Athenian, possibly of the  Alcmaeonid family, attempted in vain before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the  Peisistratids. This glorious deed was later commemorated at symposia with a  scolion (Aristot. Ath. pol. 20,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Rhodes, 248. [German version] [2] Athenian, commander of the left wing in the naval battle of Naxos 376 BC Athenian, under Chabrias he commanded the left wing in the naval battle of Naxos (and…

Cleinias

(469 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Κλεινίας; Kleinías). [German version] [1] Friend of Solon, heard of the seisáchtheia in advance and was able to unjustly enrich himself One of  Solon's, friends, who heard of the   seisáchtheia in advance and, therefore, was able to unjustly enrich himself (Plut. Solon 15,6-9; cf. [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 6,2). The story was probably invented in the late 5th cent. BC to discredit the descendants of these men (e.g., Alcibiades [3]). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 600 III Rhodes, 128f. Traill, PAA 575270. [German version] [2] Born c. 510 BC, son of Alcibiade…

Dromocleides

(88 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δρομοκλείδης; Dromokleides). [German version] [1] Athenian archon 475/4 BC Athenian archon 475/4 BC. (Diod. Sic. 11,50,1). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian demagogue c. 295 BC Influential and active Athenian demagogue, supporting  Demetrius [2] Poliorketes. In 295 BC he proposed that Piraeus and Munychia be handed over to Demetrius and, probably in 292/1, that the ‘saviour’ Demetrius be asked for an oracle (Plut. Demetrius 13,1-3; 34,1-7).  Athens;  Kolakes Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Habicht, 94; 98-100 Id., Unt. zur polit. Ge…

Cimon

(972 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Κίμων; Kímōn). [German version] [1] Known as Koálemos, born c. 585 BC, achieved three Olympic victories C., known as Koálemos (‘the Stupid’), son of Stesagoras of Athens, born about 585 BC, had to leave Athens during the tyranny of  Peisistratus. During his exile he achieved two Olympic victories with the four-horse chariot (536 and 532 BC). Since C. had the 2nd victory proclaimed for Peisistratus, he was permitted to return. C.'s high prestige after his third Olympic victory (528) resulted in a confl…
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