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Aeglanor

(37 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] From Cyrene, συγγενής ( syngennḗs) and allegedly official of  Ptolemaeus Apion; his daughter Aretaphila murdered the Cyrenian tyrant Nicostratus ( c. 88-81 BC). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography A. Laronde, Cyrène et la Libye hellénistique, 1987, 421 f.; 455.

Bacchon

(46 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Βάκχων; Bákchōn). Son of Nicetas, from Boeotia, Ptolemaic nesiarch of the League of Islanders in 286 BC. He stayed in office until after 280 (PP 6, 15038). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 136ff.

Philoctas

(50 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλόκτας/ Philóktas or Φιλοκράτης/ Philokrátēs). As the leader of a sacred embassy ( archithéōros) from Ptolemy II. and the city of Alexandria he brought votive offerings to Delos between 274 BC and 257 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography E. Olshausen, Prosopographie der hellenistischen Königsgesandten, vol. 1, 1974, 316f. Nr. 209.

Harwennefer

(77 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (= Haronnophris, Greek Hourgonaphor). Leader of an indigenous uprising who was crowned as Pharaoh in Thebes in October/November 205 BC; his rulership also included Abydus and Pathyris; a Ptolemaic offensive displaced him from Abydus (and Ptolemais) only in 201-200. In the summer of 199,  Anchwennefer is recorded as his successor. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P. W. Pestman, Haronnophris and Chaonnophris, in: S. P. Vleeming (ed.), Hundred-Gated Thebes, 1995, 101-134 B. C. McGing, in: APF 43, 1997, 285ff.

Nomarches

(274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (νομάρχης/ nomárchēs). Office in the Egyptian administration. It already existed before the Ptolemies. Even if the word nomarches is derived from the Greek némein (‘administer’) rather than from nomos [2], his office was connected with a specific administrative district, in which he was responsible for the distribution and all other issues concerning the royal finance and tax administration. When Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. Anab. 3,5,2; 3,5,4), appointed two Persians (?, [1. 82]), Petiesis and Doloaspis, as nomárchai for all Egypt, and left the nomárchai of th…

Oenanthe

(82 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (ᾨνάνθη/ Ōinánthē). Of Samos, wife of Agathocles, hetaíra of Ptolemy III, mother of Agathocles [6] and of Agathoclea [2]. For a short time, she was the mentor of the young Ptolemy V. The Alexandrians murdered O. in Oct./Nov. 203 BC when her son was overthrown. She is said to have gained influence only through personal relationships, but the tradition may well be biased. PP VI 14731. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F.W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. 2, 437f.

Anchwennefer

(143 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Greek Chaonnophris, name with mythological reference. Successor of Harwennefer as anti-king in southern Egypt (201/0 - 27.8.186 BC). After the death of Harwennefer, Ptolemy V ruled again for a short while in the Thebais and in Elephantine, but was pushed back again by A.; from 190 battles with varying success, until A. was finally defeated by Komannos. Because of the conquest, the second Philae decree and the Philanthropa decree C. Ord. Ptol. 34 were passed. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Clarysse, Hurgonaphor et Chaonnophris, les derniers pharaons i…

Achillas

(75 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Ἀχιλλᾶς; Achillâs). Egyptian, praef. regius, but probably not Ptolemaeus XIII's guardian. He carried out the murder of Pompey and was made high commander of the army by Potheinus in the fight against Caesar (48/7 BC).  Arsinoe [II 6] IV retains him first in this office, but then has him killed at the order of  Ganymedes. PP 6, 14594. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The aulic titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 73 f. no. 029.

Cleaenete

(34 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κλεαινέτη; Kleinainétē). The daughter of  Numenius, sister of Agathoclea [3]. in 166/5 BC priestess of Arsinoë [II 4] Philopator. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Chr. Habicht, Athen in hell. Zeit, 1994, 109.

Sarapion

(118 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Σαραπίων/ Sarapíōn). [German version] [1] Priest of Horus, 2nd cent. BC Priest of Horus and in c. 160 BC the first Egyptian to hold the office of the eponymous priest of Alexander. Possibly identical with PP I/VIII 914. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Der makedonische König und die ägyptischen Priester, 1994, 45 f. [German version] [2] Dioiketes, 2nd cent. BC Dioikētḗs, in office after 145 and 142 BC, of the same rank as the 'friends of the first class' (PKöln V 223; PTebt III I732,1; Court titles B. 2.). Perhaps identical with a minor administrator documented 163-155 BC ( hypod…

Ophellas

(399 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Οφέλλας/ Ophéllas). [German version] [1] Official in the Hellenistic period O. of Olynthus, presumably a subordinate of Cleomenes [7] in the administration of Egypt ( epimelētḗs in Athribis; see epimelētaí ). He is said to have blackmailed the nomárchai subordinate to him ([Aristot.] 1353a 5ff.). Agathocles [2] Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 599. [German version] [2] Friend and official of Alexander [4] the Great Son of Silenus, Macedonian from Pella, phílos of Alexander [4] the Great and his (liturgical)…

Pamenches

(62 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Pachom; c. 50/30 B.C. syngenḗs and stratēgós (Court titles B. 2.) in various Egyptian nomes. Along with his government offices P. held a series of indigenous priestly offices, which already appear in the titles of his father. PP III 5688; VIII 292 b. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 121f. Nr. 0128.

Lycarion

(99 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Λυκαρίων; Lykaríōn). Son of Numenius, from an important family; in the middle of the 1st cent. BC known as syngenḗs ( Court titles B. 2.), honorary head of the gerousia of Alexandria [1], dioikētḗs , exēgētḗs ( exēgētaí ), epì tês póleōs of Alexandria, gymnasiarch ( Gymnasiarchy) of Alexandria. L. is an example of the accumulation of offices in the late Ptolemaic period as well as of the link between state and city duties. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography PP I 37; 156; III 5349a L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1974, 140 no. 0176.

Ptolemies

(408 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (οἱ Πτολεμαϊκοὶ δυναστεῖς/ hoi Ptolemaïkoì dynasteîs, Str. 2,5,12). Hellenistic dynasty which established itself in Egypt after the death of Alexander [4] the Great and ruled there until Egypt was instituted as a Roman province by Augustus; the dynasty is named after its founder, Ptolemaeus [1] I as 'Ptolemies' or after his father Lagus [1] as 'Lagidae' (Λαγίδαι/ Lagídai). The ambitions of the first P. were not limited to Egypt, but extended to the whole of Alexander's empire (cf. Ptolemaeus [6] III; Hellenistic states) and large parts…

Philadelphos

(369 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλάδελφος/ Philádelphos, literally 'One who loves his/her brother/sister'). (Cult-) epithet of Hellenistic kings. It was borne first of all by Arsinoe [II 3] II. (Philadelphos is only documented from 165/4 BC with referenceto her brother and husband Ptolemy II.). The name is very frequently used in the dynasty of the Ptolemies (Cleopatra [II 9] Berenice III, Ptolemy XII and Cleopatra [II 10] Tryphaina; Cleopatra [II 12] VII and her brothers became theoì néoi philádelphoi during the lifetime of Ptolemy XII; cf. also Ptolemaeus Philadelphos). Philad…

Simaristus

(44 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Σιμάριστος; Simáristos). Alexandrian from a respected family extending back to the 3rd century BC; in 58 BC he led an Alexandrian hetairía against Ptolemaeus [18] XII (Dion Chrys. Or. 32,70). Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography F. Zucker, Σιμαριστ<ει>οι, in: Philologus 101, 1957, 164-166.

Hor

(162 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] An Egyptian from the district of  Sebennytus, a village scribe and perhaps also scribe for the district, he began a five-year journey in 173 BC, which he had been instructed to make by an oracle.   Pastophóros of Isis and from 167/6 priest (κάτοχος/ kátochos?) at the ibis Sanctuary of Saqqara/Memphis, where he had an administrative position in the temple. His oracular prophesies delivered via dreams, were listened to even in the palace. Among other destinations he travelled from Alexandria to Sarapeum in 168, where he deli…

Psenamun

(90 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, 1st cent. BC Father of P. [2], c. 80-35 BC. Before 50/49 he was the High Priest of Ptah in Memphis, afterwards he held further priestly offices. PP III/IX 5375. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Last High Priest of Ptah in 28/7 BC Son of P. [1], born c. 42 BC, last High Priest of Ptah and other gods, received most of his titles in  28/7. P. died after 23 BC. PP III/IX 5375 a. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Komogrammateus

(452 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (κωμογραμματεύς; kōmogrammateús). Administrative official in Ptolemaic Egypt, although the position itself is doubtlessly older. Egypt was divided up into nomoí, tópoi and kômai, and corresponding to this sequence is, in order, basilikós grammateús, topogrammateús and komogrammateús (It is, however, not certain whether the topogrammateús was the superior of the komogrammateus; sometimes both posts were filled by the same person). The komogrammateus was responsible for an area, which usually encompassed one village, but sometimes also several villages ( kôm…

Bolis

(49 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Βῶλις; Bôlis). Senior officer of Ptolemy IV, from Crete. Tasked by Sosibius in 213 BC to free Achaeus from the beleaguered city of Sardes, he changed sides and ensured that Achaeus was handed over to Antiochus III (Pol. 8,15-20). PP 6, 14750. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Mardion

(34 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Μαρδίων; Mardíōn). Slave or statesman of Cleopatra VII. The propaganda of Octavian declared him, a eunuch, to be responsible for leading the Egyptian state (PP VI 14615). Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Agreophon

(30 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] From Caunus, father of Zeno, visits Egypt in 253 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography H. Hauben, Les vacances d'Agréophon (253 av. J. C.), in: CE 60, 1985, 102-108.

Alabarches

(73 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Dissimilated form of Arabarches in the Josephus-MSS AP 11, 383 and the texts cited below (different from [1]). The identification with an independent office of the Jewish community is impossible (see TAM 2,1, 256; Cod. lust. 4,61,9); BCH 16, 1892, 119 no. 44. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 Abd-El-Ghany, The Arabs in Ptolemaic and Roman Egypt through papyri and inscriptions, in: L. Criscuolo, G. Geraci (ed.), Egitto e storia antica, 1989, 233-242, 236 f.

Potheinus

(321 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Ποθεῖνος/ Potheînos). Eunuch, nutricius ('tutor') of Ptolemaeus [20] XIII (Caes. B Civ. 3,108), probably appointed guardian by the will of Ptolemy [18] XII. His precise position at the court of Alexandria is unclear. If P. is indeed an amicus regis (Caes. B Civ. 3,104,1), this was probably not the same as one of the court titles phílos; Cassius Dio (42,36,1) describes him as tḕn dioíkēsin tôn toû Ptolemaíou chrēmátōn prostetagménos ('administrator of the goods of Ptolemy') - this may refer to the office of dioikētḗs , which, however, P. can har…

Chelcias

(33 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Χελκίας; Chelkías). Son of Onias IV; brother of Ananias (died 103). From 105-103 BC commander of the army of  Cleopatra III. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography PP 2, 2183; 8, 342a.

Rufio

(76 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (or possibly Rufinus, cf. [1. 163 f.4]). Son of a freedman of Caesar (cf. [2. I 56]), whom the latter left behind in Alexandria [1] in 47 BC as the commander of three legions. R.'s characterization as Caesar's 'lover' ( exoletus: Suet. Iul. 76,3) is likely to be polemical. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 P. Graindor, La Guerre d'Alexandrie, 1931 2 H. Solin, Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen, 1996. G. Geraci, Genesi della provincia romana d'Egitto, 1983, 26 f.

Menches

(128 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Greek name: Asclepiades ( ho kaì Asklēpiádēs héllēn enchṓrios tôn katoíkōn), son of Petesouchus, Greek: Ammónios ( toû kaì Ammoníou), and grandson of Asclepiades (PTebtunis I 164). He is a typical example of how double Graeco-Egyptian names could be used in Ptolemaic Egypt, according to context. M. is mentioned again in August 119 BC as kōmogrammateús of Cerceosiris. He served until 111 BC. M.'s ‘archive’ (PTebt I; IV) is the most important source for the office of kōmogrammateús in the Ptolemaic period. The necessary payments for M.'s official appointment…

Callimedes

(25 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καλλιμήδης; Kallimḗdēs). Ptolemaic local commander, who surrendered  Aenus [1] in 200 BC to Philip V. PP 6, 15113. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Didyme

(41 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Διδύμη; Didýmē). Egyptian (Ethiopian) mistress of Ptolemy II; see in Anth. Pal. 5,210? Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography A. Cameron, Two Mistresses of Ptolemy Philadelphus, in: GRBS 31, 1990, 287 F. M. Snowden Jr., Asclepiades' D., in: GRBS 32, 1991, 239-259.

Meridarches

(236 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(μεριδάρχης, Meridárchēs). [German version] [1] Ptolemaic administrative official from at least 260 BC Ptolemaic administrative official. The Egyptian district ( nomós ) of Arsinoites was divided up into three merídes (‘parts’), which in turn consisted of tópoi. This subdivision is attested from 260/259 BC at the latest[1. 5]. A meridarches was in charge of a merís and hence of its toparchs; the title is attested from the end of the 2nd century BC (PTebtunis I 66), but the names of the merídes (Ἡρακλείδου, Θεμίστου, Πολέμωνος) may go back to the first meridarchai. The last meridarchai ar…

Callimander

(30 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Καλλίμανδρος; Kallímandros). Delegate of the Alexandrians who was to offer the Egyptian monarchy to a Seleucid prince in 56 BC. PP 6, 14768. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Sitometria

(114 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (σιτομετρία; sitometría). The 'allotment' of grain to the citizens of Greek states through a sitométrēs (e.g. Hyp. F 271a Blass; Aristot. Pol. 1299a 23; documented as late as the Roman Imperial Period) and from a special store (cf. rations for mercenaries). S. could also mean a daily or monthly payment, in money, from the state or from a private source. Such payments were not necessarily regular or tied to the status of the recipient. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography H. Dirscherl, Die Sitonia von Oxyrhynchos: Menge, Kosten, Finanzierung, ökonomische Bede…

Phommus

(83 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φομμοῦς; Phommoûs) was, as syngenḗs ('king's relative') and epistratēgós (Court titles B 2) of the Thebaid, a predecessor of Plato [3] from c. August/September 115 until at least February 110 BC. In OGIS 168,26f., the king calls him his adelphós ('brother'). P. was an Egyptian, probably from the Delta; his career can perhaps be used as proof that Cleopatra [II 6] III sought indigenous support. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography E. van't Dack et al., The Judaean-Syrian-Egyptian Conflict of 103-1 BC, 1989, 73; 108.

Semtheus

(51 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Egyptian village scribe ( Komogrammateus ) and owner of a dōreá, an estate awarded by the king (PPetrie II 38 a; III 31; PLille I 47,2 f.; 9 f.; 48,2 f.; 8 f.), of about 27.5 sq km (10,000 árourai; Aroura) in 251/0 BC. PP I 837 f.; 841; IV 8387. Ameling, Walter (Jena)

Paos

(145 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Πάως; Páōs). Egyptian who made a career in Ptolemy VIII's service. P.'s career epitomizes the attempt to mobilize the Egyptian people in the dispute with Cleopatra [II 5] II. In 137/6 BC P. was the tôn prṓtōn phílōn, in 133/2 the (civil) stratēgós of several administrative districts in the Thebais; presumably in 132/1, in the course of the wars, he became syngenḕs kaì stratēgòs tês Thēbaḯdos, and finally in the summer of 129, as the successor of Boethus [1], he was syngenḕs kaì epistratēgòs kaì stratēgòs tês Thebaḯdos but he was replaced by Lochus [2] in 127/6 at …

Psenptah

(280 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] See Nesysti [3] See Nesysti [3] Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] High priest of Ptah in Memphis, died in 103 BC Son of Petobastis [2], father of Petobastis [3], high priest of Ptah in Memphis. In c. 122 BC, P. married a Berenice, who was possibly related to the ruling dynasty of the Ptolemies. He died in 103. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Die Herkunft der Kleopatra Philopator, in: Aegyptus 70, 1990, 191-203, esp. 199 f.  E. A. E. Reymond, From the Records of a Priestly Family from Memphis, 1981, 116 f. No. 16  J. Quaegebeur, The Genealogy of the Me…

Heptanomia

(97 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Administrative unit set up by Augustus before AD 11/12 in Egypt, comprising the area between the Delta and Thebes. Its seven districts were Memphites, Heracleopolites, Aphroditopolites, Oxyrhynchites, Cynopolites, Hermopolites, and perhaps Letopolites. From the beginning the Arsinoites and often also the small Oasis were included. Its expansion to 11 districts under Marcus Aurelius and Commodus is attested, but its composition cannot currently be clearly determined. The Heptanomia was subordinate to an epistrategos with the rank of procurator Augusti. Ameli…

Theoxene

(101 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θεοξένη; Theoxénē) from the Ptolemaic royal house married c. 295 BC Agathocles [2], who sent her and her two sons ( parvuli, Just. Epit. 23,2,6-8) with her dowry back to Egypt shortly before his death in 289. The political purpose of the marriage is unclear. Because of her dowry ( regale instrumentum) T. is considered to be the daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4], but she may have been the daughter of Berenice [1] and the sister of Magas [2] and hence his step-daughter. PP VI 14511. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Ägypten in hellenistischer Zeit, 20…

Magas

(587 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μάγας; Mágas). [German version] [1] Father of Berenice Father of Berenice [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography Geyer, s.v. M., RE 14, 292f. [German version] [2] Administrator of Cyrenaea, 3rd cent. BC M. was born no later than 320 BC as the son of Philippus and Berenice [1], perhaps the brother of Theoxene (PP VI 14511), who married Agathocles [2] after 300 (there was no adoption by Ptolemy I: SEG 18, 743; on a house belonging to him in Alexandria cf. [1. 287]). M. reconquered the seceded Cyrene for Ptolemaeus I shortly …

Galestes

(100 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Γαλέστης; Galéstēs). Son of the Athamanian king  Amynander, fled to Pydna to Ptolemy VI, whose phílos (φίλος) he became. In 150 BC G. led an expeditionary corps against Demetrius [7] I, and in 145 against Alexander [13] Balas. In 144 Ptolemy VIII took his dōreaí (δωρεαί, ‘benefices’; i.a. in Herakleopolites) away from him; G. fled to Hellas and gathered exiles; he died in an attempt to return to Alexandria and enthrone an alleged son of Ptolemy VI. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Schäfer, PKöln V 223/4 L. Criscuolo, L'archivo di Philô (PKöln V 222-225), in…

Philopator

(139 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Φιλοπάτωρ/ Philopátōr, literally 'father lover'). Cultic epithet of Hellenistic rulers, first borne by Ptolemaeus IV, then by his wife Arsinoe [II 4] III  ( theoì philopátores). The epithet P. was also used outside the Ptolemaic dynasty (e.g. Mithridates [4] IV, Ariarathes V, Demetrius [9] III, Antiochus [13] XII). It describes somebody his father designated as his successor during his lifetime. Co-regency could, but did not have to, be connected with the title. The Egyptian background, which the title …

Moncores

(96 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Harpaesis, syngenḗs (court title). (District) strategos of Pathyritis, Ombitis etc. at least between 69/8-62 BC [3]. As such, subordinate to Callimachus [9]. Two of his sons and two of his grandsons were also strategoi. This Egyptian family was responsible for the office of strategos in Hermonthis for three generations. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography 1 H.J. Thissen, Zur Familie des Strategen Monkores, in: ZPE 27, 1977, 181-191 2 L.M. Ricketts, The Epistrategos Kallimachos and a Koptite Inscription: SB V 8036 Reconsidered, in: AncSoc 13…

Thraseas

(148 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Θρασέας/ Thraséas). Son of Aëtus [1], father of Ptolemaeus [29] and Apollonius (187-175 probably his brother's successor as Seleucidian governor, cf. 2 Macc 3:5), citizen of Aspendus, Alexandria [1] and Athens (after 224; T. is honoured for obtaining copious gifts [1. 46 f. no. 17 E]); like his father strategos of Cilicia under Ptolemaeus [6] III (after 238), strategos of Syria and Phoenicia under Ptolemaeus [7] IV (between 217 and 204). His homonymous son (PP VI 14977) worked as a high official from Cyprus and hosted Delphic theōroí (Theoria) in Tamassus [4. 12328]…

Tryphe

(133 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (τρυφή; tryph ). A specifically Ptolemaic ruler ideal (cf. the epithet Trýphōn, Trýphaina), arising out of the cult of the victorious Dionysus and his celebrations. Thryphe meant rule providing splendour and brilliance, wealth and fortune. Since it also included the fertility of the land, it could be linked to perceptions of the activities of the pharaoh. On the other hand, as a Greek term for luxus with negative connotations, thryphe was connected, e.g. under the influence of Stoicism, with (particularly 'oriental') softness and effeminacy (Latin luxuria, effemi…

Nesysti

(222 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] [1] N. I High priest of Ptah, at the turn of the 4th to the 3rd cent. BC Also called Anemher I. Father of N. [2] II, high priest of Ptah (Phthas) in Memphis at the turn of the 4th to the 3rd cent. BC. PP III/IX 5365. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] N. II High priest of Ptah, 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC Also called Petobastis I, high priest of Ptah in Memphis in the 1st half of the 3rd cent. BC, in addition prophet  of Arsinoë [II 3] II and prophet of Philotera; son of N. [1] I, father of Anemher [2] II, ancestor of Petobastis III. PP III/IX 5361; 5362; 5364 (cf. [1]). Ame…

Amenothes

(28 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Horus, c. 170-116 BC, παρασχίστης ( paraschístēs) and ‘capo ritualista’ in the necropolis of Djem. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P. W. Pestman, L'archivio di Amenothes, 1981.

Peteharsemtheus

(102 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Egyptian, born in c. 139 BC, owner of a family archive stretching back over five generations. The family is an example of the occasional integration of Greeks into Egyptian families. Several brothers of P. served in the army, as did members of earlier generations; P. himself appears to have managed the family's affairs; documents concerning him come from the years 114-88 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography P.W. Pestman, in: Papyrologica Lugduno-Batava 14, 1965, 47ff.  N. Lewis, Greeks in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1986, 139ff.  J. Bingen, Vente de terre par Pétéharsem…

Crocus, [1]

(42 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] (Κρόκος). Stratēgós ( autokrátōr;  Lochos) of Cyprus during the Egyptian civil war 131-124/3 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The Administration of the Ptolemaic Possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 259 L. Mooren, The Aulic Titulature in Ptolemaic Egypt, 1975, 191f. no. 0354.

Lochus

(181 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] Son of Callimedes; syngenḗs of Ptolemy VIII and Cleopatra [II 6] III. in 127 BC ( Court titles B. 2.). L. acted as a benefactor for Roman merchants in the conquest of Alexandria by Ptolemy (IDélos 1526; cf. IDélos 1536?) and was perhaps even the commanding general on this occasion (then in Diod. Sic. 34/5,20 L. should likewise be read instead of Hegelochus [2]). Between 128/7 and 118 L. was the stratēgòs autokrátōr (‘Commander in chief’) of the Thebaid, an office that cannot have differed very greatly from that of epistrátēgos (UPZ II 187; [1. 19]; [2. 51f.]); between …

Sibling Marriage

(189 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena)
[German version] There had been sibling marriage among the pharaohs in Egypt since ancient times, albeit not between full siblings; it was an imitation of marriage between gods. Outside the royal house marriage between half-siblings was unusual. Marriage between full siblings was later practiced by a number of Ptolemies (Ptolemaeus II, IV, VI, VIII, IX, XII, XIII?, XIV). Zeus and Hera, Isis and Osiris were invoked as parallels for their subjects, thus seeking sacred reinforcement so as to reduce f…
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