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Heraclidae

(658 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἡρακλεῖδαι; Hērakleîdai). Every descendant of  Hercules may be called Herakleídēs (see below). The narrower sense of the myth, which appears to have originated in the 7th cent. (Tyrteus fr. 2 West) and was developed by the 5th cent. at the latest, of the ‘return of the H. to the Peloponnese’ refers to Hercules' son  Hyllus and his descendants until the fourth generation (main sources: (Ps.-) Apollod. 2,167-180, Diod. Sic. 4, 57-58; as well as papyrus finds of  Euripides Temenos, Temenidai, Kresphontes, Archelaos). While fleeing from Eurystheus after Hercules…

Cadmus

(1,073 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Drew-Bear, Thomas (Lyon)
(Κάδμος; Kádmos, Lat. Cadmus). [German version] [1] Son of Agenor and Telephassa Son of  Agenor [1] (or Phoenix) and  Telephassa (or Argiope or Tyro), brother (or half-brother) of  Phoenix,  Cilix and others, uncle (or brother) of  Europa [2], husband of  Harmonia, father of  Agave,  Autonoe, Ino,  Semele and of  Polydorus (first mentioned in Hom. Od. 5.333; Kadmeíoi Kadmeíōnes already mentioned in Hom. Il. 4.385 and passim; Hes. Theog. 937; 975-978; at least since Bacchyl. 19.46-51 descendant of Io). In his search for Europa, C. leaves Tyre (Hdt. 2.49.3; Eur. Phoen. 639)…

Megara

(2,675 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Ziegler, Konrat (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Daughter of Creon (Μεγάρα/ Megára, Μεγάρη/ Megárē). Daughter of Creon [1] of Thebes, wife of Heracles [1] (Hom. Od. 11,269-270), who had received her hand in thanks for the liberation of Thebes from tribute to Erginus, and mother of some of the Heraclidae. Whereas the Thebans according to Paus. 9,11,2 tell of the insane Heracles' infanticide (on his insanity Cypria p. 40,28f. PEG) as nothing other than what Stesichorus (= 230 PMGF) and Panyassis (= fr. 1 PEG) relate, the version of P…

Hermaphroditus

(475 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἑρμαφρόδιτος; Hermaphróditos). Androgynous figure which, like that of Priapus (cf. Diod. Sic. 4,6; [6. 76-79]), did not appear before the 4th cent. BC. Though androgynous gods of the Orient like  Astarte, ‘dual-sexuality’ gods like Aphrodite-Aphroditus on Cyprus, joint cults of Hermes and Aphrodite (see below) have rites involving changing gender roles and the exchange of clothing, as well as a background of myths of successive ( Caeneus,  Teiresias) and simultaneous (e.g. Pl. Symp. 189d-192d) bisexuality, its origin remain somewhat unclear [6. 69]. The na…

Harpalycus

(98 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἁρπάλυκος; Harpálykos). [German version] [1] Trac. king Thracian king, father of  Harpalyce. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Teacher of Heracles in wrestling From Panopeus. Son of  Hermes, teacher of  Hercules in wrestling, boxing and pancratium (Theoc. 24,111-118). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, killed by  Camilla with a lance (Verg. Aen. 11,675). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [4] Son of Lycaon Son of  Lycaon (Apollod. 3,97). According to [1] to be compared with the giant Harpolycus. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliograp…

Orgeones

(222 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὀργεῶνες/ orgeônes, also ὀργειῶνες/ orgeiônes, masc. sg. ὀργεών/ orgeṓn). Orgeônes in general were 'those in charge of orgia' (Aesch. fr. 144 Radt; Hom. Hymnus ad Apollinem 389: ὀργίονες/ orgíones). In the narrower sense, orgeônes (possibly even from as early as the Archaic period: Gai. apud Dig. 47,22,4 ex lege Solonis; not documented in inscriptions before the 4th cent. BC) were members of Attic societies who celebrated (usually annually) sacrificial rites in honour of a hero (hero cult) or a god. They [2] can be split into …

Myesis

(354 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (μύησις/ mýēsis, Lat. initiatio). Myesis is the initiation into a mystery (μυστήρια/ mystḗria, Lat. initia) whereby the candidate for initiation became a μύστης ( mýstēs, Lat. initiatus, initiated). As an additional rank the initiated could later attain the epopteía . As nomen actionis for the verb μυέω/ myéō (‘I initiate’; lat. initiare), which is considered a causativum to μύω/ mýō (‘I close [lips/eyes]’), myesis semantically presupposes the term mýstēs, which, like mystḗria, is not derived from myéō but rather from mýō [1; 7. 414f.]. This derivation, which…

Satyr

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros, pl. Σάτυροι/ Sátyroi, Latin Satur, Satyrus), also Silenus (Σι-, Σειληνός/ Si-, Seilēnós, pl. Σι-, Σειληνοί/ Si-, Seilēnoí, Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós, Latin Silenus, Silanus). [German version] I. Mythology, art and cult A satyr/Silenus was a member of a group of demons who, since their relatively late emergence at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC, have formed part of the mythical entourage of the god Dionysus; Silens, as a more or less distinctive and independent figure, emerged from that retinue…

Hermochares

(144 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἑρμοχάρης; Hermochárēs). Nicander (Heteroieumena 3 = Antoninus Liberalis 1) applies - in a parallel to, or an adaptation (1, 2 with [1. 71 A11]) of the tale of Acontius and  Cydippe (Call. Aitia fr. 65-75) - the motif of throwing an apple to H. of Athens and Ctesylla, the daughter of Alcidamas of Iulis on Ceos; finally the two flee together to Athens. After the death and disappearance ( aphanismós) of Ktesylla in the form of a dove (in Carthaea: Ov. Met. 7,368-370, cf. [1. 72 A20; 2]), an oracle instructs H. to establish a sanctuary in Iulis (aet…

Priapus

(813 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Πρίαπος/ Príapos, Ionian Πρίηπος/ Príēpos, Lat. Priapus). Ithyphallic god of fertility and sexuality and, more generally, of affluence and protection from harm. P. originally comes from the region in northwestern Asia Minor situated on the Hellespont  (Lampsacus most frequently cited as the place). In the Greek heartland where he was "still unknown to Hesiod" (Str. 13,1,12), like Hermaphroditus (Diod. Sic. 4,6), he generally did not appear until the 4th cent. BC and afterwards (cf. Xen…

Cercaphus

(43 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Κέρκαφος; Kérkaphos). One of the seven  Heliadae, of  Cydippe [3] father of the eponyms of the Rhodian towns of Lindus, Ialysus and Cameirus (Pind. Ol. 7,73 with schol. 7,131c-d; 132c; 135; Diod. Sic. 5,57,8; Str. 14,2,8). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)

Metragyrtai

(239 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μητραγύρται; Mētragýrtai).Wandering ‘beggars of the Mḗtēr’ (according to Aristot. rhet. 1405a 20f. and later sources; older terms are kýbēbos: Semonides frag. 36 West; agersikýbēlis: Kratinos frag. 66 PCG); they spread and and carried out the rituals of the Mḗtēr/ Kybele by dancing ecstatically to the sound of the týmpana and kýmbala followed by begging, apparently as early as the 7th century BC in Greece, later also in Rome ( Mater magna, compare. e. g.Cic. leg. 2,40). Castration probably only took place occasionally (e.g.. Ant…

Mythographus Homericus

(325 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] Since [7], Mythographus Homericus has been the name given to the unknown author of a Greek mythological commentary on Homer from the early Imperial period. It has been possible to deduce its existence from the mythological tales ( historíai) of the Byzantine scholia and it has now been attested by finds of papyri and an ostrakon from the period of the 1st/2nd to the 5th cent. AD ( historíai not appearing in the scholia are in POxy. 61,4096 = [1. No. 53]). The enarratio historiarum on mythical figures (genealogies, deeds), the founding of localities ( ktíseis) and the origin…

Hybris

(516 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Thür, Gerhard (Graz)
(ὕβρις; hýbris). Ethical term for a behaviour that is deliberately dishonouring, including humiliating bodily infringements such as rape (authoritative definition: Aristotle Rh. 1378 b; Latin superbia). Etymologically, hybris is probably derived from Hittite huwap-: ‘to abuse’, the noun being * huwappar > * huppar [1]. Positive opposites:   aidṓs ,   díkē ,   eunomía ,   sōphrosýnē . [German version] I. General In early Greek literature, hybris appears within the much varied terminological chain of ólbos - kóros - hýbris - átē (‘wealth’ - ‘fullness’ - ‘arrogance’ - ‘ruin’; e.…

Melanthius

(610 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Μελάνθιος/ Melánthios). [German version] [1] Treacherous goatherd of Odysseus (also Μελανθεύς/ Melantheús). Son of Dolius [2], brother of Melantho [2], treacherous goatherd of Odysseus, negative counterpart to the swineherd Eumaeus and the cowherd Philoetius (Hom. Od. 17,212-22,479). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliography G. Ramming, Die Dienerschaft in der Odyssee, 1973, 15-17; 74-77; 142-145. [German version] [2] Athenian strategos, 499/8 BC Athenian strategos who led the troops sent in support of the Ionians when they revolted in 499/8 (Hdt. 5,97). Ionian Revolt Stein-Hö…

Orphics

(368 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὀρφικοί/ Orphikoí). In our sources, Orphikoi are exclusively 'authors of Orphic writings' (schol. Eur. Alc. 1 = OF 40; cf. Plat. Crat. 400c = OF 8: οἱ ἀμφὶ Ὀρφέα/ hoi amphì Orphéa) or 'priests who perform Orphic initations' (Ach. Tat. Isagoge in Arati phaenomena 4, p. 33,17; 6, p. 37,8 Maass = OF 70) and are also called Orpheotelestaí (Theophr. Char. 16,11 = OF T 207; Philod. Perí poiēmátōn II fr. 41 Hausrath = OF T 208; Plut. Mor. 224e). Only a bone tablet from  Olbia [1] (from the 5th cent. BC), published in 1978, appears to document the genera…

Licymnius

(291 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto)
(Λικύμνιος; Likýmnios). [German version] [1] Son of Electryon Son of Electryon, half-brother of Alcmene, husband of Perimede, father of Argeius [1], Melas and Oeonus or, according to a new source [2], of Perimedes, Oeonus and Pero. After first seeking refuge together with the Heraclidae, with Ceyx in Trachis, he is killed by Tlepolemus in Argus (Hom. Il. 2,661-663; Pind. Ol. 7,27-31). As eponym of Licymna, the acropolis of Tiryns (Str. 8,6,11) - his name, like that of his mother Midea, indicates tha…

Myrtilus

(452 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μυρτίλος; Myrtílos). [German version] [1] Son of Hermes and Phaethusa Son of Hermes and Phaethusa, Clymene, Myrto (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,752) or Theobule (Hyg. Fab. 224,5) or of Zeus and Clymene (schol. Eur. Or. 998); charioteer to Oenomaus [1] (possibly already mentioned in the Alkmaiōnís , cf. fr. 6 PEG I, and depicted as a figure on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia). Before the chariot race to win the hand of Hippodameia [1] M. removes a lynch pin from  Oenomaus' chariot (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 37; Ps.-Apollod. Epit. 2,4…

Perimedes

(147 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Περιμήδης/ Perimḗdēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Odysseus Companion of Odysseus who, sometimes with Eurylochus [1], helped him in the sacrifice to the dead (Hom. Od. 11,23-24; visual representation i.a. on the Nékyia by Polygnotus, cf. [1]) and strengthened his chains as they travelled past the Sirens ( ibid. 12,195-196). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Son of Eurystheus Son of Eurystheus, killed by the Athenians in the defence of the Heraclidae (Ps.-Apollod. 2,168) or by Heracles [1] after his final travail because the latter fel…

Teiresias

(327 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Τειρεσίας/ Teiresías, Lat. Teresias/ Tiresias, Etruscan Teriasals, Terasias). Blind seer from Thebes, son of Eueres and the nymph Chariclo, father of Manto and Historis. At the time when T. was connected to the myth of Odysseus in the Nekyia (Hom. Od. 10,490-495; 11,90-151), an established seer figure had already been part of the tradition, as in the Melampodia, where it is told that T. explains —after two sex changes— that women experience greater pleasure during the act of love. For this, Hera blinds him but Zeus c…

Melanion

(274 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μελανίων/ Melaníōn, Μειλανίων/ Meilaníōn; Latin *Milanion; personal name from μέλας/ mélas, ‘black’). An Arcadian, son of Amphidamas. In the ‘Arcadian’ version of the myth, he is the suitor of Atalante (according to Ps.-Apollod. 3,105 her cousin), with whom he has a son Parthenopaeus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 99; Ps.-Apollod. 3,109; Paus. 3,12,9; among the latter's alternative fathers none is the Hippomenes [1] of the ‘Boeotian’ version). As a participant in the games in honour of Pelias, M. was to be seen on the Cypselus Chest ( c. 600 BC, according to Paus. 5,17,10; …

Homonoia

(281 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὁμόνοια; homónoia). The word homonoia (‘unity’) was evidently reshaped in Athens's crisis of 411 BC (referred to in Thuc. 8,75,2; 93,3) as an exhortation of the democrats to internal cohesion (cf. Antiphon 87 B 44-71; Thrasymachus 85 B 1; Gorgias 82 B 8a DK). Homonoia within the polis is from then on mostly based on socio-economic conflicts (antonym   stásis : Lys. 18,17-18), bilateral and trilateral homonoia (from the Hellenistic period) as well as border conflicts primarily in the rank disputes of Asia Minor in the Imperial period but also in…

Semele

(454 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Σεμέλη/ Semélē, Etruscan Semla; also Θυώνη/ Thyṓnē). Daughter of Cadmus [1] and Harmonia, sister of Agave, Autonoe, Ino and Polydorus (Hes. Theog. 975-978). S. is of significance due to the Theban myth of the birth of Dionysus: when she was pregnant by Zeus (Actaeon is said to have been her first suitor: Hes. fr. 217A M.-W.), she was persuaded by Hera to ask him to show himself in his true form. The weather god appeared as a thunderbolt, with which he killed her. He removed the unborn …

Hippocoon

(281 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἱπποκόων; Hippokóōn). Son of  Oebalus and Bateia (Nicostrate: Schol. Eur. Or. 457), halfbrother or brother of  Tyndareus, whom he drove out of Sparta. As a consequence of H.'s refusal along with the Hippocoontides to purify Heracles, or because they are allied with  Neleus, but above all, because they had struck Oeonus dead,  Heracles takes revenge on them (aition of Athena Axiopoinos) and reinstalls Tyndareos (Diod. Sic. 4,33,5f.; Paus. 3,1,4; 15,3-6; 19,7; Ps.-Apollod. 2,143; 3,123-125; as ear…

Tlepolemus

(811 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Τληπόλεμος/ Tlēpólemos, Doric Τλαπόλεμος/ Tlāpólemos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Astyochia Son of Heracles [1] and Astyochia. After the Heraclidae retreated from the Peloponnese, T. settled in Argos along with Licymnius [1] and killed him there in the midst of an argument (Diod. 4,58,5-8; in Tiryns: Pind. Ol. 7,20-38; unintentionally: Zenon of Rhodos FGrH 523 F 1). As a result, T. fled to Rhodos, where he followed the Doric tradition and "settled three times according to phyle " (Hom. Il. 2,668), that is, he created a new political fo…

Onomacritus

(377 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ὀνομάκριτος/ Onomákritos) from Athens, second half of the 6th/beginning of the 5th cent. BC, oracle interpreter and supervisor of the oracle of Musaeus [1] ( chrēsmológos te kai diathétēs chrēsmṓn) closely connected with the Peisistratids, whose interests he did not always serve. When Lasus [1] of Hermione convicted him for adding an oracle to those of Musaeus, he was banished by Hipparchus [1]. Yet he accompanied the Peisistratids after their downfall to Xerxes in order to induce him, by means of a deliberate choice of oracles, to march against Greece (Hdt. 7,6). Sour…

Maenads

(945 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μαινάς/ Mainás, pl. Μαινάδες/ Mainádes; Lat. Maenas, pl. Maenades). In modern research both the mythical companions (and antagonists) of Dionysus and their historical admirers are mostly called Maenads. But in Greek cult terminology the women who honour the god with a dance ritual every three years are especially called Bákchai (singular Bákchē, Lat. Bacchae), while the substantivized adjective Mainás (‘the mad one’, from maínesthai: ‘to be mad’), apart from four Hellenistic inscriptions with poetic tendencies [7. 52 with note 83], appears t…

Purification

(1,558 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig)
[German version] A. Introduction The cleansing of defilement or impurity (Greek kátharsis, katharmós) can be understood as a strategy for overcoming calamity [5. 149-155]. Purification in this sense was introduced to Greek civilization through contact with the Ancient Orient [6. 55-64]. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) B. Religious [German version] 1. Ancient Orient and Egypt Although the ancient oriental civilizations had certain widespread features in common, there were differences in which forms of impurity were regarded as particularly significant and how they were removed. In …

Heliadae

(156 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἡλιάδαι; Hēliádai). The sons of  Helios and Rhodos (Rhode: Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 137; schol. Hom. Od. 17,208 confused with Clymene, mother of Heliades [1]): Ochimus, Cercaphus, Actis, Macar(us) (Macareus), Candalus, Triopas and Phaethon (= Tenages: Pind. Ol. 7,71-73; cf. schol. 131a-c, 132a). According to a Rhodian local myth in Pind. Ol. 7,34-55 [2. 2849] Helios advised the H. to be the first to sacrifice to Athena after her birth. In their haste, however, they forgot the fire for …
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