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Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Ecdemus

(112 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἔκδημος; Ékdēmos) or Ecdelus (Ἔκδηλος; Ékdēlos, thus Plutarch, Polybius) from Megalopolis. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC, pupil of Arcesilaus who is mainly known because of his many and diverse political activities (Plut. Aratus 5: ‘a philosopher and a man of action at the same time’, ἀνὴρ φιλόσοφος καὶ πρακτικός cf. Id., Philopoemen 1); (Pol. 10,22; cf. Paus. 8,49,1): he was a teacher of Philopoemen; together with Demophanes, he liberated his home town of Aristodemus' tyra…

Aristippus

(645 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἀρίστιππος; Arístippos) [German version] [1] Tyrant of Argos (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) From Argus, friend of the Antigonids, against whom his rival Aristeas called  Pyrrhus into the town in 272 BC (Plut. Pyrrh. 30,2); after 272/1 probably the tyrant [1. 396]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Argos (240-234 BC) Grandson of [1] [1. 711], son of the tyrant  Aristomachus [3], tyrant in 240-235/4; vanquished in an ambush near Cleonae by the repeated attacks of  Aratus [2] (Plut. Arat. 27-29 [2. 61-63], whom A. had sued a…

Charmadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Χαρμάδας; Charmádas or Χαρμίδας; Charmídas). Lived c. 165- 91 BC (cf. Cic. De or. 2,360). Apollod. Chronica 119-130 Dorandi (= FGrH 244 F 59; subsequently Philod. Ind. Acad. 31,35-32,10) very probably relates to him: a pupil of Carneades, after founding his own school he returned to the Academy. In Sext. Emp. Pyrrhōneioi hypotypṓseis 1,220 and Euseb. Praep. evang. 14,4,16 mentioned with Philo as founder of a ‘Fourth Academy’. Probably most important as a teacher of rhetoric (cf. Cic. D…

Polyxenus

(397 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πολύξενος/ Polýxenos, 'he who has many guests'). [German version] [1] Sobriquet for Hades Poetic epithet for the god of the underworld (Hades, Pluto): Aesch. Supp. 156 f. etc. (cf. Polydectes [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis; holds in safekeeping the cattle stolen from Electryon; Amphitryon releases them and receives Electryon's daughter Alcmene in return (Apollod. 2,55 f.; Schol. Lycoph. 932). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis, grandson of Augeias; suitor of Helen…

Axiothea

(70 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀξιοθέα; Axiothéa) from Phleius. She is supposed to have come to the Academy after reading a work by Plato about government and to have attended classes there with Lastheneia of Mantinea, whilst dressed like a man (Diog. Laert. 3,46 = Dicaearchus F 44 W.).  Academy Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography T. Dorandi, Assiotea e Lastenia. Due donne all'Academia, in: Atti e Memorie Accademia Toscana ‘La Colombaria’ 54, 1989, 53-66.

Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Melissa

(817 words)

Author(s): Kowalzig, Barbara (Oxford) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Μέλισσα/ Mélissa, ‘bee’). Epithet of priestesses, name of nymphs and proper name, sometimes in aetiological myths. [German version] [1] Priestesses of Demeter Mélissai are the priestesses of Demeter (Pind. Fr. 158; Callim. H. 2,110; [1. no. 91]; Apollod. FGrH 244 F 89, on Paros), and in schol. Theoc. 15,94 of Persephone as well. The name probably derives from the association of bees and their behaviour, which was thought of as especially pure (Aristot. Hist. an. 4,535a 2 f.; schol. Pind. P. 4,106a), with idealised f…

Philo

(5,673 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλων/ Phíl ōn). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a metoikos (resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the boulḗ he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f.  Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

Cleitomachus

(368 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Κλειτόμαχος; Kleitómachos). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher Academic philosopher, probably born in 187/6 BC in Carthage, died in 110/109. Original name Hasdrubal (Philod. Academicorum Index 25.1-2). Presumably came to Athens in 163/2 (information in Diog. Laert. 4,67 is wrong). He entered the Academy in 159/8 After an elementary education of sorts with  Carneades [1], and studies in the Peripatos and the Stoa. Occasionally, his participation in the philosophers' delegation in 155 to Rome is …

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús). Son of Dolius [2], brother of Melantho [2], treacherous goatherd of Odysseus, negative counterpart to the swineherd Eumaeus and the cowherd Philoetius (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos, 499/8 BC Athenian strategos who led the troops sent in support of the Ionians when they revolted in 499/8 (Hdt. 5,97). Ionian Revolt Stein-Hö…

Anonymus in Theaetetum

(178 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] A fragment preserved on papyrus of a commentary with rather selective interpretations on the Platonic dialogue Theaetetus (mainly concerning the section 142d to 153de). [1] is now the definitive edition with a detailed introduction and commentary. The exact dating is controversial. The common assumption that the fragment originates from the 2nd cent. AD was recently challenged by the attempt of dating it to the pre-Christian era; more at [1. 256]. The anonymous author, who mentions several commen…

Appendix Platonica

(213 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] The Corpus Platonicum contains in its appendix several dialogues which were already generally agreed to be false in antiquity (ὁμολογουμένως νοθευόμενοι; homologouménōs notheuómenoi). Besides the dialogues Sisyphus, Demodocus (actually containing four conversations), Περὶ δικαίου ( Perì dikaíou), Περὶ ἀρετῆς ( Perì aretês), Alcyon, Eryxias and Axiochus, which follow the Hóroi in the MSS, five additional titles are named by Diog. Laert. 3,62. The appendix was created mainly in order to support the order by tetralogies, although t…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Coriscus

(78 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κορίσκος; Korískos) from Scepsis; a Socratic often mentioned c. 375-350 BC alongside  Erastus (Str. 13,1,54); accompanied Plato to Hermias at Assus; recipient of the sixth of Plato's letters. Father of Neleus, to whom Theophrastus bequeathed the body of Aristotle's writings. Stobaeus passes down an apophthegm on death by C. in his old age (Stob. 3,7,53 = T 9 Lasserre). Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Lasserre, De Léodamas de Thasos à Philippe d'Oponte. Témoignages et fragments, 1987.

Evander

(586 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὔανδρος; Eúandros). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the first settlement on the Palatine Arcadian-Roman hero, according to Paus. 8,43,1ff. the son of Hermes and an Arcadian nymph (Themis, Nicostrate: Plut. Quaest. Rom. 278B-C), or alternatively the prophesying  Carmentis from Pallantium. In Hes. fr. 168MW, he is a son of Echemus of Tegea and Tyndareos' daughter Timandra, Hellenism makes him the son of the Italian Sibyl. Banished because of his involvement in a popular uprising or the murder of one …

Timonides

(129 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τιμωνίδης/ Timōnídēs) of Leucas, 4th cent. BC; according to Plut. Dion 31,3, a friend and comrade-in-arms of Dion [I 1] in the latter's attempt to overthrow Dionysius [2] II in Syracuse and seize power himself. He is named by Plutarch among those who actively supported Dion's military venture (Plut. Dion 22,5). According to Diog. Laert. 4,5, T. also wrote letters to Speusippus reporting on Dion's activities in Syracuse. These writings, in which T., not shrinking from distortion, s…

Hagnon

(282 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἅγνων; Hágnōn). [German version] [1] Strategos in Athens, 5th cent. BC Father of Theramenes [1. 191], in 440 BC stratēgós in the war of Athens against rebellious Samos (Thuc. 1,117,2). H. founded Amphipolis in 437/6 (Thuc. 4,102,3; 5,11,1). At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War he held the office of strategos again in 431/0 and 429/8 (Thuc. 2,58,1; 6,31,2; 2,95,3 [2. 117, 121]). According to Plutarch (Pericles 32) he was one of the opponents of  Pericles. In April 421 he signed, among other things, the peace treaty (Peace of Nicias) betwe…

Arcesilaus

(1,194 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀρκεσίλαος; Arkesílaos). [German version] [1] Arcesilaus I. King of Cyrene (beginning of 6th cent. BC) Son and successor of  Battus I as king of  Cyrene. Ruled early in the 6th cent. BC for 16 years (Hdt. 4,159). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) [German version] [2] A. II. King of Cyrene middle of 6th cent. BC) the ‘Cruel’, son and successor of Battus II, grandson of Arcesilaus I, successfully fought against an opposition led by his brothers at his accession 565/60 BC. They left the town, founded Barca in the western Cyrenaica and made an alliance wit…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …
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