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Paulus

(5,982 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Heimgartner, Martin (Halle) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
see Iulius [IV 15] (poet); see Iulius [IV 16] (jurist) [German version] I Greek (Παῦλος; Paûlos). [German version] [I 1] Bishop of Antioch [1], died after 272 Bishop of Antiochia [1] († after AD 272). P., who was probably born in Samosata and grew up in modest circumstances, succeeded Demetrianus in 260/1 and quickly antagonized influential parts of the Antioch community with his teachings and conduct of his office. According to Eusebius [7] (account of P.: Eus. HE 7,27-30), the presbyter Malchion, head of a school of r…

Seleucus

(2,908 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
(Σέλευκος/ Séleukos, Lat. Seleucus). [German version] [1] Co-regent in the Regnum Bosporanum, c.400 BC Co-regent with Satyrus [2] I in the Regnum Bosporanum, 433/2-393/2 BC (according to Diod. Sic. 12,36,1). As Satyrus is elsewhere (Diod. Sic, 14,93,1) described as a sole ruler, and other sources do not mention his name, his existence is not certain. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 231  E. H. Minns, Scythians and Greeks, 1913, 571  R. Werner, Die Dynastie der Spartokiden, in: Historia 4, 1955, 419-421. …

Rhetorius

(267 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (Ῥητόριος; Rhētórios). R. was the last Greek-writing expert on astrology in Egypt before the Arab conquest in AD 640, . He played an important role in the transmission of older theories to the Middle Ages. His work, which has been preserved in compilations, probably even incomplete, of 90 and 117 chapters, draws in particular on Antiochus [23] and Teucer of Babylon, as well as on Claudius Ptolemaeus [65], Vettius Valens, Iulianus [19] of Laodicea and Olympiodorus' [4] commentaries …

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…

Critodemus

(325 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Κριτόδημος; Kritódēmos) [No German version] [1] Astrologer of the Hellenistic period Astrologer of the Hellenistic period, named by Pliny the Elder together with  Berossus, by Firmicus Maternus with the oldest representatives of Greek astrology, mainly used by  Vettius Valens (however, the horoscopes mentioned by Valens in connection with C. extend into a later period, in part into the 2nd cent. AD), then also by Hephaestion (2,10,41-46), Rhetorius and Theophilus of Edessa. His work Ὅρασις (Hórasis/‘Visio…

Polemarchus

(246 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf)
(Πολέμαρχος/ Polémarchos). [German version] [1] Metic (resident foreigner) in Athens, brother of the orator Lysias Wealthy métoikos in Athens, son of Cephalus [2] and brother of the orator Lysias [1], who unsuccessfully brought Eratosthenes [1], the main culprit amongst the Thirty Tyrants ( triákonta ) of the murder of P., to trial (Lys. Or. 12). Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) Bibliography Traill, PAA 776500. [German version] [2] P. of Cyzicus Greek astronomer, c. 380-370 BC Astronomer who, between 380 BC and 370 BC, worked as the student of Eudoxus [1] and as teacher …

Horoscope

(381 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Currently 32 horoscopes are known from Babylonia from the period 410 to 69 BC. They mostly begin with the date on which a child was born. This is followed by the positions of the moon, sun and planets in the sequence Jupiter, Venus, Mercury, Saturn, Mars. The positions are given relative to the signs of the zodiac, and sometimes the degree within a sign. Sometimes this is followed by further astronomical phenomena from the month or the year of birth. The positions a…

Hemisphairion

(203 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (ἡμισφαίριον; hēmisphaírion). The term refers to a ‘hemisphere’ a) in stereometry as a geometrical body, b) in astronomical cosmology as half a celestial sphere on both sides of one of the large celestial circles ( Kykloi), mostly of the horizon, i.e. outwards from the earth that was thought to be central, the upper, visible celestial hollow sphere and the bottom, invisible half of the sky, then also c) the convex hemisphere of the earth on both sides of the horizon that was only deduced in antiquity. Furthermore human artefacts were also called hemisphairion: on a larg…

Vettius

(1,947 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Et al.
Widespread Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] V., L. Roman equestrian from Picenum, c. 106-59 BC. In 89 BC, V. probably served on the staff of Cn. Pompeius [I 8] Strabo (ILS 8888; [1. 161 f.]) and subsequently enriched himself as a favourite of L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla (Sall. Hist. 1,55,17). He later joined the conspiracy of Catilina (Q. Tullius Cic. commentariolum petitionis 10), but betrayed it to Cicero in 63 BC (Cass. Dio. 37,41; Oros. 6,6,7). In 62, it seems that opponents o…

Sosigenes

(297 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Σωσιγένης; Sōsigénēs). [German version] [1] S. of Caunus is attested as oikonómos of Ptolemaeus [1] I in Lycia (SEG 27,929, Limyra) in 288/7 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 2nd cent. BC Comedy writer, only attested epigraphically as a participant of the Attic Dionysiac agon in 157 BC, where he took sixth place with the play Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed man'). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 603. [German version] [3] Astronomer, computed the Julian calendar for Caesar Astronomer charged by Caesar w…

Agrippa

(1,444 words)

Author(s): Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) | Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
According to modern etymology, the name derives from *agrei-pod-, ‘having the feet in front’ (according to Leumann, 398, ‘very dubious’). Originally a praenomen (thus still in the Iulii, especially A. Postumus), then a cognomen in the families of the Antonii, Asinii, Cassii(?), Fonteii, Furii, Haterii, Helvii, Iulii, Lurii, Menenii, Vibuleni, Vipsanii, but also of Jewish kings ( Herodes A.). Documented as name of various persons. Kienast, Dietmar (Neu-Esting) [German version] [1] M. Vipsanius, consul 37, 28, 27 BC M. Vipsanius, born 64/3 BC, of knightly lineage, probabl…

Lasus

(376 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
(Λάσος; Lásos). [German version] [1] L. of Hermione Poet, c. 500 BC in the Argolis (incorrectly in the Suda: Achaia). The Suda places his date of birth in the 58th Oympiad. (548-544 BC). Like Anacreon and Simonides, this Greek poet was under the patronage of Hipparchus in Athens. According to Hdt. 7,6, Onomacritus was expelled by Hipparchus when L. caught him forging oracles of Musaeus. The Schol. Aristoph. Av. 1403 quotes authorities who consider L. the first organizer of dithyrambic choruses positione…

Weather portents and signs

(634 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (ἐπισημασίαι/ episēmasíai, διοσημεῖαι/ diosēmeîai, also σημεῖα/ sēmeîa; Latin signa). The term is used in two ways: to designate a portent of a particular weather phenomenon to be expected, or to refer to a sign expressed by the current weather. The oldest weather forecasts were assembled by the Babylonians on the basis of precise observations (Assurbanipal; Divination; Meteorology), and were often linked with astrological prophecies [6; 7] (Astrology), sometimes compiled in menologies (prophecies by the phase of the moon; cf. calendar [B 2]). The systematic st…

Eclipses

(1,075 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] A. In Superstition Eclipses disturbed the usual regularity of day and night and frightened people as long as they were unable to explain these phenomena. In early times, it was believed that the heavenly bodies suffered under the power of the  demons and attempts were made to end this suffering with banging or loud shouting. On the other hand, Thessalian witches are supposed to have forced the moon down to earth with their magical practices (Pl. Grg. 513a, Hor. Epod. 5,46; 17,77, Ver…

Antiochus

(4,438 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Gerber, Jörg (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἀντίοχος; Antíochos). [German version] [1] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3] Helmsman in the fleet of  Alcibiades [3]. His indiscipline led to the Athenian defeat at Notion in 407 BC and the subsequent removal of Alcibiades as strategos (Hell. Oxy. 8 Chambers; Xen. Hell. 1,5,11 ff.; Diod. Sic. 13,71; Plut. Alcibiades 10; 35 f.; Lysander 5). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography W. M. Ellis, Alcibiades, 1989, 31, 91-93. [German version] [2] I. Soter King of the Seleucids, 281-261 BC Called Soter (‘Saviour’) for his victory over the Galatians -- perhaps the …

Constellations

(2,459 words)

Author(s): Hunger, Hermann (Vienna) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient In Mesopotamia, the visible stars were combined into constellations; some of these notions about constellations were communicated to other cultures as early as the 2nd millennium BC and, through Greek-Roman transmission, are still common today. The constellations of the  zodiac ─ Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, and Pisces ─ can be traced back to Babylonian models, also the Big Dipper ( Ursa Maior), the Raven, and the Eagle, among others. Babylonian  lists of constellations have existed since the early 2nd mille…

Balbillus (Barbillus)

(154 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] Claudius Balbillus, Tiberius. Praefectus Aegypti AD 55-59; games were held in Ephesus after 70 (Βαλβιλλεῖα; Balbilleîa) in his honour. Sen. Q Nat. 4,2,13 praises his erudition, therefore identified by Cichorius i.a. [2; 3; 9. 39] against [10] with the son of Thrasyllus, the astrologer of emperors Claudius (he comes to him in 41 as envoy of the Alexandrians to Rome), Nero and Vespasianus. His writings, addressed to a certain Hermogenes, were called Ἀστρολογούμενα ( Astrologoúmena). Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) Bibliography Fragments : 1 F. Cumont, CCAG VIII 4, 23…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Timaeus

(1,738 words)

Author(s): Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Τίμαιος; Tímaios). [German version] [1] Main speaker in Plato's [1] Timaeus T. of Locri [2] Epizephyrii in southern Italy (Τίμαιος Λοκρός/ Tímaios Lokrós), the main speaker in Plato's [1] Timaeus, was in Antiquity regarded as a Pythagorean [1.83-85]. The Suda s.v. T. (IV p. 553,26f. Adler) and the scholia to Pl. Tim. 20 A Greene report that he wrote on mathematical problems, on nature and on the life of Pythagoras [2] (μαθηματικά, περὶ φύσεως, περὶ τοῦ Πυθαγόρου βίου/ M athēmatiká, Perì phýseōs, Perì toû Pythagórou bíou) [1.85]. One treatise, in the Doric dialect [2.11-19], ent…

Pleiades

(496 words)

Author(s): Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster)
[German version] (πλειάδης/ pleiádēs, Latin pliades, also Βότρυς/ Bótrys, 'bunch of grapes' or 'curl'; Latin Vergiliae, 'twig'). In contrast to the Hyades, the P. were known from the time of Euripides and Hippocrates by the collective singular Πλειάς/ Pleiás: seven faint stars, placed close together, designated as a 'nebula'. According to Nicander [4], they are located on the tail of Taurus ascending in reverse, otherwise - because only its forequarters form stars - at the start of its sector. Both Hom. Il. 18,486 and Od. 5,272 ment…
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