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Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Eleutherolakones

(123 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐλευθερολάκωνες; Eleutherolákōnes). League of Laconian coastal settlements; as former perioikoi settlements, they were placed under the protection of the Achaean Confederacy following the defeat of Nabis by the Romans in 195 BC. After the failure of the Achaean uprising in 146 BC, they were permitted to unite in the koinòn tôn Lakedaimoníōn (κοινὸν τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων) (Liv. 35,13,2; 38,31,2) [2. 51]. In 21 BC, Augustus reorganized the league [1. 60], which was thenceforth known as koinòn tôn Eleutherolakṓnōn (Str. 8,366; Paus. 3,21,6f.; IG V 1 1161; 116…

Menas

(248 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Μηνᾶς; Menâs). [German version] [1] Spartiate, 421 BC One of the Spartiates who in 421 BC swore the Peace of Nicias and the symmachy with Athens (Thucyd. 5,19,2; 5,24,1). In the interval between these treaties he was one of the emissaries who, by the terms of the peace, were to guarantee the transfer of Amphipolis to Athens, but owing to the resistance of Clearidas, the commandant there, failed (Thucyd. 5,21). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] see Menodorus [1] see Menodorus [1] Neudecker, Richard (Rome) [German version] [3] Sculptor from Pergamum, 2nd cent. BC Son of A…

Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Sacred wars

(585 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ἱεροὶ πόλεμοι/ hieroì pólemoi). As a concept hieròs pólemos is first encountered in the late 5th cent. BC and according to Aristophanes (Av. 554ff., particularly 556 with schol. = Philochorus FGrH 328 F 34 b) means 'war against divinity', whereas Thucydides (1,112,5; with the addition of καλούμενος/ kaloúmenos, 'so-called') uses it to describe the Spartans' intervention in Delphi in 448 on the pretext of protecting the sanctuary of Apollo [1. 1-14]. Accordingly there was no idea of a religious campaign for a deity [2. 67-87].…

Cleomenes

(1,455 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κλεομένης; Kleoménēs). [German version] [1] Athenian, rejected the Spartan terms of peace in 404 BC Athenian who rejected the Spartan terms of peace in the popular assembly in 404 BC (Plut. Lysandros 14). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Member of a Spartan court of arbitration concerning Salamis at the end of the 7th cent. BC Spartan, member of a Spartan court of arbitration that allegedly awarded the island of  Salamis to the Athenians at the end of the 7th cent. BC (Plut. Solon 10). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [3] C. I. Spartan king, probably …

Thibron

(355 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Θίβρων/ Thíbrōn). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, around 400 BC Spartan, who inaugurated Sparta’s war against the Persians in the autumn of 400 BC, but only had command of a small force (Isoc. Or. 4,144), He had some successes only after he had taken on Cyrus’ [3] former mercenaries (about 5000-6000 men) (Xen. An. 7,6,1; 7,8,24; Xen. Hell. 3,1,4-6; Diod. Sic. 14,36,1-37,4). He then went to Caria on the instructions of the éphoroi (Xen. Hell. 3,1,6-7), but was replaced in Ephesus by Dercylidas and punished in Sparta by being exiled be…

Cinadon

(106 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κινάδων; Kinádōn). In 398 BC, C. a hypomeion (‘Inferior’), thus presumably the son of Spartan parents but without full citizens' rights, sought widespread support for a revolt to overthrow the ruling class of the Spartiatae, by approaching  Helots, Neodamodes, hypomeiones and  Perioikoi. No details about his planned reforms are known. C. was betrayed, lured into a trap and killed after naming his fellow conspirators under torture. In Xenophon's version (Hell. 3,3,4-11), C. generalizes, exaggerating the tensions within Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bib…

Mastigophoroi

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (μαστιγοφόροι; mastigophóroi, ‘whip-carriers’). In Sparta, young men (ἡβῶντες/ hēbṓntes), who assisted the paidonómoi in the agōgḗ of boys (Xen. Lac. 2,2). In Athens in 404 BC they were the infamous 300 policemen under the Thirty ( triákonta ; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 35,1). In Corcyra they were 425 guards in charge of prisoners (Thuc. 4,47,3). In Hellenistic Egypt they were servants to higher dignitaries, e.g. the oikonómos, the representative of the king in the nomoí (PTebtunis 121,58; cf. P CZ 80,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Sparta

(5,406 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Theatre | Christianity | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Hellenistic states | Achaeans, Achaea | Colonization | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Σπάρτη/ Spártē, Doric Σπάρτα/ Spárta). I. Political history [German version] A. Archaic period City in Laconica on the middle reaches of the Eurotas; originally four villages (Cynosura [3], Limnae, Pitana/Pitane, Mesoa), which developed from settlements of D…

Stasippus

(114 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Στάσιππος/ Stásippos). Leader of the pro-Spartan 'oligarchs' in Tegea (Xen. Hell. 6,4,18) who in the summer of 370 BC opposed annexation, instigated by anti-Spartan forces in Tegea, to a pan-Arcadian state, planned by 'democrats' in Mantinea. Initially successful in the disturbances unleashed by this [1. 505-507; 2. 105; 3. 74 f.], S. did not, however, have his defeated opponents prosecuted and, after the Mantineans intervened, he and his supporters were overcome, captured despite…

Phrourarchos

(158 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (φρούραρχος/ phroúrarchos). 'Commander' ( archós) of a 'guard' ( phrourá), commander of a garrison or fortress. In the Delian League the office involved performing both military and political functions. For example, after their intervention in Erythrae [2] in about 453/2 BC, the Athenians commissioned their phrourarchos and their epískopos [1] there to supervise the appointment of a new council. The phrourarchos was to perform this duty every year from then on in cooperation with the local council that was stepping down (IG I3 14). The term is also used as the…

Macarius

(751 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Schindler, Alfred (Heidelberg)
(Μακάριος; Makários). I. Greek [German version] [1] Spartiate, in 426/5 BC in the council of war of Eurylochus Spartiate, in 426/5 BC he took part in the council of war of Eurylochus [2] in the campaign of the armed forces of Spartan allies against Naupactus and the Acarnanians and fell in battle at Olpae (Thuc. 3,100,2; 109,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography J. Roisman, The General Demosthenes and his Use of Military Surprise, 1993, 27ff. [German version] [2] M. of Alexandria Monk, 4th cent. AD According to the Historia monachorum in Aegypto [1. § 23], a certain M. (4th …

Agiads

(245 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγιάδαι; Agiádai). Royal dynasty in Sparta, which, according to Herodotus (6,51), held a higher rank than the second Spartan royal dynasty, the ( Eurypontids). However, the authority of individual kings was based on their deeds and the quality of their leadership. As the founding father of the A. stands the mythic figure of the Heraclid  Eurysthenes, whose son Agis [1] I became the eponymous hero of the house. In the early construct devised to explain the Spartan double kingdom ap…

Clearchus

(1,254 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Κλέαρχος; Kléarchos). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor from Rhegion Bronze sculptor from Rhegion. Because of his statue of Zeus Hypatus in Sparta, a   sphyrelaton according to the description, C. was wrongly considered the inventor of bronze statues by Pausanias. According to tradition he was a student of  Dipoenus and Scyllis or of  Daedalus as well as the teacher of  Pythagoras and, therefore, was active in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck No. 332f., 491 P. Romanelli, in: EAA 4, 365f. J. Papadopoulos, Xoana e sphyrelata, 1980, 82 F…

Lacrates

(36 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Spartan olympic champion; died in 403 BC during a skirmish in Piraeus against resistance fighters who freed Athens from the rule of the ‘Thirty’ ( Triakonta) (Xen. Hell. 2,4,33). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Zeuxidamus

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ζευξίδαμος/ Zeuxídamos). [German version] [1] King of Sparta, c. 700 BC Was considered a Spartan king of the house of the Eurypontids and a son of Archidamus, is supposed to have been the successor to his grandfather Theopompus [1] towards the end of the 8th cent. BC, but is not mentioned in Hdt. 8,131, appearing only in Pausanias' list of Spartan kings (3,7,6; 4,15,3) into which he was probably inserted only in the 4th cent. BC [1. 97; 2. 344 f.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Leotychidas [2] II Eurypontid, son of the Spartan king Leotychidas [2] II (…

Polis

(1,781 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham)
(πόλις, πτόλις/ pólis, ptólis; pl. πόλεις/ póleis; 'city state'). [German version] I. Topographical background and early development Depending on the particular context, p olis may have topographical, personal or legal-political connotations: a) a fortified settlement on a height, Homeric pólis akrḗ or akrotátē (Hom. Il. 6,88; 20,52), synonymous with the Acropolis in Athens until the late 5th cent. (Thuc. 2,15,3-6); b) an urban settlement; c) an urban settlement including environs, 'state territory'; d) municipal community, community of polîtai (see below II.). In the sense …

Melanthus

(205 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Μέλανθος/ Mélanthos). [German version] [1] From Messenia, descendant of Neleus of Pylos M. of Messenia, descendant of Neleus of Pylus (Hdt. 1,147; 5,65), son of Andropompus and Henoche (Paus. 1,3,3; 19,5; 2,187ff.; 7,1,9), father of Codrus (ibid. 8,18,7). Expelled from Messenia, he went to Attica (Eleusis), where he fought a duel on behalf of the king Thymoetes with Xanthus, the king of Boeotia. With the aid of Dionysus Melanaigis and by his own cunning he gained the victory. Dionysus received a sanctuary in reward, and M. became king of Athens. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] P…

Agesipolis

(359 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίπολις; Agēsípolis). [German version] [1] I., Spartan king (395-380 BC) A. I, Agiad, son of the Spartan king Pausanias and older brother of Cleombrotus I, became king when his father had to go into exile after the battle at Haliartus 395 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,89; Paus. 3,5,7). First under the guardianship of his relative Aristodemus [3] (Xen. Hell. 4,2,9), he achieved already in 388/87 successes against the Argives (Xen. Hell. 4,7,2-7) and forced the polis of Mantinea under specious pretences to dioikismos into four villages in 385/84 (Xen. Hell. 5,2,3-7; Paus. 8,8,7-9). Af…
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