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Anchimolus

(73 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀγχίμολος; Anchímolos). In Aristot. Ath. Pol. 19,5 and schol. Aristoph. Lys. 1153 (Anchimolios in Hdt. 5,63,2) high-ranking Spartan, who in 511 BC was supposed to expel the  Peisistratids from Athens and landed with hoplites at Phalerum. In expectation of the invasion  Hippias had, however, called upon 1,000 Thessalian horsemen for help and prepared the landing-point for their attack. A. fell, the rest of his hoplites fled. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Agis

(919 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἆγις; Âgis). [German version] [1] I, eponymous hero of the  Agiads A. I, eponymous hero of the  Agiads, son of Eurysthenes and father of Echestratus, according to another version father of the legendary lawgiver Lycurgus (Hdt. 7,204; Paus. 3,2,1). The institution of the perioikia and of the  Helots by him (Ephorus, FGrH 70 F 117) is historical fiction. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] II, Spartan king (427-400 BC) A. II, Eurypontid, Spartan king 427/26-400 BC, son of Archidamus [1] II and stepbrother of Agesilaus [2] II, in 426 and 425 led troo…

Xenares

(141 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ξενάρης; Xenárēs). Spartiate, probably identical to the son of Cnidis who, as harmost ( Harmostaí [2]) in Heraclea [1] Trachinia in the winter of 420/19 BC, fell in battle against the Aenianes, the Dolopes and other tribes in that territory (Thuc. 5,51,2). As éphoros in 421/20 BC, X. and his colleague in office Cleobulus [3] rejected the alliance between Sparta and Athens concluded after the Peace of Nicias [1]. After unofficial negotiations with the Boeotians and the Corinthians, the two managed to conclude a special a…

Labotas

(50 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λαβώτας; Labṓtas). Legendary Spartan king of the house of the Agiads. During his (fictional) reign (traditionally 1025/4-989/8 BC), Sparta is said to have fought against Argus for the first time (Apollod. FGrH 244 F 62; Hdt. 1,65; 7,204; Plut. Mor. 224c; Paus. 3,2,3f.). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Philocharidas

(139 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Φιλοχαρίδας/ Philocharídas). Spartiate, son of Euryxilaidas, co-signatory of the truce between Sparta and Athens in 423 BC (Thuc. 4,119,2) and the Peace of Nicias in 421 (Thuc. 5,19,2). With Ischagoras and Menas [1] he was supposed to instruct Clearidas to hand over Amphipolis by treaty to Athens but the latter opposed this (Thuc. 5,21). In the same year, P. took oaths to the symmachía of Sparta with Athens (Thuc. 5,24,1) and in 420 was a member of a Spartan delegation that was snubbed in Athens through intrigues on the pa…

King's peace

(132 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] Term given to the ‘General Peace’ ( koinḕ eirḗnē ) that the Persian Great King Artaxerxes [2] II in effect dictated to the Greeks (Isoc. Or. 4,175f.) in 387/6 BC; also known as the Peace of Antalcidas. The Persian demands that were conveyed to the Greeks in Sardes in the autumn of 387 (Stv II 242) contained a claim to all the poleis in west Asia Minor, Clazomenae and Cyprus. Lemnos, Imbros and Scyros were to belong to Athens ‘as before’; all other Greek states were to b…

Mindarus

(165 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μίνδαρος; Míndaros). A Spartan, naúarchos (fleet commander) in 411/410 BC. In September 411, he set out from Miletus for the Thracian Chersonesus, in order to strike at the most important Athenian supply route, but was defeated soon afterwards at Cynossema by a smaller Athenian fleet under Thrasybulus [3] (Thuc. 8,99-107), as well as in a second battle at Abydus [1] (Oct./Nov. 411), after Alcibiades [3] unexpectedly led reinforcements to the Athenian forces (Xen. Hell. 1,1,2-7; Diod.…

Archidamus

(680 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρχίδαμος; Archídamos). [German version] [1] II. Spartan king (ca. 475-427 BC) II., Spartan king, Eurypontid, grandson and successor of Leotychidas II, who went into exile in Tegea after a failed campaign in Thessaly (476/75 BC?) and died there in 469 (Paus. 3,7,10). It remains uncertain if A. already became king in 476/75 or only in 469. After the great earthquake of 464 he forcefully defended Sparta against an attack by the  Helots (Diod. Sic. 11,63,4-641; Plut. Cimon 16) and apparently proved himself i…

Chilon

(452 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Χίλων; Chílōn). [German version] [1] Spartan politician, 6th cent. BC From Sparta; son of Damagetus; owing to his leading role in the politics of Sparta (ephor c. 556 BC), in the middle of the 6th cent. he became first ephor (Sosicrates FHG IV 502 [1]); also ascribed to him was the strengthening of the ephorate in relation to the kings (Diog. Laert. 1,68). Owing to his elegiac poetry and his wisdom he was counted among the ‘Seven Sages’ of archaic Greece (Pl. Prt. 343a; Diog. Laert. 1,68-73). Rylands papyrus 18 (= FGrH …

Pedaritus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πεδάριτος; Pedáritos). A Spartan, harmost in 412/1 BC (Harmostai[1]) in Chios, which had seceded from Athens and which he defended against Athenian attacks. Having brutally eliminated Athenian supporters in the process, he had an action brought against him by the Chians in Sparta (Thuc. 8,28,3; 32-33; 38-40; cf. Isocr. Or. 6,53; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 8). He fell in an attack on Athenian siege troops (Thuc. 8,55,3). His successor will presumably have been his father Leon [3]. Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Gylippus

(285 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γύλιππος; Gýlippos). Spartiate, son of Cleandridas. His education (  agōgḗ ) was perhaps (at times?) made possible by an affluent Spartan, as Aelianus (Var. 12,43) calls him mothax (‘Bastard’) [1. 434]. When Syracuse asked Sparta for help against the Athenians, he was sent to Sicily (Thuc. 6,93; 104), reached Himera in the summer of 414 BC with a small force, reinforced his army there considerably, broke through to Syracuse, organized the resistance and prevented the encircling of the city (Thuc. 7,1-7). A…

Xenias

(214 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ξενίας; Xenías). [German version] [1] Arcadian from Parrhasia, mercenary leader of Cyrus [3] the Younger, c. 400 BC Arcadian from Parrhasia; as a mercenary leader in 405/4 BC he accompanied Cyrus [3] the Younger to the court of the Persian king and later took a large number of mercenaries to him in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,1,2; 2,1-3), but, together with Pasion [1] from Megara, left Cyrus' army in Syria without taking his family, which Cyrus sent after him (Xen. An. 1,4,6-8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Elis, pro-Spartan oligarch, c. 400 BC Rich Elean (Elis [2]), próx…

Phylarchos

(247 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(φύλαρχος/ phýlarchos, 'chief' of a phylḗ [1]). [German version] [1] Greek office In many Greek poleis the phýlarchoi were leaders of phylaí with high advisory or magisterial functions: in Epidamnus phyle leaders also formed the advisory board of the leading official ( árchōn) and were replaced in the 5th century BC in this function by a council with a broader basis (Aristot. Pol. 1301b 22f.); in Cyzicus phýlarchoi acted as a college and together with the highest civil and military officials ( stratēgoí) there carried out high magisterial functions [1. no. 59 with comm.]; the…

Peisander

(929 words)

Author(s): Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Πείσανδρος/ Peísandros). [German version] [1] Son of Maimalus Son of Maimalus, general under Achilles [1], best spear-fighter of the Myrmidones after Patroclus [1] (Hom. Il. 16,193ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Antimachus Son of Antimachus [1], brother of Hippolochus, killed by Agamemnon because his father had advised killing  Menelaus [1] in Troy when he had been sent into the city on embassy (Hom. Il. 11,122ff.). Thurmann, Stephanie (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan killed by Menelaus in single combat Trojan, killed by Menelaus [1] in single…

Callibius

(55 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλλίβιος; Kallíbios). Spartan, was sent as harmost to Athens in 404/3 BC at the request of the Thirty and after the intervention of Lysander. He was courted by the rulers there and attempted to support their regime (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13f.; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 37,2; 38,2; Diod. Sic. 14,4,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Areus

(225 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀρεύς; Areús). [German version] [1] Spartan king 309 - approx. 265 BC Spartan king 309 -- approx. 265 BC, Agiad, son of  Acrotatus [1], attempted in 281 to exploit the defeat of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas by  Ptolemaeus Ceraunus to liberate Hellas from Macedonian rule in alliance with the Peloponnesian communities, but was defeated by the Aetolians, who were allied with Antigonus (Just. Epit. 24,1,5 f.). Returning from battles in Crete in 272, he saved Sparta in alliance with Antigonus from the attack of  Pyrr…

Hyparchia

(208 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (ὑπαρχία; hyparchía). Hellenistic term for ‘sub-district’ of a satrapy, predominantly in the  Seleucid kingdom. In the hyparchia of Eriza (Asia Minor), as attested by OGIS 1,238, the ‘governor’ ( hýparchos, ὕπαρχος) was directly subordinate to the satrap of Caria (OGIS 1,224); in this way there was no intermediate authority here between the two functionaries [1. 176]. The reference may, however, also originate from the Attalid era, though in this case conclusions could be drawn about the Seleucid administration, in which a hýparchos (OGIS 1,225) as administra…

Nicolochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Νικόλοχος; Nikólochos). Spartan; while epistoleús (‘deputy’) of the naúarchos (‘naval commander’) Antalcidas (388/7 BC), he was surrounded by Iphicrates at Abydus [1], where Antalcidas relieved him (Xen. Hell. 5,1,6-7; 5,1,25-27; Polyaen. 2,24). As naúarchos in 375 BC, he was defeated by the Athenian Timotheus at Alyzea (Xen. Hell. 5,4,65-66; Diod. 15,36,5; Polyaen. 3,10,4; 3,10,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Isadas

(59 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἰσάδας; Isádas). Spartan, son of Phoebidas, proved himself in 362 BC at the defence of Sparta in battle against the forces of  Epaminondas (Plut. Agesilaus 34; Ael. VH. 6,3). In the writings of Polyaenos (2,9), who clearly confused the incursions of the Thebans of 370/69 and 362, erroneously given the name Isidas. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pinax

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Fakas, Christos (Berlin) | Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld)
(πίναξ/ pínax, 'board, painted or inscribed tablet'; extended meaning, 'inscription, register'). [German version] [1] (Greek 'notice-board') Notice-board, board for announcements of all kinds (Hdt. 5,49,1; Plut. Theseus 1,1). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Athenian register of citizens ( pínax ekklēsiastikós). At Athens, the register of citizens entitled to take part in the popular assembly ( ekklēsía ) (Dem. Or. 44,35). It was kept for the 139 dḗmoi ( dḗmos [2]) by the dḗmarchos . After 338 BC, enrolment was conditional upon completion of service in the ephēbe…

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Cleobulus

(335 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κλεόβουλος; Kleóboulos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Lindus, fl. 7th-6th cent. BC, poet Tyrant of Lindus (Rhodes), flourished in the 7th-6th cent. BC, considered to be one of the  seven wise men [1]. He composed ‘songs and riddles in about 3,000 verses’ (Diog. Laert. 1,89). Apart from 20 sayings (I6 p. 63, 1-12 DK), a short letter to Solon (Epist. p. 207 Hercher), a fragment of a scolion in a moralizing tone (SH 526). Preserved is only a funerary epigram in hexameter for king  Midas (Anth. Pal. 7,153 = GVI 1171a), quoted by Plato (Phaedr. …

Dekadarchia

(482 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(δεκαδαρχία; dekadarchía). [German version] [1] Rule by ten c. 400 BC ‘Rule by ten’; commissions of ten men, used in 405/04 BC by the oligarchically inclined Spartan Lysander, especially in the former Athenian sphere of influence; according to Diodorus (14,13,1), besides dekadarchia he also set up oligarchies, but according to Xenophon (Hell. 3,5,13; 6,3,8), Plutarch (Lys. 13) and Nepos (Lys. 1,4-2,1) dekadarchia persisted ‘everywhere’. This is improbable, as Sparta had proclaimed freedom and autonomy as its goal in the war against Athens, and in Greek constitutional conceptions d…

Dercylidas

(305 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Δερκυλίδας; Derkylídas). Spartan; regarded as a talented and cunning military commander. He won Abydus and Lampsacus in 411 BC without a battle (Thuc. 8,61f.), was harmost in Abydus in 407/6 (Xen. Hell. 3,1,9) and in 399 in Sparta's war against the Persian satrap Tissaphernes in Asia Minor he relieved the unpopular Thibron, who was unable to keep discipline in the army, including the former mercenaries (including Xenophon) of Cyrus the Younger (Xen. Hell. 3,1,8-10). In 399 in a ‘l…

Agesilaus

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀγησίλαος; Agēsílaos). [German version] [1] I, legendary Spartan king (c. 900 BC) A. I, legendary Spartan king, Agiad, considered the son of Doryssus and father of Archelaus (Hdt. 7,204), ‘ruled’ according to Alexandrian chronographers 929/28-886/85 BC, for a shorter time according to Pausanias (3,2,4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] II, Spartan king, Eurypontid (400-359 BC) A. II, Spartan king, Eurypontid, 444/43 BC. When his brother Agis [2] II died in the summer of 400 and Agis' son Leotychidas was excluded from succession, …

Melesippus

(86 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελήσιππος; Melḗsippos). Spartiate, son of Diacritus, member of the last Spartan delegation to Athens in 431 BC before the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War (Thuc. 1,139,3). In the same year, during the advance of the army of Archidamus [1], he was again sent to Athens for negotiations, but was turned back at the city gates. On leaving Attica, he is said to have prophesied that that day would mark the beginning of great misfortune for the Hellenes (Thuc. 2,12). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Erianthes

(90 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐριάνθης; Eríanthēs). Theban commander of the Boeotian triremes at Aigospotamoi. His statue, therefore, stood on the Spartan victory monument in Delphi (Paus. 10,9,9) [1. 14f.]. After the capitulation of Athens, his demand to destroy the city was rejected in Sparta (Xen. Hell. 2,2,19; Plut. Lys. 15). When the Thebans in 395 BC endeavoured to form an alliance with Athens, they attempted to interpret the action by E. as having been carried out by him without authority (Xen. Hell. 3,5,8). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 J.-F. Bommelaer, Lysandre de S…

Pasiteilidas

(47 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Πασιτειλίδας; Pasiteilídas). Spartiate, son of Hegesander and harmost under Brasidas in Torone, where he was taken prisoner in 422 BC during the Athenians' capture of the city under Cleon [1]. From there he was presumably taken to Athens (Thuc. 4,132,3; 5,3,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Leotychidas

(368 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Λεωτυχίδας; Leōtychídas). [German version] [1] Eurypontid Eurypontid (Hdt. 8,131; Eurypontidae), considered to be the ancestor of L. [2]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] King of Sparta, 5th cent. BC Eurypontid; became king in Sparta after Damaratus was deposed; in 491 BC, he participated in the actions of Cleomenes [3] I in Aegina (Hdt. 6,73), and for that reason was almost delivered up to the Aeginetans (Hdt. 6,85f.). In 479, L. commanded the Hellenic fleet, followed a request for help by the Samians, …

Gerousia

(995 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
(γερουσία; gerousía, ‘Council of Elders’). [German version] I. Graeco-Roman In Sparta the gerousia was probably originally an assembly of representatives from leading families. There it gained its institutional character from early on and consisted of the two kings and 28   gérontes (γέροντες), who were appointed for life and were at least 60 years old. Election took place on the basis of the volume of the acclamation in the   apélla (ἀπέλλα), with ‘electoral officials’ in a closed room deciding who got the strongest applause (Plut. Lycurgus …

Alcibiades

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Lehmann, Gustav Adolf (Göttingen) | Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκιβιάδης; Alkibiádēs). [German version] [1] Athenian (end of 6th cent. BC) Athenian, who in 510 BC supported  Cleisthenes when he initiated the expulsion of the Peisistratids from Athens (Isoc. Or. 16,26). [1; cf. 2]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 Traill, PAA, 121620. 2 Davies, 600,III u. V. [German version] [2] ‘the Elder’ Athenian, around 461 BC Son of the previous (cf. Pl. Euthd. 275a/b); after the deposition of  Cimon (462/1 BC) and the break between Athens and Sparta he laid down demonstratively the inherited title of a Lacedaimonian proxenos (Thuc. 5,43,2; 6,8…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Tresantes

(133 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τρέσαντες, 'those having fled in fear'). Spartiates, who had failed in battle and lost their aretḗ (Virtue) (Tyrtaeus fr. 8,14 Gentili/Prato), with the result that they were held in contempt socially (Plut. Lycurgus 21,2). They were allowed to shave only half their beards, could not hold office, were excluded from gymnastics, games, contubernia and from merchant business (Xen. Lac. 9,4-6), could allegedly also be beaten and had to wear dirty clothing. It was considered shameful to give one a da…

Lysandridas

(147 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Λυσανδρίδας; Lysandrídas). [German version] [1] Spartan military commander, 4th cent. BC (Plut.: Λυσανορίδας; Lysanorídas). Spartan, one of the three harmostai of the Spartan occupation in Thebes, who could not prevent this polis from being liberated by Pelopidas in 379 BC. L. was condemned to a big fine in Sparta and left the Peloponnese (Plut. Pel. 13; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 240; cf. Xen. Hell. 5,4,13; Diod. Sic. 15,27). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] From Megalopolis, end of the 3rd cent. BC L. from Megalopolis ( Megale Polis); in 223/2 BC L. wanted to l…

Kleros

(412 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (κλῆρος; klêros; Dor. κλᾶρος; klâros, ‘lot’, ‘land allocation’, ‘plot of land’, ‘land allotment’; etymologically probably derived from κλάειν/ kláein, ‘to break, to share’). The drawing of lots for cultivatable plots when acquiring land cannot be verified in the early Greek period.[1]. Already in Homer (Il. 15,498; Od. 14,64 ), as well as in Hesiod (Op. 37; 341), kleros designates private property, not acquired by lot. The function of the klêros in the ancient Thessalonian order of regulations on levies explained by Aristotle (fr. 611 Rose) is not …

Cynisca

(53 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνίσκα; Kyníska). Rich Spartan woman, born around 442 BC, daughter of Archidamus [1] II, sister of Agesilaus [2] II. C. was the first woman to participate in chariot races at Olympia where she was twice victorious (Xen. Ages. 9,6; Plut. Agesilaus 20; Paus. 3,8,1f.; 6,1,6; SGDI 4418). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pelops

(1,023 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Πέλοψ; Pélops). [German version] [1] Son of Tantalus Son of Tantalus (Cypria fragment 13 EpGF; in Hyg. Fab. 82 from his liaison with Dione), husband of Hippodamia [1], father of Atreus, Thyestes, Pittheus and other children (Pind. O. 1,88f. with schol.). P.'s original homeland was Asia Minor (cf. Pind. Ol. 1,24; Hdt. 7,8).  P.'s father Tantalus chops him into pieces, cooks him and serves him up to the gods. Demeter is the only one who fails to notice the horrendous deed and eats part of his shoulder (A…

Alcidas

(297 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Ἀλκίδας; Alkídas). [German version] [1] Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC The Spartan nauarch 428-427 BC, who was supposed to bring relief to the polis of Mytilene on Lesbos, but on route learned of Mytilene's capitulation. The relief of Mytilene, which had been occupied after having broken away from Athens (Thuc. 3,16,3; 26,1), was to take place simultaneously with the invasion of Attica by a Peloponnesian army in the early summer of 427. He landed in Erythrae of Asia Minor, but did not advance fast enough i…

Geranor

(27 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Γεράνωρ; Geránōr). Spartiate, former polemarchos, fell in 369/8 BC during the defence of Asine against the Arcadians (Xen. Hell. 7,1,25). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Lacedas

(68 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Λακήδας; Lakḗdas; Hdt. 6,127,3: Λεωκήδης; Leōkḗdēs). Legendary king of Argus, by tradition the son of the historically debated Pheidon [3]. L. was regarded as the father of Meltas, the last king of the Argives (Paus. 2,19,2) [1. 385; 2. 107ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Carlier, La royauté en Grèce avant Alexandre, 1984 2 Th. Kelly, A History of Argos to 500 BC, 1976.

Thrasydaeus

(171 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
(Θρασυδαῖος/ Thrasydaîos). [German version] [1] From Elis, c. 400 BC T. from Elis. Leader of anti-Spartan democrats in the war between Elis and Sparta (402-400 BC), after initial successes in 400 he had to conclude a peace in which the Eleans abandoned dependent towns with the exception of Olympia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,21-31; Diod. 14,17,4-12; 34,1; Paus. 3,8,3-5). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] Perhaps from Pharsalus, second half of the 4th cent. BC In the 340s BC T., who may have been from Pharsalus (cf. Syll.3 240 H), was a Thessalian tetrarch under Philippus […

Apella, Apellai

(407 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] This word only occurs in the plural (ἀπέλλαι; apéllai) and is explained by Hesychius as σηκοί ( sēkoí; precincts) or by their function as ἐκκλησίαι ( ekklēsíai; people's assemblies) or ἐφαιρησίαι ( ephairēsíai; voting assemblies). The Labyad inscriptions in Delphi use apellai to refer to the  Apollo festival of the phratry during the religious month of Apellaios (Michel, RIG 995 = Schwyzer, DGE 323). Inscriptions from Gytheum (Laconia, 1st cent.) add the augmentative attribute μεγάλαι ( megálai; IG V 1, 1144, l.20 f.= SGDI 4567 = Michel, RIG 185; IG V 1, …

Paredros, Paredroi

(710 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Johnston, Sarah Iles (Princeton)
(πάρεδρος/ páredros, plural πάρεδροι/ páredroi, 'assessor' of political office-holders or deities). A. Politics [German version] 1. Athens (a) In the 5th and 4th cents. BC two paredroi were appointed each by the eponymous árchōn , the polémarchos and the basileús (see árchōn basileús) as assistants and deputies ([Aristot.] Ath. pol. 56,1). Their position had an official character, as they were subordinate to the dokimasía and they were liable to account. (b) In the 4th cent. BC a pair of paredroi for each ten eúthynoi of the Council (see eúthynai ) of the 500 were chosen from the bouleutaí

Teleclus

(83 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Τήλεκλος; Tḗleklos). King of Sparta, who according to legend played an important role a generation before the beginning of the first Messenian War. As a person he is probably historical; he is supposed to have conquered Amyclae, Pharis and Geronthrae (Paus. 3,2,6) and settled several places in Dentheliatis (Denthalii) with Laconic colonists (Str. 8,4,4). His killing by Messenians allegedly led to the first of the Messenian Wars (Paus. 4,4,2-3). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 85-87, 102-106.

Monimus

(373 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μόνιμος/ Mónimos). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, pupil of Diogenes M. from Syracuse, slave of a Corinthian banker, heard Xeniades, a rich citizen of Corinth, extol the virtue of Diogenes [14] of Sinope, who lived with him. In order to be able to leave his master and follow Diogenes, M. made out that he was insane; he was dismissed and so became Diogenes' pupil. He also stayed with Crates [4] for a long time and imitated his way of life (Diog. Laert. 6,82). M. must have been famous, as he appears in…

Proxenia, proxenos

(228 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (προξενία/ proxenía, πρόξενος/ próxenos). The term proxenía denotes the function of a 'public guest' ( próxenos), i.e. one citizen's representing one Greek community in another 'state'. It is a specifically Greek institution, traceable to the protection of foreigners (Xenoi; Aliens, the position of [III]) and first attested in a late 7th cent. BC resolution of the 'people' ( dâmos) of Corfu  (ML 4). In the 5th cent. BC, proxenía moreover became an Athenian instrument of control in the Delian League, where próxenoi represented Athenian interests, reporting if n…

Rhamphias

(76 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥαμφίας; Rhamphías). Spartiate, father of Clearchus [2] (Thuc. 8,8,2). Member of the last Spartan delegation before the outbreak of the Peloponnesisan War (431 BC) that in Athens signaled a willingness for peace if the Athenians returned "independence to the Hellens" (Thuc. 1,139,3). R. was supposed to reinforce the army of Brasidas in the summer of 422 but in Thessaly he received news of his death and returned to Sparta. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)

Pausanias

(3,302 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Et al.
(Παυσανίας; Pausanías). [German version] [1] Spartiate from the house of the Agiads Spartiate from the house of the Agiads, son of Cleombrotus [1], after whose death (480/479 BC) he became guardian for his cousin Pleistarchus [1] and 'regent' (Hdt. 9,10; Thuc. 1,132,1; Paus. 3,4,9), father of the later king Pleistoanax (Thuc. 1,107,2). In 479, P. led the contingent of the Hellenic confederacy of 481 to victory over the Persians at Plataeae (Persian Wars), where at first the Greeks almost suffered a catastro…

Prytaneis

(837 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(πρυτάνεις/ prytáneis, sg. πρύτανις/ prýtanis, 'principal, first'). [German version] I. Individual chief magistrates Designation for holders of the highest power or official authority. The original meaning 'ruler' is given expression in the epic name Prýtanis (Hom. Il. 5,678), in Zeus' appellation in Aeschylus (Prom. 169), as well as in the verb form applied to the Roman emperor and empress ( prytaneúein; Phil. in Flaccum 126; Procop. Arc. 17,27). In the course of the institutionalization of the organs of the polis and during the 'Great' Greek Colonizati…

Timocrates

(593 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum)
(Τιμοκράτης/ Timokrátēs). [German version] [1] From Sparta, advisor of Cnemus, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC Spartan, one of the three advisors of the nauarchos Cnemus who, following the defeat off the Acarnanian coast in 429 BC, were supposed to make strategic and logistical preparations for a new naval battle (Thuc. 2,85,1). T. committed suicide after the devastating defeat in 429 against the Athenian fleet near Naupactus (Thuc. 2,92,3). Peloponnesian War Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Rhodos, legate of Pharnabazus [2], c. 400 BC Rhodian. In the winter of 396/5 BC…
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