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Votive inscriptions

(323 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] VI, which denote an object as a votive offering to a deity (or deities) by one or more persons, are among the oldest inscriptions; they may express gratitude for victory in a battle or for a merchant ship that has returned safely home. VI were often made because of a vow taken in a moment of danger, hence the formula VSLM, votum soluit libens merito ('he has honoured the vow of his own free will and according to custom'). The inscription medium was either a stone pedestal (such as for statues) or the dedicated object itself (for instance, helmets or chest ar…

Origo

(340 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] ('Derivation'). In contrast to the Greek poleis and the independent local communities of pre-Roman Italy, a distinction existed in the Hellenistic kingdoms and thereafter in the Roman Empire between the sense of belonging to the greater political unit and the feeling of membership of the community in which one was born and lived. The former was mostly called politeía in Greek and civitas (B.) in Latin, and for the latter, primarily in Ptolemaic Egypt, the Greek expression ἡ ἰδία <κώμη> ( hē idía <kṓmē>, 'one's own village') was common. In Rome from the Imperial …

Conciliabulum

(189 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Conciliabulum (from concilium) in the legal meaning is an assembly place or, more often, just the venue ( locus ubi in concilium convenitur, Fest. p. 33) at which citizens gathered for the proclamation of laws, levying etc. The word describes a settlement with elementary self-government in the territory of one of the tribus rusticae. In the context of the ager Romanus we hear of per fora et conciliabula (Liv. 25,22,4; 39,14,7 etc.), which -- as in the lex Poetelia of 358 -- provides an excellent parallel to the nundinae in the city of Rome. In late Republican laws it…

Provincia

(1,263 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Meaning of the word The etymological connection of Latin provincia (‘province’) with pro- vincere (‘defeat beforehand’) in Festus (253: “provinciae appellantur quod populus Romanus eas provicit, i.e. ante vicit”) is not plausible and probably based on a popular etymology. Likewise, Isidore’s explanation of provinciae as overseas territory ‘far from’ ( procul) Italy is no more convincing (Isid. Orig. 14,5,19: “procul positas regiones provincias appellaverunt”). The most probable link is with proto-Germanic * fro, ‘lord’ [1. 377 f.]. However, the meaning o…

Monumentum Ancyranum

(573 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Among the documents left behind by Augustus and read out in the Senate after his death in AD 14 was an index rerum a se gestarum (‘Report of Actions’), which was then published on two bronze tablets set up in front of the Mausoleum Augusti (Suet. Aug. 101,4; Cass. Dio 56,33 and R.Gest.div.Aug. prooem.; on the setting up of the tablets and their reconstruction see [8. 6 fig.]). A copy of this text with a Greek translation was attached to the temple of the imperial cult in Ancyra (modern Ankara), the capita…

Tabula Lugdunensis

(107 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze tablet from Lugdunum (modern Lyon) with part of a speech by the emperor Claudius [III 1] in the Senate in which as censor in AD 47/8 he supports the wish of Gaulish nobles to be accepted into the Senate. Comparison of the original text (CIL XIII 1668 = ILS 212) with the version in Tacitus (Ann. 11,23-25) is revealing of the latter's way of working. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) Bibliography H. Freis, Historische Inschriften zur römischen Kaiserzeit, 21994, no. 34 (German translation)  F. Vittinghoff, Zur Rede des Kaisers Claudius über die Aufnahme von 'Gall…

Lex Irnitana

(446 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Only Latin city law extant in large sections, for a Latin municipium from the time of Domitian (end 1st cent. AD); found during illegal excavations in El Saucejo in the south of the modern province of Seville in southern Spain in 1981, and purchased by the authorities for the National Museum of Archaeology in Seville (initial publication: [2], with English translation; authoritative text: [4]). Of the original ten bronze tablets (H 58 cm, B 91 cm), six (III, V, VII-X) are almost completely extant, if also partially in pieces. We thus possess c. 70% of the entire text, ta…

Tabulae Caeritum

(280 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] In the TC Roman censors registered citizens from whom they had withdrawn the active or passive right to vote, by means of a nota censoria and/or by transfer into another tribus ( tribu movere). The term TC is explained from the original inclusion in this list of those citizens of the Etruscan city of Caere who were liable for military service. Presumably Caere gave its name to the list because in c. 390 BC it is supposed to have been the first community to receive civitas sine suffragio: Caere had provided help to Rome during the Gaulish attack in c. 390 BC and had in thanks b…

Socii (Roman confederation)

(849 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Definition The term "Roman confederation" or "Italic Federation" (Beloch) refers to the Roman manner of governing Italy during the Republic. The Romans themselves apparently had no name for this structure, in documents one encounters the paraphrase socii nominisque (or nominisve) Latini quibus ex formula milites in terra Italia imperare solent [1]. Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) [German version] B. Participants Geographically, the confederation comprised the Apennine peninsula without the islands. The Ligurian and Gallic tribes of Upper Ita…

Civitas

(630 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Community Civitas is the totality of the cives, just as societas is that of the socii. Its meaning is largely synonymous with   populus , but it was rarely used by the Romans for their own state (instead: populus Romanus) but instead was the official expression for all non-Roman communities, tribes and Greek poleis with republican constitutions. A people of the state is the characteristic of a civis, almost always a defined territory with a certain  autonomy ( suis legibus uti) and mostly an urban centre. Classification was according to the legal basis of the re…

Sigla

(182 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Sigla, earlier notae, is the Latin name for abbreviations. Since the time of the Greeks, S. for names, titles, places etc. have been found on coins, conditioned by the small space available. In Greek inscriptions, on the other hand, S. are, at least in pre-Roman times,  extraordinarily rare. This is in stark  contrast to their extensive use amongst the Etruscans and above all the Romans, where some types of information - such as first names, tribus, former offices and set phrases fo…

Socii

(298 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Rome's allies in Italy and, in exceptional cases, also communities and individuals outside Italy were already known as socii in antiquity. The socii in Italy were listed in the formula togatorum, a schedule which laid down the extent of the obligation to provide military contributions, as communities from which Rome was accustomed to require the provision of soldiers for the Roman army (' socii nominis(ve) Latini quibus <sc. Romani> ex formula milites in terra Italia imperare solent': lex agraria of 111 BC, FIRA 1, no. 8, ll. 21 and 50). The criterion for m…

Lex Ursonensis

(216 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Flavian copy of the municipal law of the Caesarean colonia Iulia Genetiva in Urso, of which four almost complete tablets were found in 1870/71, and an additional 12 fragments were found in and near Osuna (province of Seville) in Southern Spain (today in the Archaeological National Museum of Madrid) in 1925. Originally the law probably comprised nine tablets with three or five columns of text each and just over 140 sections ( rubricae), of which 61-82, 91-106 and 123-134 are almost entirely extant and several others are preserved in fragments. The charter of the colony …

Municipium

(1,885 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Etymologie and Definition It is possible that the Latin term municipes predates that of municipium. In the view of historians such as Varro (Ling. 5,179), the former is derived from munia (or respectively munera) capere, ‘the undertaking of duties’; the explanation ‘the receiving of gifts’ in [7. 26] has to be rejected in the same way as the ancient interpretation by Gellius (16,13,7) that municipium was to be seen as munus honorarium (‘honorary privilege’). Varro referred to obligations by Roman citizens such as military service and payment of taxes which the munici…

Pagus

(449 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] (Pl. pagi, etymologically related to pangere and pax; 'region with fixed borders'). The Latin pagus refers to the non-urbanized 'district', whose population lived in individual farms and villages ( vici; see vicus ), possibly with one or more oppida ( oppidum ) serving as a refuge; the pagus was the customary form of settlement for many Italian tribes, esp. the Oscan population of the mountainous regions of Central Italy [4] and among the Celts of Upper Italy [2]. The Romans used pagus as the designation for the subdivision of an urban territory. The pagi in the Roman Con…

Tabula Banasitana

(124 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Bronze inscription from Banasa (in Mauretania Tingitana) with copies ( exempla) of three documents and a list of 12 witnesses, probably members of the imperial consilium. It deals with a conferment of citizenship under Marcus Aurelius on 6 July AD 177: at his own request, Iulianus, a princeps of the Zegrensi tribe, and his family are granted Roman citizenship for extraordinary service ( maxima merita), without prejudice to his tribal rights ( salvo iure gentis). The TB is important evidence of the conditions for conferring citizenship at the end of the …

Coloniae

(1,410 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] A. Definition A colonia was a settlement of citizens (with the addition of a greater or lesser proportion of non-citizens) for the military and political securing of Roman rule, later for providing for veterans and occasionally the Roman proletariat, almost always in a conquered city, the citizens of which would also be involved in the colony in some way (cf. the definition in Serv. Aen. 1,12). Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn) [German version] B. Founding and constitution Coloniae are founded on the basis of the people's law by public officials, mainly IIIviri coloniae deduc…

Vici magistri

(456 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
(Singular vici magister). Elected leaders of vici (Vicus) in the city of Rome and in Italian cities. [German version] I. Rome VM are recorded as early as the Republic; their identification with the magistri collegiorum mentioned in Asconius (p. 6 Clark) cannot be doubted ( pace [2]). Their duties were the cult of the Lares Compitales (Lares [1] C) and organizing the Compitalia on 1 January. In the late Republic they were involved in the political activities of the collegia [1] and for a number of years were banned, until Clodius [I 4] permitted them again. They presumably…

Lapis niger

(186 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] Block of black marble found at Rome in 1899 during excavations in the Forum Romanum in front of the Curia Iulia. It is probably the niger lapis in comitio from Fest. 184 L. The upper section of the stone is damaged; on five sides it bears a fragmentary inscription, difficult to read and dating from the (early?) 6th cent. BC (probably the lex sacra of the Volcanal, the surrounding sacred precinct), which mentions a ‘king’ ( recei), his ‘herald’ ( calator) and iouxmenta (draught animals? carts?). This may be the inscription which Dionysius of Halicarnassus (Ant. …

Pomerium

(595 words)

Author(s): Galsterer, Hartmut (Bonn)
[German version] The pomerium was the line, important in religious law, which at Rome and its colonies ( coloniae ) divided the urbs from the ager, i.e. the city in the strictest sense from its surrounding territories. Even in antiquity, the meaning of the word was obscure. According to point of view, it was etymologically explained as the line 'behind' ( post or pone murum) or 'in front of' ( promoerium) the city wall (Varro Ling. 5,143 and Gell. NA 13,14,1 versus Fest. 295), but neither etymology is likely to be tenable The establishment of the pomerium constituted the climax of a city f…
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