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Hestiodorus

(44 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἑστιόδωρος; Hestiódōros). Son of Aristoclides, Athenian strategos, besieged Potidaea from 432/1 BC accepting the city's capitulation in winter 430/29 (Thuc. 2,70,1). He died shortly afterwards in the battle for Spartolus (Thuc. 2,79). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Develin, 1381 Traill, PAA 423910.

Pelopidas

(407 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Πελοπίδας; Pelopídas). Distinguished Theban, son of Hippocles, after to Epaminondas the outstanding commander and politician of the Boeotian League during the Theban hegemony (Boeotia, Boeotians with map). In 382 BC, P. was a young man: his year of birth was therefore probably around 410. As a supporter of the democratic faction of Ismenias [1], he fled to Athens after the Spartan occupation of the Kadmeia (Thebes), from where he apparently organized the resistance to the regime of Leontiades [2] (Plut. Pe…

Hippocleides

(115 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἱπποκλείδης; Hippokleídēs). Son of Teisander, Athenian from the family of the Philaids ( Philaidai). Around 575 BC, he sought the hand in marriage of  Agariste [1], daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, but was unsuccessful despite good prospects, losing out to the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonidae)  Megacles due to a social affront (Hdt. 6,126-130; Ath. 14,628d) [1]. During the archonship of H., the Panathenaea were established, probably in 566/5 BC [2. 57f.] (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 2; Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 22). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 E. Stein-Hölkesk…

Lysagoras

(74 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Λυσαγόρας; Lysagóras) from Paros, son of Teisias. According to Herodotus (6,133,1), the original motive for the Paros expedition by Militiades in 489 BC was personal grudge against L., who supposedly had previously slandered Militiades to the Persian commander Hydarnes [2]. A source hostile to Militiades is presumably the basis for the report [1]. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 K. H. Kinzl, Miltiades' Parosexpedition in der Geschichtsschreibung, in: Hermes 104, 1976, 280-307.

Timasion

(64 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμασίων; Timasíōn) from Dardanus in the Troas. After the battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC and the murder of Clearchus [2] elected a leader of the Greek mercenaries of the army of the young Cyrus [3]; equestrian leader in the March of the Ten Thousand against Artaxerxes [2] (Xen. An. 3,1,47 et passim). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography O. Lendle, Kommentar zu Xen. An., 1995, 157 f.

Sparton

(70 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σπάρτων; Spártōn). Theban general of the Boeotian contingents that inflicted a heavy defeat on the Athenians at Coronea in 447 BC. The victory levelled the way for the founding of the Boeotian League (Boeotia B.). S.'s name alludes to the Sparti (Plut. Agesilaos 19,2; cf.  Thuc. 1,113,2; Diod.  Sic. 12,6,2; Xen. Mem. 3,5,4). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography D. R. Shipley, A Commentary on Plutarch's Life of Agesilaos, 1997, 239.

Neogenes

(42 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νεογένης/ Neogénēs) from Euboea. In about 378/7 BC with the help of Iason [2] of Pherae he established a tyranny in Histiaea, but was expelled soon after by the population with Spartan help (Diod. Sic. 15,30,3f.). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Callaeschrus

(52 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Κάλλαισχρος; Kállaischros). Son of Critias, Athenian, born about 490 BC, grand-nephew of Solon and father of the sophist  Critias (Diog. Laert. 3,1; Pl. Chrm. 153c; Pl. Prt. 316a). C. is possibly identical with an oligarch of the same name in 411 (Lys. 12,66). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies 8792,VI.

Timoclea

(73 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τιμόκλεια; Timókleia). Sister of the Theban general Theagenes [3]. During the Macedonian sacking of Thebes (in 335 BC) she was attacked in her house and raped, but was ultimately able to outwit and kill the perpetrator. Impressed by her courage, her dignity and her pride, Alexander [4] the Great refrained from convicting her (Plut. Alexandros 12; Plut. Mor. 259d-260d; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,40). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 751.

Onomarchus

(241 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαρχος/ Onómarchos, Phocian Ὀνύμαρχος/ Onýmarchos; FdD III,5, no. 23, col. II,42). Politician and military commander of the Phocian League (see Phocis), son of Euthycrates (Aristot. Pol. 5,4,1304 a 12). In 371 BC, O. defended Elatea [1] against the Thebans (Polyaenus, Strat. 2,38,1). Following the death of Philomelus in 355 (according to Diod. Sic. 16,56,5; 61,2, the latter and O. were brothers, but cf. [1. 19f.]), he became stratēgós autokrátōr of the Phocians, brutally putting down his rivals (Diod. Sic. 16,33,1-3) [2. 131]. O. energeticall…

Scopadae

(169 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Σκοπάδαι; Skopádai). Noble family from Crannon, which, beside the Aleuadae, was one of the leading clans of Thessaly in the 6th century BC. On account of their wealth from cattle and pasturing (cf. Theoc. 16,36-39) the S. were from time to time at the lead of the Thessalian League (Tagos). As in the case of Aleuas, constitutive measures in establishing the organisation of the Thessalian army are also ascribed to their mythical/historical founder, Scopas I, (cf. Xen. Hell. 6,1,19; …

Ptoeodorus

(127 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Πτωιόδωρος/ Ptōiódōros, MSS Πτοιόδωρος/ Ptoiódōros). [German version] [1] Exiled Theban, c. 425/4 BC Exiled Theban; c. 425/4 BC, ringleader of a combined Athenian action against Siphae and Delium [1] intended to topple the oligarchic government of the Boeotian League (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.). The undertaking failed miserably. Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography R.J. Buck, Boiotia and the Boiotian League, 432-371 B.C., 1994, 16-18. [German version] [2] Politician from Megara, c. 350 BC Influential and wealthy politician from Megara; came into contact c. 360 BC with the banished Dio…

Nicophemus

(92 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Νικόφημος/ Nikóphēmos). Athenian, confidant of Conon [1], who in 395/4 BC made him commander of the Persian fleet (Diod. Sic. 14,81,4; Hell. Oxy. 15). In 393 he commanded a force occupying Cythera (Xen. Hell. 4,8,8) [1. 82, 126]. When he returned to Cyprus, he led a (failed) mission in aid of Evagoras [1] (389 BC) together with his son Aristophanes [1]. N. was then summarily condemned and executed at Athens, and his fortune was confiscated (Lys. 19,7; 11f.; 35f.; 42-44). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography 1 P. Funke, Homonoia und Arche, 1980. PA 11066.

Koine Eirene

(572 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κοινὴ εἰρήνη; koinḕ eirḗnē). ‘Common peace’, multilateral peace concept of the 4th cent. BC. Characteristics are demands for the autonomy ( autonomía ) of the polis as well as compulsoriness for all, that is, not only for the warring Greek states [1. XVI]. In contemporary sources, the term is attested only rarely, first in Andocides (3,17; 34, in the year 392/1), who advocated a κ.ε. πᾶσι τοῖς Ἕλλησι (‘Koine Eirene for all Greeks’). One such Koine Eirene (KE) was sworn to in the year 386 in Sparta after negoti…

Telliads

(26 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (Τελλιάδαι; Telliádai). Family of seers in Elis (Hdt. 9,37). Hegesistratus [2] and Tellias are known by name (Hdt. 8,27,3-4). Beck, Hans (Cologne)

Keryx

(287 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne)
[German version] (κῆρυξ/ kêryx, ‘crier’, herald). Sometimes synonymous with ἄγγελος ( ángelos) or πρεσβευτής ( presbeutḗs), without any strict distinction. The functions of the kêryx encompass political, diplomatic, judicial and ritual matters (cf. Poll. 8,103). In the Homeric age kḗrykes appear as heralds of basileús as well as servers in sacrificial rites (Hom. Il. 1,320-336; 3,116-120). The high regard in which they were held apparently dates back to the Mycenaean age (Linear B ka-ru-ke) [1; 2]. With the development of the polis authorities, the kêryx increasingly took on th…

Pasion

(382 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Πασίων/ Pasíōn). [German version] [1] Greek mercenary commander (late 5th cent. BC) P. of Megara led a mercenary unit to Cyrus [3] in Sardis (Xen. An. 1,2,3), but later, in Myriandrus and under unexplained circumstances, he broke away from the army of Cyrus, together with the mercenary leader Xenias  (ibid. 1,4,6-9). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Freedman from Athens, 4th cent. BC The example of P. provides a good insight in the business of an Athenian trapezítēs . Originally, P. was the slave of Antisthenes and Archestratus; after his …

Philomelus

(290 words)

Author(s): Binder, Carsten (Kiel) | Beck, Hans (Cologne)
(Φιλόμηλος; Philómēlos). [German version] [1] Son of Iasion and Demeter Son of Iasion and Demeter, brother of the wealthy Pluto (different Hes. Theog. 969f.) and father of Pareas, the founder of Parium (but Parios, son of Iasion, is more frequently named as the founder). P. lived in extreme poverty and was regarded as the inventor of the wagon, which he harnessed to two oxen. In recognition of his ingenuity his mother placed him amongst the stars as Bootes (Petellides of Knossos in Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,4, s. FHG 4, p. 472). Binder, Carsten (Kiel) [German version] [2] Leader of the Phocian League S…

Cleophantus

(273 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεόφαντος; Kleóphantos). [German version] [1] Son of Themistocles and Archippe Son of  Themistocles and Archippe (Plut. Themistocles 32; Pl. Men. 93d-e), was honoured with civic rights in Lampsacus (ATL III,111-3). Davies 6669,VI. Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Greek physician, 3rd cent. BC Greek doctor, active c. 270-250 BC, brother of  Erasistratus, pupil of  Chrysippus [3] of Cnidus and founder of a medical school (Gal., 17A 603 K.). He wrote a paper on the medical prescription of wine, which provided the model for a similar…

Mys

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μῦς; Mỹs). [German version] [1] Karian from Euromos, around 480 BC Carian from Euromus, who visited several oracle shrines in Boeotia and Phocis in 480/479 BC on behalf of Mardonius [1]. In the Ptoion mountains the oracle replied to him in the Carian language (Hdt. 8,133-135; Paus. 9,23,6; cf. Plut. Mor. 412b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Toreutic sculptor and and fellow artist of Phidias Toreutic sculptor in metal and fellow artist of Phidias. M. executed the shield reliefs on Phidias’s ‘Athena Promachos with a representation of the fight betwe…
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