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Punctuation

(2,578 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
I. Greek [German version] A. General The common practice of ancient Greek copyists to write prose as well as poetry in scriptio continua, that is without grouping individual letters into words to delineate units of meaning, must have given rise to serious reading and comprehension difficulties. Punctuation was introduced as a remedy but only sporadically and without fixed rules. On some Greek inscriptions from the 5th/4th cent. BC, words are separated by a horizontal row of dots [4]. Dots are also frequently document…

Pugillares

(227 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (or pugillaria, mostly: 'notebook'). Latin substantive, derived from pugillus, a diminutive of pugnus ('fist', 'closed hand'); the etymology emphasises that it is an object of such restricted size that it can be held there. In Latin texts pugillares. is a term for a small writing surface; sometimes it occurs as a synonym for libellus or codicillus ('small manuscript'). What is meant are mostly wax or wood tablets (such as those from Vindolanda in Britain, cf. [3]) or sheets of parchment ( pugillares membranei, Mart. 14,7) fastened together. Ancient authors wro…

Opisthographos

(199 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (ὀπισθογράφος, -ον/ opisthográphos, -on; Latin opisthographus, -a, -um), lit. 'written on the reverse', adj., sometimes also used as a noun; a technical term rarely attested in antiquity. Ancient authors paraphrased or used synonyms instead (ὄπισθεν/ ópisthen or κατόπισθεν/ katópisthen, ὀπίσω/ opísō, κατόπιν/ katópin). In antiquity, opisthographos denoted either a roll with a text which continued from the recto to the verso (Plin. Ep. 3,5,17; opisthographum Ulp. Dig. 37,11,4) or a roll with a text on the back of the papyrus (Lucian. Vitarum au…

Siron

(89 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Σίρων; Sírōn). Epicurean philosopher, 1st cent. BC, who lived and worked in Neapolis. Known only from sparse testimonies [1]. It is uncertain whether he wrote at all. S. was an acquaintance of Philodemus (fr. 1) and a friend of Cicero (fr. 2-5). His most famous student was doubtlessly the Roman poet Vergilius who in his youth had studied Epicurean philosophy with him and remained close to him throughout his life (fr. 6-13). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 M. Gigante, I frammenti di Sirone, in: Paideia 45, 1990, 175-198.

Hermarchus

(496 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] (Ἕρμαρχος; Hérmarchos). Born in Mytilene on Lesbos, a contemporary of  Epicurus. In his youth he was trained in rhetoric and encountered Epicurus in Mytilene in about 310 BC. H. did not immediately turn to philosophy, but only followed his teacher Epicurus to Athens after he had founded a school (306 BC). From 290 to 270 BC he went to Lampsacus to visit the Epicurean school there. Before his death in 270 BC, Epicurus transferred the leadership of the Athenian school to H. despite h…

Kepos

(120 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The philosopher Epicurus owned a house in the Attic deme of Melite (Diog. Laert. 10,17) and a garden (κῆπος; kêpos), the seat of his school (Cic. Fin. 5,1,3; Sen. Ep. 21,10; Plin. HN 19,50; Diog. Laert. 10,11). The localization of this garden is disputed. It was either outside the city between the Dipylon Gate and the Academy (Heliodorus, Aethiopica 1,16,5) [2], or in the city itself ( in ipsa urbe, Plin. HN 19,50), adjoining the house in the deme of Melite or very close by [1]. Epicurus; Epicurean School Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bibliography 1 E. Wycherley, The Garden of E…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Herculanean papyri

(884 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] A. Definition Papyri with Latin and Greek texts found during the Bourbon excavations in the middle of the 18th cent. in a villa near  Herculaneum (with site map). These were part of the library of the poet and philosopher  Philodemus of Gadara, who had gone from Athens to Italia during the period 80-70 BC and maintained a friendly relationship there with L.  Calpurnius [I 19] Piso Caesoninus, the owner of the villa in Herculaneum. In this luxurious villa, Philodemus collected an ext…

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Scheda

(204 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] ( schida, scida) has various meanings in Latin authors: (1) a sheet or piece of papyrus or parchment (Pugillares) for notes or short messages (Cic. Att. 1,20,7; Quint. Inst. 1,8,19; Mart. 4,89,4; CGL IV 422,52; V 243,10 and 482,57;  cf. [1. 4920]). (2) In Late Antiquity s./ schedula is the term for a 'rough draft' of a literary work; cf. Isid. Etym. 6,14,8 “scheda est quod adhuc emendatur, et necdum in libris redactum est” ("scheda describes a text which still has to be corrected and is not yet finished"; the interpretation i…

Herodotus

(3,277 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἡρόδοτος; Heródotos). [German version] [1] The historian Herodotus, approx. 485-424 BC The historian Herodotus. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] A. Life Sources on the life of H., the ‘father of history’ (Cic. Leg. 1,1,5), c. 485-424 BC (fundamental for all of the following: [1]) are, apart from the information he provided himself in particular, the Suda s.v. H. or s.v. Panyassis. H. came from Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum) in the south-west of Asia Minor. The names of his father, Lyxes, and his uncle, Panyassis, a famou…

Phaedrus

(2,008 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] I. Greek (Φαῖδρος; Phaîdros). [German version] [I 1] 5th cent. BC Son of Pythocles, from the Attic deme of Myrrhinus, born probably c. 450 BC. Accused of participation in the profanation of the Eleusinian Mysteria and the mutilatation of the herms, P. went into exile in 415 BC. His property was confiscated (And. 1,15; ML 79,112-115). By 404 BC at the latest, he had returned to Athens; he subsequently married a cousin (Lys. 19,15). Died before 393. Participant in the meeting in Plato's Protagoras (315c), interlocutor of Socrates in Plato's Phaedrus and first speaker in his Sy…

Polystratus

(387 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πολύστρατος/ Polýstratos). [German version] [1] Wealthy Athenian, councillor 411 BC Wealthy Athenian, frequent office-holder, member of the boulḗ in 411 BC. After the oligarchic coup, he took part in the selection of the 5,000 citizens to whom political rights would in future be restricted. He was wounded in the naval battles against the Spartans off Eretria. After the fall of the Four Hundred (Tetrakosioi), P. was fined heavily; he was prosecuted again c. 410/409 at age 70, probably for his political activities. Parts of his defence survive in the 20th speech of t…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] D. I. Notorious tyrant in Syracuse c. 400 BC of Syracuse, son of Hermocritus, born in c. 430 BC, died in 367 BC. Founder of the ‘greatest and longest tyrannical rule in history’ (Diod. Sic. 13,96,4; appearance: Timaeus FGrH 566 F 29). Possessing a sophist education (Cic. Tusc. 5,63), D. had enormous ambitions a…

Metrodorus

(1,340 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Et al.
(Μητρόδωρος/ Metródōros). [German version] [1] M. of Chios Democritan philosopher, 5th/4th cent. BC Democritan philosopher ( Democritus [1]) of the 5th-4th cent. BC who recognised Fullness and Emptiness, Being and Non-Being as the first principles. This orthodoxy, however, does not go beyond the fundamental theoretical views of Atomism: M. is said to have had his own views in other matters (70 A 3 DK). M. propounds the uncreatedness of the universe (τὸ πᾶν) in the Eleatic manner ( Eleatic School) because a c…

Autograph

(557 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] The existence in antiquity of MSS of literary texts written ‘in the author's own handwriting’ is still a controversial subject in current times and is closely connected with the individual authors' ways of working ( Copy). The MSS under consideration are those which were claimed to be a copy in the author's own hand, as well as the evidence of indirect tradition which lead to the conclusion that a literary work was written in the author's own hand. The only texts which can be said with absolute certainty to have been written in the author's own hand are th…

Correction marks

(412 words)

Author(s): Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
[German version] An ancient text could be corrected in at least two ways: a) a διορθωτής ( diorthōtḗs), a professional c orrector, collated the copy with the original. This intervention was sometimes indicated by the monogram δι = δι(ώρθωται), ‘corrected’ [1. 15. n. 85,13] ( Publication). b) A reader (not necessarily a professional corrector, but often a lay man) collated the copy with another sample. Two or more correctors could work on the same copy [3]. A wrong correction was indicated as ἀποδιόρθωμα ( apodiórthōma) (PSI 12, 1287,11-14). The intervention of an ancient correcto…

Charmides

(165 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris)
(Χαρμίδης; Charmídēs). [German version] [1] Son of Glaucon, 5th cent. BC Son of Glaucon, from an old Athenian noble family; brother of  Perictione the mother of Plato, and cousin of  Critias. C. was one of the committee of the ‘Ten’ appointed by the ‘Thirty’ and officiating in Piraeus during the despotic rule of the ‘Thirty’ ( Triakonta; 404-403 BC); its powers are not precisely known (Plat. Ep. 7,324c5. Aristot. Ath. Pol. 35,1). He was killed in 403 during the fighting that accompanied the fall of the ‘Th…

Fabius

(6,346 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Scholz, Udo W. (Würzburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman patrician family name, probably derived from Etruscan fapi [1. 162]. According to ancient etymology, however, either from faba ‘(broad)bean’ (‘legume grower’: Plin. HN 18,10; [2]) or from the original ‘Fodius’, ‘Fovius’ (‘wolf pit hunter’: Plut. Fabius 1,2; Fest. 77 L.) because the Fabii with the Quinctii originally appointed the priesthood of the Luperci; the  Lupercalia were also the family celebration of the Fabii (Ov. Fast. 193ff.). Early Imperial pseudogenealogy, which perhaps arose in the literary ci…

Zenodotus

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Ζηνόδοτος/ Zēnódotos). [German version] [1] Of Ephesus, Alexandrian philologist Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus ( c. 325-260 BC; Suda s. v. Ζ. Ἐφέσιος). Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) [German version] I. Life Alexandrian philologist from Ephesus Z. was employed as tutor to the royal princes at the Ptolemaic court before his appointment in 285/4 BC as the first director [1. 147-148] of the library (II B 2.a) in Alexandria [1]. In addition to a classification of Greek poetry (most notably epic and lyric works), Z. developed in …
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