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Aphobus

(113 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἄφοβος; Áphobos). Son of Mnesiboulus of the Attic deme of Sphettus (?),  before 400 BC, died after 361. Cousin of the orator  Demosthenes, trierarch (Dem. Or. 27,14); from 376/75 to 366 one of the guardians of Demosthenes. Accused by the latter in 366 of embezzlement, he was sentenced in 364/63 to repay the sum of 10 talents (cf. Dem. Or. 27-29 Against A. and 30-31 Against  Onetor; see especially Dem. Or. 27,4; 29,60; 30,6-8; Plut. Mor. 844C-D; PA and Davies 2776, cf. also Davies 3597, V-VI). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography D. M. MacDowell, The Authenticity of…

Mnesibulus

(227 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Μνησίβουλος/ Mnēsíboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian defendant, after 356 BC The Athenian M. was involved after 356 BC in a lawsuit for false testimony ( pseudomartyrías díkē ) on behalf of his brother-in-law Theophemus in an earlier aikeía suit ( aikeías díkē ) (cf. Dem. Or. 47,5 and 53 = Apollodoros; Din. fr. 97 Conomis). Apollodorus [1]; Demosthenes [2] Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 225-226  PA 10265  Traill, PAA 655710. [German version] [2] Condemned Athenian, before 324/3 BC Athenian from the deme of Acharnae, was condemned at first before 324/…

Hermias

(778 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Ἑρμίας; Hermías). [German version] [1] Around 350 BC tyrant over Atarneus and Assos (or Hermeias) Around 350 BC successor of Eubulus as tyrant over  Atarneus and  Assos (Diog. Laert. 5,3), possibly pupil of Plato (Str. 13,1,57; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 250; by contrast Pl. Ep. 6,322e). Along with other philosophers he brought Aristotle to the court and married him to his niece  Pythias. After the Persians had reconquered Egypt in 343/342, H. considered his region to be under threat and contacted  Philippus II (…

Euthycrates

(240 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐθυκράτης; Euthykrátēs). [German version] [1] Olynthian, betrayed his home polis at the instigation of Philippus II E., an Olynthian, allegedly accepted bribes from  Philipus II in 348 BC to betray his home polis, thus bearing part of the guilt for its destruction. Because of this, E. was ostracized by Athens (Diod. Sic. 16,53,2; Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,56; 18,295; 19,265-267; Hyp. fr. 76 Jensen). In c. 345-343, he acted as syndikos for the Delians in their dispute with the Athenians regarding the prostasía of the Delphi sanctuary.  Demades' application to lift E.'s ostracism and…

Mnesicles

(642 words)

Author(s): Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Μνησικλῆς; Mnēsiklês). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c. 430 BC Greek architect of the classical period. His chief work are the Propylaea on the Athenian Acropolis, begun in 437 BC and prematurely discontinued at the outbreak of the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC (Plut. Pericles 13). The forms and proportions of the architecture of the Propylaea show that M. acquired his skills among the masons of the Parthenon. While the Propylaea remained unfinished and their original design had to be altered owing…

Demophon

(535 words)

Author(s): Clinton, Kevin (Ithaca N. Y.) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Δημοφῶν; Dēmophôn). [German version] [1] Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus Youngest son of the Eleusinian prince Celeus and Metaneira. According to myth D. was nurtured by the goddess  Demeter, who had been hired as a wet-nurse; she anointed him with ambrosia and hardened him at night in the fire so as to burn away his mortality (cf. Thetis: Achilles), until his mother noticed and cried out. Demeter then placed D. on the ground and threatened the Eleusinians with civil wars (Hom. Il. 2,233-255);…

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Pythias

(115 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Πυθιάς; Pythiás). [German version] [1] Wife of Aristotle [6] Niece and probably adopted daughter of Hermias [1] of Atarneus, wife of the philosopher Aristotle [6], who married her, presumably after the death of Hermias, in  341. They had a daughter called P. [2] and a son called Nicomachus, the eponym of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics (Diog. Laert. 5,3-4; Str. 13,1,57). P. died before 322 BC. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Daughter of Aristotle [6] and P. [1] Daughter of the philosopher Aristotle [6] and P. [1]; wife of Nicanor, a cousin of her fathe…

Democles

(138 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Δημοκλῆς; Dēmoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted to flee from erotic pursuit by Demetrius Poliorcetes At the baths the Athenian D. saved himself as an ‘immature boy’ (παῖς ἄνηβος; paîs ánēbos) from erotic pursuit by  Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes by jumping into a kettle of boiling water but was killed as a result (Plut. Demetrios 24,2-6). D. is not identical with the defender of the sons of Lycurgus against the suits of Moerocles and Menesaechmus (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 842E).  Athens Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic orator of the school of Theophrastus Attic o…

Aphobetus

(108 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀφόβητος; Aphóbētos). Son of Atrometus of the Attic deme of Cothocidae, younger brother of  Aeschines [2], the rhetor, born c. 395, died after 343 BC, from 377/76 to 353/2 hypogrammateus and   grammateus (Dem. Or. 19,237; 249) and from 350/49 to 347/46?) elected highest financial official of Athens, a friend of  Eubulus whom he helped to manage the   theorika . He enjoyed political influence before 343 (Aeschin. Leg. 149). Envoy from Athens to Philip II in 346 (Aeschin. Leg. 94-95; Dem. Or. 19,124) and in 343 to the Persian court (Aeschin. Leg. 149). Engels, Johannes (Col…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Glaucon

(411 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Et al.
(Γλαύκων; Glaúkōn). [German version] [1] Athen. strategós about 440 BC Son of Leagoras, Athenian   stratēgós at Samos in 441-440 BC (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38 with comm.); in 439-438 and 435-434 stratēgós, in 433-432 commander of the fleet sent to Corcyra (Thuc. 1,51; Syll.3 72). Often mentioned on Attic   kalos-inscriptions in 480-450 BC. Traill, PAA 277035. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Critias, father of Plato's mother Perictione Son of  Critias, father of Charmides and of Plato's mother Perictione (Pl. Prt. 315a; Charm. 154ab; Symp. 222b; T…

Meidias

(508 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μειδίας/ Meidías). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue, 420-400 BC Athenian demagogue. Nothing certain is known about his role in politics (Pl. Alc. 1,120a-b). Between 420 and 400 BC he was mocked by comedians for embezzlement of public funds, as a sycophant and braggart, and for his breeding of quails and cockerels (Aristoph. Av. 1297f.; Metagenes fr. 12; Phryn. fr. 4; 43; Pl. fr. 85; 116 PCG). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography PA 9714 Traill, PAA 637170. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, c. 400-330 BC Athenian rhetor, son of Cephisodorus of Anagyrus, born c…

Thrasylochus

(167 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Θρασύλοχος/Thrasýlochos). [German version] [1] Athenian, 4th cent. BC Son of Cephisodorus from the Anagyrus deme, Athenian, brother of Meidias [2] (Dem. Or. 21,78; 28,17); in 363 BC he forced Demosthenes [2] into a costly trierarchia with an antidosis action; he was himself a triḗrarchos, probably as early as 361 (Ps.-Dem. Or. 50,52) yet before 325/4 (IG II2 1629d,753 f.; 1631b,121 f.). A dedication to Amphiaraus 338-330 BC is preserved epigraphically (SEG 15,285); PA 7347; Davies 385 f. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) [German version] [2] From Messene, politician, 4th cent. BC Mess…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Cephisius

(58 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Κηφίσιος; Kēphísios). The Athenian C. was the main accuser of  Andocides [1] in the Trial of the Mysteries in 399 BC; C. levelled harsh reproaches against his political and religious violations, which must in part be ascribed to rhetorical slander (And. 1,92-93; Lys. 6,42). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography A. Missiou, The Subversive Oratory of Andokides, 1992, 50.

Phano

(60 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
[German version] (Φανώ; Phanṓ). Daughter of the hetaera Neaera [6] and Stephanus, first married to the Athenian Phrastor, then divorced. Then her father married her to the árchōn basileús Theogenes ([Dem.] Or. 59,79ff.). After a scandal because of her doubtful citizenship she was divorced from him as well. Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography Ch. Carey, Apollodoros Against Neaira [Demosthenes 59], 1992.

Hegesander

(324 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
[German version] [1] Athen. rhetor, middle of 4th cent. BC Athenian rhetor, son of Hegesias from the deme Sunium and brother of  Hegesippus [1], in 361/60 BC treasurer (Aeschin. In Tim. 55f.; 95) of the strategos Timomachus and despite the latter's sentence for bribery shortly afterwards   tamias of Athena (Aeschin. In Tim. 110f. and schol.), implying that he was a rich man. In the trial against Timocrates  Aeschines [2] most likely slanderously accused him of illegal enrichment. H. was considered an opponent of Aristop…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…
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