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Rufinus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Gatti, Paolo (Trento) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Ῥουφῖνος/ Rhouphînos). [German version] [I 1] Epigrammatist Greek epigrammatist; dating uncertain (Neronian/Flavian era? [2; 4]; 2nd cent. AD? [3]; late 4th cent. AD? [1]); origin unknown (Anth. Pal. 5,9: residence in Ephesus). 37 erotic poems are extant, all in Anth. Pal. 5,2-103 (on this so-called Sylloge Rufiniana, perhaps also from the 4th cent. AD, cf. [5]). With the exception of the paederastic poem 28 (cf. also 19), R.' epigrams, in which 13 women's names are mentioned (two further fictitious ones in 44,1), tr…

Crinagoras

(225 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Κριναγόρας) of Mytilene. Born about 70 BC, he probably did not die before AD 11 (Anth. Pal. 7,633, cf. 9,283). C. was an influential man in his native town. His participation in several delegations from his town to Rome is attested in inscriptions: in 48 or 47 and in 45 (IG XII 35a; 35b), in 26/25 to Tarragona in Spain (to Augustus, IG XII 35c). He was also highly regarded in Rome where he belonged to the circle around Octavia, the sister of Augustus. C. is one of the significant…

Tryphon

(1,210 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Τρύφων/ Trýphōn). [German version] [1] The usurper Diodotus of Casiane, 2nd cent. BC Name assumed by the usurper Diodotus from Casiane near Apamea [3] (Str. 16,2,10). As strategos of Demetrius [7] I, D./T. went over to the pretender to the throne Alexander [II 13] Balas, betrayed Antioch [1] on the Orontes to Ptolemaeus [9] VI, occupied Apamea [3] and Chalcis, but then did not switch over to Demetrius [8] II, instead raising Alexander's [13] son to king as Antiochus [8] VI in 145 BC. He defeated Demetrius and allied with…

Hegesippus

(950 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Ἡγήσιππος; Hēgḗsippos). [German version] [1] Athen. rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Hegesias from Sunium, Athenian rhetor and envoy from a wealthy family. In 357/6 BC he spoke in the ekklesia as a champion of aid for Eretria (IG II2 125 = Tod, 154), in 356/5 of the Athenian symmachy with Phocis (Aeschin. In Ctes. 118; Dem. Or. 19,72-74 with schol.) and between 346 and 340 of further decrees for foreign policy (Dem. Or. 18,75). In the year 345 he defended Timarchus against  Aeschines [2] (Aeschin. In Tim. 71) together with his br…

Capiton

(87 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καπίτων; Kapítōn). Otherwise unknown epigrammatist, of whom a witty distichon has survived: beauty without grace is compared with a ‘bait without rod’ (Anth. Pal. 5,67,2). C. (Capito) is quite a widespread Roman cognomen: the assumption that he might be identical with the epic poet from Alexandria, mentioned in Ath. 10,425, is thus without foundation; equally, it hardly is likely that he is identical with Pompeius C., who demonstrates his mastery in every metre and rhythm (TrGF 186). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 34.

Calleas

(80 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καλλέας; Kalléas) of Argos. Otherwise unknown composer of a sympotic epigram (Anth. Pal. 11,232) based on the saying: ‘wine reveals one's character’, a version of the old saying in vino veritas (cf. Alcaeus fr. 333 Voigt; Thgn. 500; Aesch. fr. 393 Radt etc.). The very rare compound λυσσομανής (‘raging’, v. 2) was probably adopted from  Antipater [8] of Sidon (Anth. Pal. 6,219,2). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography V. Longo, L'epigramma scoptico greco, 1967, 106 H. Beckby, Anthologia Graeca, III-IV, 21967.

Mundus Munatius

(86 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Greek epigrammatist whose inclusion in the 'Garland' of Philippus of Thessalonica has not been proved conclusively (for one thing, the combination of the nomen Munatius, [widespread in the Late Republican period], with the cognomen Mundus, [rare in Philip’s time, i.e. first half of 1st cent. AD]), is not verified). Only one formal poem about the ruins of Mycenae is preserved (Anth. Pal. 9,103; cf. e.g. Alpheus[3] of Mytilene, ibid. 9,101 and 104). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II.1, 436-439; 2, 463f.

Konstantinos

(947 words)

Author(s): Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(see also Constantinus). [German version] [1] K. VII Porphyrogennetos Byzantine emperor (Byzantine emperor AD 905-959; sole ruler 945-959). Son of the Byzantine emperor Leon VI (886-912) and of Zoe Karbonopsina; for K. as a politician see Constantinus [9]. His literary activity was directed toward the preservation and codification of knowledge for practical purposes. Thus, the Excerpta [1], a historical and moral encyclopaedia which he inspired, are a gigantic, thematically structured compilation in 53 volumes. It consists of sections from several h…

Philostratus

(3,230 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Φιλόστρατος/ Philóstratos). [German version] [1] Attic orator, 4th cent. BC Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, son of Dionysius of Colonus, known from inscriptions (IG II/III2 2,1622,773) and mentions by Demosthenes [2]. In the 90s, while still a young man, he provided lodging for the lover of his friend Lysias (Dem. Or. 59,22f.); in 366/5, he was among the accusers of Chabrias in the Oropus trial; later he gained a victory as choregos with a choir of boys at the Dionysia (Dem. Or. 21,64); in 342, he was trierarch; between 343 and 340, he testified as a witness in t…

Callicter

(111 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καλλικτήρ; Kalliktḗr) of Manesium. Writer of epigrams, possibly from the 1st or 2nd cent. AD, to whom are ascribed the satirical two-line epigrams from the Anth. Pal. 11,2; 5; 6 and, according to Planudes, 333. The epigrams against doctors, 11,118-122, are probably his also; Planudes however assigns them to Nicarchus. The erotic poems Anth. Pal. 5,29 and 45 are attributed to the name Cillactor; the rarity of both names, not attested elsewhere and still of uncertain form, argues in favour of identification with C. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 114f. V…

Hermocreon

(168 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] [1] Greek architect, 3rd cent. BC Greek architect of the 3rd cent. BC; according to Str. 10,5,7 and 13,1,13, he built a state altar, 1 stadium long ( Measures), from the material of an abandoned temple near Parium; it is presumably depicted on coins (London, BM) and could be compared with the Hieronian monumental altar of  Syracusae. Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) Bibliography Overbeck, 2086-2087 (sources) G. A. Mansuelli, s.v. H., EAA 4, 1961, 13 (with fig. 18). [German version] [2] Epigrammatist, 3rd cent. BC Epigrammatist whose existence cannot be proven with…

Nicarchus

(380 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νίκαρχος; Níkarchos). [German version] [1] General of Antiochus III, 218 BC Active at the beginning of the Fourth  Syrian War as one of  Antiochus  [5] III's generals. In 218 BC he took part in Antiochus advance into southern Syria at the occupation of the narrows on the River  Lycus  and later at the conquest of Rabbatamana (Rabbat Ammon) and became commander of the garrison there. In the battle of  Raphia in 217 he led the part of Antiochus' phalanx whose weakness contributed to the downfall of the Seleucids (Pol. 5,68,9-11; 71,6-11; 79,5; 83,3; 85,10). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibli…

Myrinus

(91 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Μυρῖνος; Myrȋnos). Elegant epigrammatic poet in the ‘Garland’ of Philippus. Four poems are extant, showing him as a skillful imitator of Leonidas [3] of Tarentum; however, he also displayed an independent creativity, in a satirical setting (Anth. Pal. 6,254: a dedication to Priapus by a hermaphrodite frail with age; 11,67: against an old woman behaving like a child) as well as in an idyllic-pastoral one (ibd. 6,108 and 7,703; the latter poem is erroneously placed amongst the epitaphs). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II.1, 286-289; 2, 319-322.

Thyillus

(91 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θύιλλος; Thýillos). Epigrammatist in Cicero's circle (Cic. Att. 1,9,2; 1,16,15: 67 and 61 BC, cf. [1; 3]). Three poems survive: a description of a spring (Anth. Pal. 6,170), an epitaph (perhaps for an inscription) for a Cybele priestess (Anth. Pal. 7,223 = GVI 707,  cf. Philod. ibid. 7,222), a variation on the return of spring (ibid. 10,5, cf. Leonidas [3], ibid. 10,1 etc.). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography 1 J. Geffcken, s. v. T., RE 6 A, 692 2 FGE, 95-99 3 O. Masson, À propos du dernier livre de D. L. Page, FGE, in: RPh 58, 1984, 98 f.

Flaccus

(255 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
Roman cognomen (‘floppy-eared’), probably originally an individual cognomen, in the Republican period especially widespread in the senatorial families of the Fulvii, Norbani and Valerii, and in the Imperial period also among numerous other families. Nickname of the poet Q.  Horatius F. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Statilius F. Writer of epigrams Writer of epigrams. The cognomen F. is often mentioned in combination with the nomen Statilius (Στατύλλιος Φλάκκος; Statýllios Phlákkos). He lived at the beginning of the 1st cent. AD, if the Latin ver…

Isidorus

(2,455 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Oelsner, Joachim (Leipzig) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ἰσίδωρος; Isídōros). [German version] [1] Pirate captain, defeated by Lucullus at Tenedus in 72 BC Pirate captain who organized the Cilician pirates in the area around Crete, was besieged in 78 BC by P. Servilius Isauricus (Flor. 1,41,3), later entered the service of Mithridates and in 72 was defeated by Lucullus in the naval battle of Tenedos at the entrance to the Dardanelles (App. Mithr. 77, Memnon 42,2 = FHG 3,548) and killed (Plut. Lucullus 12.2). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] I. of Charax Geographer, end of 1st cent. BC Geographer, certainly of the Augustan p…

Iunior

(101 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] Author of a dedicatory inscription (six distichs under the heading Ἰουνίωρος; Iouníōros), in which a statue of Aphrodite proclaims that it was erected in Sinuessa (Campania) next to a temple with a view of the sea: Eon (ᾘῶν; Ēiôn, v. 3), the one performing the dedication, introduces herself as a freedwoman of Drusus (the Elder or the Younger?) and his wife (v. 4). It cannot be proved that this poet is identical with Seneca's friend Lucilius Iunior or with the epigrammatist  Pompeius Macer Iunior. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography EpGr 810 = Anth. Pal. appe…

Michael

(1,757 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
(Μιχαήλ/ Michaḗl; Mîkāēl). [German version] [1] Archangel Archangel, [1] One of the most prominent angels (cf. the description archistratēgós, ‘supreme commander’ of the heavenly host, Joseph of Aseneth 14,8, cf. Slavonic Hen 22,5; 33,10), one of the seven (Ethiopic Hen 20,5) or four (Ethiopic Hen 9,1; 10,11) archangels (cf. [1]). The name means ‘who is like God’ or ‘who is victorious like God’. M., who was first mentioned in the ‘Book of Watchers (Ethiopic Hen 1-36, end of the 4th/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC)…

Carphyllides

(99 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Καρφ-/Καρπυλλίδης; Karph-/Karpyllídēs). Epigrammatist, probably of the ‘Garland’ of Meleager. Under the lemma Καρφυλλ- an epigrammatic epitaph is extant (Anth. Pal. 7,260), in which the deceased looks back with content onto his long life, crowned by the love of his children and grandchildren. Of lesser stylistic value is an epideictic poem, transmitted under the lemma Καρπυλλ- (9,52): The rareness of his name, which in neither of its two forms is evident anywhere else, is an argument against the assumption of two separate authors (Knaack). Albiani, Maria Grazia…

Philoxenus

(1,694 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Montanari, Ornella (Bologna) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Φιλόξενος; Philóxenos). [German version] [1] Name of several officers under Alexander the Great Several officers with the name P. are mentioned in the sources about Alexander  [4] the Great. They cannot always be distinguished with certainty. One P. was appointed by Alexander in 331 BC (incorrect [1]) ' to collect tribute on this side of the Taurus'(i.e. in Asia Minor) (Arr. An. 3,6,4). This cannot be correct. Arrian must, as often, have expressed himself imprecisely, as this duty had already been entrusted to somebody else. It can also hardly be th…

Macedonius

(746 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Writer of a paean, c. 300 BC? Author of a paean to Apollo and Asclepius passed down to us in inscriptions (1st cent. BC) in Delphi, created perhaps already around 300 BC [1; 2], in dactylic metre [3]. Probably not identical with M. [2] (thus still [4]). The content and structure of the paean closely follow the Erythraean paean and Isyllus; cf. Ariphron. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 W. Peek, Att. Versinschr. (Abhandlungen der Sächsischen Akademie der Wiss. Leipzig, Philol.-histor. Klasse 69/2), 1980, 45f. (Text) 2 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 200-206, 383f. (text…

Lacon

(84 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λάκων; Lákōn). Otherwise unknown epigrammatical poet (Sicilian origin has been suspected, cf. Theoc. Eidyllion 5), to whom a single votive poem (Anth. Pal. 6,203) is attributed; it may alternatively be the work of Philippus [32] of Thessalonica, the author of the Garland: eleven iambic trimeters, describing the miraculous healing of an old, limping woman in the hot springs of the river Symaethus on Etna. The woman dedicates her stick to the nymphs. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA II 2, 369.

Geminus

(723 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Γέμινος; Géminos) [I]. [German version] [1] Astronomer and mathematician Astronomer and mathematician from the school of Posidonius. Almost nothing is known about his life. The height of his creativity was around 70 BC. It is generally accepted that he lived in Rhodes. The only fully extant treatise by G. is the ‘Introduction to Astronomy’ (Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὰ φαινόμενα). It is in the tradition of  Eudoxus and  Aratus [4]. Similarly to the later writing by  Cleomedes, it is an elementary textbook on astrono…

Poseidippus

(953 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ποσείδιππος/ Poseídippos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Cassandrea, c. 290 BC Comic poet from the Macedonian city of Cassandrea [1. test. 1, 2], said to have begun performing plays in the third year after the death of Menander [4] (291/0 BC) [1. test. 1], four-time victor at the Dionysia [1. test. 7] and honoured with statues [1. test. 10. 11]. His Ἀποκλειομένη ( Apokleioménē, 'The Woman Shut Up [or Shut Out]') was revived several times in the 2nd cent. BC [1. test. 8, 9]. Of the 'up to 30' plays [1. test. 1] by P., 18 titles survive; along with th…

Theosebeia

(91 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θεοσέβεια; Theosébeia). Poet, of whose work only one epigram is recorded (Anth. Pal. 7,559): Acestoria (personification of medicine) mourns the death of the physician Ablabius (presumably aptonym: ἀ-βλάβη/ a-blábē, 'preventer of harm'). Her identification with the alchemist Zosimus' sister of the same name (3rd cent. AD, cf. [2]) is chronologically hard to reconcile with her membership of the kýklos of Agathias [1]. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography 1 Av. and A. Cameron, The Cycle of Agathias, in: JHS 86, 1966, 8 2 R. C. McCail, The 'Cycle' of Ag…

Hermodorus

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἑρμόδωρος; Hermódōros). [German version] [1] Critic of his fellow citizens in a fragment of Heraclitus In a fragment of the philosopher  Heraclitus [1] of Ephesus, the latter criticizes his fellow citizens because they had banished H., the ‘most estimable man’ among them, with the justification that among them ‘no one should be the most estimable’ (Diels/Kranz 22,121 = Str. 14,1,25; Cic. Tusc. 5,105). According to later tradition, H., who went into exile in Italy, was involved in the drawing up of the Twelve …

Nicodemus

(296 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος; Nikódēmos). [German version] [1] Prosecutor of Demosthenes, probably died after 349 BC Athenian from Aphidna, prosecutor of Demosthenes [2] (Aeschin. 2,148), friend of Meidias [2] and of Eubulus [1], was killed by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12) in 352 BC: [2]; (according to [1. 112] and [3. 9-12] the preferred date is more likely after 349 BC), for which deed Meidias held Demosthenes responsible (also [1. 102-105]; Aristot. Rh. 1397b 7 see [2]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Schäfer, vol. 2 2 H.E. Stier, s.v. Nikodemos (2), RE 1…

Pompeius

(8,348 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Name of a Plebeian family (connection with the Campanian city of Pompeii is unclear). The family acquired political significance with P. [I 1]; he is the origin of the Rufi branch. With P. [I 8] a related branch attained consulship and with his son Cn. P. [I 3] Magnus supplied the most significant member of the gens. Both lineages continue until the early Imperial period (family trees: [1; 2; 3]). I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Q. Consul 141 BC A homo novus and popular orator (Cic. Brut. 96), he became consul in 141 BC, despite resistance from the nobility a…

Thymocles

(67 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θυμοκλῆς; Thymoklês). Epigrammatist from the Garland of Meleager [8]. A single poem survives (from the style probably 3rd cent. BC), assigned without obvious reason to the part of the Anthologia Palatina dedicated to pederasty (Anth. Pal. 12,32): a rebuke to the beloved person (once rejecting advances, but now robbed of the bloom of youth). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography GA I.1, 196; 2, 552.

Cometas

(210 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κόμητάς; Kómētás) [German version] [1] Poet of epigrams Writer of epigrams, probably to be identified with the grammatikós of the same name in the middle of the 9th cent. in Constantinople. Four poems survive: in the poems Anth. Pal. 15,36-38 (the latter consisting of seven dodecasyllables) C. claims to have restored Homer's verses by punctuating them and rescuing them from ‘useless rot’, only to be mocked for it by the scholiast J (cf.  Constantinus [2] of Rhodus), in a marginal note (in trimeters) to the 57 hexameters in which C. acclaims the rising of Lazarus (Anth. Pal. 15,40). Albiani,…

Lucillius

(268 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Λουκίλλιος; Loukíllios). Epigrammatist, lived in Rome under the patronage of Nero, to whom he dedicated the second book of his epigrams in gratitude for his financial support (Anth. Pal. 9,572). The identifications with the grammarian Lucillus of Tarrha and Lucilius [II 4], Seneca's friend, are baseless. About 120 epigrams are extant (also probably a good part of the 52 poems attributed to ‘Lucianus’; cf. [1]). These are of an often remarkable quality and are almost all satirica…

Marianus

(317 words)

Author(s): Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA)
I Greek [German version] [1] Poet c. AD 500 Early Byzantine poet, contemporary of emperor Anastasius I (AD 491-518). According to Suda s.v. M., he originally was a descendent of a Roman family of senators, emigrated to Eleutheropolis in Palestine with his father and was a patríkios under Anastasius, composed iambic paraphrases of the works of Hellenistic authors ( Theocritus; Apollonius [2] Rhodius' ‘Argonautica; Callimachus' ‘Hecale, ‘Hymns, ‘Epigrams; Aratus [4]; Nicander's‘Theriaka). Possibly identical with M. [2]. Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) Bibliography 1 J. Geffcken,…

Pytheas

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πυθέας; Pythéas). [German version] [1] P. from Aegina 5th cent. BC, his son proposed revenge measures after the battle of Plataeae After the battle of Plataeae (479 BC) his son Lampon [1] proposed desecrating the corpse of  Mardonius [1] in revenge for Leonidas [1]  (Hdt. 9,78). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] P. from Aegina Persian POW after a battle at Sciathos, freed after Salamis Fought so bravely in a skirmish at Sciathos that he inspired wonder in the victorious Persians, who consequently treated him with the greatest respect a…

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Cosmas

(834 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Κοσμᾶς; Kosmâs). [German version] [1] C. and Damianus Doctor's saints and patrons of healing Doctor saints and patrons of healing. The Greek Synaxarion (ed. by H. Delehaye) contains three different pairs of saints with these names: 1) the sons of Theodata, who were born in Asia Minor and buried in Pelusium, whose feast day is 1 November; 2) the Roman martyrs stoned during the rule of  Carinus (283-285), whose feast day is 1 July; 3) the Arab martyrs killed with their three brothers under the emperor Diocleti…

Leonidas

(1,431 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Λεωνίδας; Leōnídas). Cf. also Leonides. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 5th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), son of Anaxandridas, around 490/89 BC he succeeded his stepbrother Cleomenes [3] I. In 480, after the evacuation of the positions in the Vale of Tempe, L. was given the task of defending the gates of Thermopylae against the army of Xerxes, while the Greek fleet was to thwart the advance of the Persian squadrons at Artemisium (Northern Euboea) (Hdt. 7,175). At best, L. had 8,000 men at his disposal (among them 1,000 perioikoi and 300 Spartiates),…

Palladas

(329 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Παλλαδᾶς; Palladâs). Important exponent of pre-Byzantine epigrammatic poetry and probably the author of a collection of mostly satirical epigrams (cf. Anthology E.); he lived in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. AD in Alexandria (numerous allusions to an Egyptian context in P,. whose name appears on several occasions with the ethnikon Ἀλεξανδρεύς/ Alexandreús). Dating is made possible by Anth. Pal. 11,292 (attack on Themistius, in 384 praefectus urbi of Constantinople); 10,90 (presumably written after the destruction of the Serapeum in 391, cf. 9,37…

Secundus

(301 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Gutsfeld, Andreas (Münster) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
Common Roman cognomen, originally designating the second-born child. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Saturninius S. Salutius Praef. praet. Orientis 361-365 and 365-366 ( iterum), from a non-senatorial family in Gallia, a non-Christian. Between 324 and 350, he held several offices at court as well as governorships in the western part of the empire. In 355-359, he held the quaestura sacri palatii at the court of Caesar Iulianus [11] (CIL VI 1764 = ILS 1255) in Gallia who came to trust S. and, upon his rise to Augustus after the death of Co…

Theodoridas

(116 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Θεοδωρίδας; Theodōrídas). Greek poet from Syracuse (second half of the 3rd cent. BC; on his origin  cf. Ath. 15,599e), whose varied works are all lost (cf. [1]) with the exception of 19 elegant epigrams (dedications, funerary poetry and two epideictic poems; the attribution by Anth. Pal. 7,282 is uncertain) in Meleager's [8] 'Garland' (4,1,53 f.). In a fictional funerary inscription (Anth. Pal. 13,21) T. criticises Mnasalces; he also seems to attack Euphorion [3] in an epitaph (7,406) which he presumably wrote when Euphorion was still alive. Albiani, Maria Grazia…

Satyrius

(133 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Σατύριος; Satýrios). Epigrammatist of uncertain identity, perhaps identifiable with Satyrus [9]: the only surviving poem, Anth. Pal. 6,11, is attributed by the Anthologia Planudea to one S. (name rarely attested), but by the Anthologia Palatina to a Satrius, not recorded elsewhere (possibly the Italic gens name Satrius? cf. [2]). Content: dedication to Pan by a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (theme of 14 further epigrams from the 3rd cent. BC until the 6th cent. AD, parodied by Lucianus, perhaps Lucillius…

Ignatius

(872 words)

Author(s): Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἰγνάτιος; Ignátios). [German version] [1] Bishop of Antioch Bishop of Antioch, martyr, ranks as an Apostolic Father ( Apostolic Fathers). Rist, Josef (Würzburg) [German version] A. Biography The person and work of I. cannot be separated from each other because the only certain biographical information is extant in the corpus of letters ascribed to him. Therefore, the position taken in the ‘Ignatian debate’, i.e. in the discussion over the unity and genuineness of the preserved letters (see [4], with response [5; 6]), al…

Straton

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Wildberg, Christian (Princeton) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Στράτων; Strátōn). [German version] [1] Attic comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Attic comedy writer of the 4th cent. BC, according to the Suda belonging to the Middle Comedy [1. test. 1], but on the basis of fr. 1,43 (mentioning Philitas [1] of Cos) certainly to the New Comedy [2.62 f.]. At the Dionysia of 302, S. attained the fourth place [1. test. 2]. Of the comedy Phoinikídes (fr. 1 PCG) a rhesis survives on papyrus (fr. 1,4-8; 11; 13-15; 17-21; 23-25; 34-50; cf. [3]) and in a divergent version in Athenaeus (fr. 1,1-47; cf. [1.621 f.]); the spe…

Iomedes

(109 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Ἰομήδης; Iomḗdes). Otherwise unknown author of a grave inscription from the 2nd or 3rd cent. AD found at Nemra (Namarae Batanaeorum) in Syria (five partly damaged distichs). The poet, who calls himself ‘master ( prýtanis) of the Ausonian muse’ (v. 10), celebrates in those lines his own forefathers, who once dedicated a memorial to Tyche in the same place. At the end (v. 9), he signs with his name (τήνδ' Ἰομήδης; tḗnd' Iomḗdēs), which has been taken to be - because of its singularity - an intentional and witty alteration of ‘Diomedes’ [1]. Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibl…

Cyllenius

(103 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
[German version] (Κυλλήνιος; Kyllḗnios). Author of two epideictic epigrams that show thematic and stylistic affinities with the ‘Garland’ of Philippus, but which cannot with certainty be traced back to it. In Anth. Pal. 9,4 a wild pear tree praises in elaborate language and little-known words the one who made it fertile through a graft; in Anth. Pal. 9,33 there is a brilliant distich about a ship that was shipwrecked even before it was completed (a variant is 9,35 that Planudes attributes to the same C. whilst the P manuscript however attributes it to  Antiphilus [3]). Albiani, Maria Graz…

Hippodamas

(170 words)

Author(s): Zingg, Reto (Basle) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἱπποδάμας; Hippodámas). [German version] [1] Brother of Orestes Son of the river god  Achelous [2] and of Perimede, father of Euryte, brother of Orestes (Apollod. 1,52). In a different tradition, father of the Naiad  Perimele, the mistress of Achelous, who, after having been pushed into the sea by H., was transformed into one of the Echinades Islands by Poseidon (on the western coast of Acarnania) (Ov. Met. 8,573ff.). Zingg, Reto (Basle) [German version] [2] Name of Trojans Name of Trojans: one H. is killed by Achilles (Hom. Il. 20,401), the other by Agamemnon (Hyg. Fab…

Heraclitus I (Gk)

(1,845 words)

Author(s): Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλειτος; Hērákleitos). [German version] [1] H. of Ephesus Ionian philosopher, c. 500 BC Son of Bloson, outstanding personality within Ionian philosophy. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] A. The person H.'s main period of activity is estimated to have been about 503-500 BC (Diog. Laert. 9,1). He belonged to a leading family in the public life of Ephesus. The doxographic tradition records several anecdotes of H.'s arrogance and contempt for his fellow citizens and humanity in general, which are mostly based on fragments of H. Betegh, Gábor (Budapest) [German version] B. La…

Pancrates

(537 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παγκράτης/ Pankrátēs). [German version] [1] Musician, archaic style Musician; according to Aristoxenus [1] an enthusiast of the archaic style ( trópos) of Pindar and Simonides (Plut. De Musica 1137f). Harmon, Roger (Basle) [German version] [2] Poet, 3rd-2nd cent. BC Hellenistic poet (3rd-2nd cent. BC), author of the didactic poem Θαλάσσια ἔργα ( Maritime works), of which three fragments, dealing with the pilotfish, the wrasse and the salp and their 'common' names, are preserved by Athenaeus (who always refers to him as Arkás). Identification with the homonymous author of a Bokchorē…

Hecataeus

(1,551 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ἑκαταῖος; Hekataîos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Cardia, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of  Cardia, kept in office by  Alexander [4] although  Eumenes [1] made an effort to free the city (Plut. Eumenes 3). In the Lamian War, he supported  Antipater [1] (Diod. Sic. 18,14,4). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Henchman of Alexander [4] the Gr., 4th cent. BC One of the  hetairoi of Alexander [4], entrusted by him in 336 BC with the removal of  Attalus [1], whom he murdered (Diod. Sic. 17,2,5; 5,2). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 292 (not identical with …

Leonides

(479 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Λεωνίδης; Leōnídēs). Cf. also Leonidas. [German version] [1] General Ptolemy I, c. 300 BC General of Ptolemy I, stratēgós in Cilicia in 310/309 BC (Diod. Sic. 20,19,4). L. probably consecrated a helmet at Delos in 309/308 (IG XI 2, 161 B 77), and in 308 he was appointed by Ptolemy as commander of his Greek possessions. In 307/306, L. fulfilled the function of stratēgós in Sicyon and Corinth; after 301, together with Philocles (?), he commanded Ptolemaic mercenaries in Pamphylia (SEG 17, 639; Aspendus). It is unclear whether he can be identified with Berve, vol. 2, no. 470. Ameling, Walter (…

Phocas

(521 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φωκᾶς; Phōkâs). [German version] [1] Martyr around AD 305 Martyr († around AD 305 in Sinope; Fest: 22. 9.). He lived in Sinope as a gardener and suffered martyrdom by beheading. As early as the 4th cent. a church is said to have existed above his grave in Sinope. From there his cult spread throughout the entire Mediterranean area. He is depicted as a gardener. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography J. Bollandus, G. Henschenius et al. (eds.), Acta sanctorum, vols. 1ff., 1643ff.; 6, 293-299; 7.3, 629-632  PG 60, 36ff. [German version] [2] P. Diaconus Poet A poet of unknown date who is …
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