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Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Pyres

(114 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρης/ Pýrēs, Πύρρος/ Pýrros) from Miletus. According to Ath. 14,620e, he, Alexander [21] Aetolus and Alexas were precursors to Sotades and co-founders of ionicology or cinaedology ([1]; Suda Σ 871, s. v. Σωτάδης). In this type of solomimetic songs the performer recited what were known as  Ἰωνικὰ ποιήματα/ Iōnikà poiḗmata ('Ionic poems'), by which we have to imagine a connection between Ionic form and lascivious content. Of P.' works nothing survives, and we have no certainty on the dating (late 4th/early 3rd century BC). It ma…

Mythology

(11,788 words)

Author(s): Guthmüller, Bodo (Marburg/Lahn RWG) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
Guthmüller, Bodo (Marburg/Lahn RWG) I. Literature (CT) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In the Encyclopédie of the French Enlightenment (1751-1780) we read in the entry 'mythology' ( mythologie, fable): "The study of mythology is indispensable for painters, sculptors and particularly for poets. Mythology is the foundation of their works and from it they draw their principal ornaments (...). Our theatre plays and operas, all genres of literature constantly make allusions to mythology; the engravings, paintings and stat…

Zenodotus

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος/ Zēnódotos). [German version] [1] Of Ephesus, Alexandrian philologist Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus ( c. 325-260 BC; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] I. Life Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus Z. was employed as tutor to the royal princes at the Ptolemaic court before his appointment in 285/4 BC as the first director [1. 147-148] of the library (II B 2.a) in Alexandria [1]. In addition to a classification of Greek poetry (most notably epic and lyric works), Z. developed in …

Mnesimachus

(228 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Μνησίμαχος; Mnēsímachos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy A comic poet whom both Athenaeus and the Suda attribute to Middle Comedy [1. test. 1, 2]. His name is on the victors' list of the Lenaean festival, immediately after Antiphanes [1. test. 3], and his creative period extends from the 360's into the  340's BC [2]. We still have the titles of seven of his plays: Ἀλκμαίων (or -έων), Βούσιρις, Δύσκολος, Ἱπποτρόφος, Ἰσθμιονίκης, Φαρμακοπώλης, Φίλιππος ( Alkmaíōn/éōn, Boúsiris, Dýskolos, Hippótrophos, Isthmioníkēs, Pharmakopṓlēs, Phílippos). By far the longest fra…

Lucillus

(404 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] [2] Roman wall painter, late 4th cent. AD Roman wall painter of late antiquity from the end of the 4th cent. AD. He decorated the house of the aristocratic orator and philosopher Q. Aurelius Symmachus, which the latter mentioned with praise in various letters (Symmachus, Ep. 2,2; 8,21; 9,50b). The nature and appearance of this painting may have resembled that of contemporary catacombs or mosaics from late Imperial villas. Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) Bibliography L. Guerrini, s.v. L., EAA 4, 721 S. Roda, Commento Storico al Libro 9 dell'Epistolario di Q. Aurelio Si…

Pamphila

(309 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Παμφίλη; Pamphílē) of Epidaurus. Important female philologist and writer at the time of Emperor Nero (mid-1st cent. AD); presumably the daughter of the grammarian Soteridas [1. 58-61; 2. 310-312]. Of her writings, only 10 fragments are extant from the main work, the Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα ( Historikà hypomnḗmata, 'Historical Memoirs') that comprised 33 bks. (FHG 3, 520-522). Of the other works, among which there were several Epitomaí, Suda mentions Περὶ ἀμφισβητήσεων ('On Controversies'), Περὶ ἀφροδισίων ('On Sexual Pleasures') and an epitome …

Xenon

(849 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Et al.
(Ξένων/ Xénōn). [German version] [1] From Athens, banker mentioned in Demosthenes, 4th cent. BC Athenian banker of the 4th cent. BC, witness in a lawsuit for property damage ( blábēs díkē ) against Phormion [2] c. 350/49 (Dem. Or. 36,13 and 37). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 11322  Traill, PAA 734715  A. R. W. Harrison, The Law of Athens, vol. 2, 1971, 116 f. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Hermione, second half of the 3rd cent. BC Tyrant of Hermion(e), one of the tyrants in the Peloponnese who under pressure from Aratus [2] after the death of the Macedon…

Telephus

(789 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τήλεφος /Tḗlephos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Auge Son of Heracles [1] and Auge [2] (Hes. fr. 165,8-10 M./W.). There are two legendary versions of his youth. According to one version (probably in essence epic, but also assumed by Euripides [1] in his T.), Auge of Tegea, a priestess of Athena, was made pregnant by Heracles [1], gave birth to T. and hid him in the sanctuary. When, as a consequence of this, the goddess imposed a famine and the child was discovered, Auge's father Aleus [1] had the child exposed (Exposure, myths…

Lysimachides

(70 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Λυσιμαχίδης; Lysimachídēs). Greek grammarian of the Augustan period (born in c. 50 BC). L. is considered to be the critic of his contemporary Caecilius [III 5] of Cale Acte [1. 168]. Of his work ‘On the Athenian Months’ (Περὶ τῶν Ἀθήνησι μηνῶν), three records are extant in Harpocration's [2] ‘Lexicon on the Ten Orators’ (FGrH 366). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography 1 E. Ofenloch, Caecilii Calactini fragmenta, 1907.

Zopyrion

(198 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Ζωπυρίων; Zōpyríōn). [German version] [1] From Macedonia, governor of Thrace, second half of the 4th cent. BC Macedonian of unknown origin, who as governor of Thrace allegedly undertook a campaign with 30,000 men across the Danube c. 325 BC, advanced as far as the Borysthenes (modern Dnieper), besieged Olbia [1], but as his army was severely worn down by bad weather, was defeated by the Scythae and killed (Curt. 10,1,43-45; Iust. Epit. 2,3,4; 12,1,4; 12,2,16f. with incorrect dating; 37,3,2; Macr. Sat. 1,11,33). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) Bibliography Berve, vol. 2, Nr. 340  A. B. Boswort…

Peplos

(543 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(πέπλος; péplos). [German version] [1] Blanket, cloth, or shroud Blanket, cloth, or shroud (Hom. Il. 24,796; Eur. Tro. 627, cf. Eur. Hec. 432); later, women's outer garment or coat (Hom. Il. 5,734; Hom. Od. 18,292, cf. Xen. Cyr. 5,1,6). In the myth, the Trojan women place a peplos on the knees of the cult image of seated Athena (Hom. Il. 6,303). Peplos is also the term used for esp. magnificent robes, above all for the dress of Hera of Olympia which was newly woven every four years by 16 women (Paus. 5,16) and for that of Athena Polias in Athens, which wa…

Zosimus

(1,744 words)

Author(s): Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ζώσιμος; Zṓsimos). [German version] [1] Of Thasos, epigrammatist, probably between 150 BC and AD 50 Z. of Thasos. Greek epigrammatist, whose works are probably to be dated between 150 BC and AD 50: three (Anth. Pal 6,183-185; 6,15 is also ascribed to him, alternatively to Antipater [8] of Sidon) are variations on the theme of 'dedication to Pan' from the view of a hunter, a bird catcher and a fisherman (cf. Satyrius). Another deals with the unusual theme of a shield saving its owner who uses it as a raft (Anth. Pal. 9,40, cf. Diocles [10]). Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 104-…

Neoteles

(130 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
[German version] (Νεοτέλης; Neotélēs). Greek grammarian, probably a pupil of Aristarchus [4] [1. 78]. The author of a commentary on the Iliad (fragments in the Homeric scholia): Didymus [1] mentions him in connection with Hom. Il. 24,110, and Nicanor [10] of Cyrene tells us of N.'s comment on the Teucer scene (Hom. Il. 8,325) in which he observes that Teucer strung his bow in the manner of the Scythians [2. 31f.]. Based on this passage, Porphyrius (1,123,11ff. Sch.) attributed to N. an entire work (ὅλην βίβλον/ hólēn bíblon) on archery (Περὶ τῆς κατὰ τοὺς ἥρωας τοξείας/ Perì tês katà toù…
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