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Staius

(235 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan nomen gentile, documented on Delos since the late 3rd cent. BC [1. 186 f.]. [German version] [1] S. Murcus, L. Possibly a Marsus (but not the S. mentioned in ILS 885), legate of Caesar in the Civil War in Oricum in 48 BC (Caes. B Civ. 3,15,6; 3,16,2), in Africa in 46 (Cic. Att. 12,2,1). A praetorship in 45 is speculation (MRR 2,307). In 44 S. took the side of  Caesar's assassins, became pro-consul of Syria (MRR 2,330) and thanks to Q. Marcius [I 10] Crispus surrounded his opponent Q. Caecilius [I 5] Bassus i…

Petreius

(260 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Rare Italian nomen gentile [1. 306]. [German version] [1] P., M. Roman general, then Praetor in around 64 BC In c. 110-46 BC a Roman general with many decades of experience, perhaps the son of a primipilus (cf. Plin. HN 22,11) from the Volscan area [2. 316]. From c. 93 onwards, P. was tr. mil. or praef. legionis (Sall. Catil. 59,6) for 30 years; in about 64 he became praetor (MRR 2, 161) and at the end of 63 he went as legate to the consul C. Antonius [I 2] for whom he destroyed Catilina's army at Pistoria in January 62 (Sall. Catil. 59,4-60,5). In …

Menodorus

(302 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μηνόδωρος; Mēnódōros). [German version] [1] Legate of C. Calvisius Sabinus, died 35 BC M. (according to Appian, elsewhere Mena(s), Μηνᾶς; Mēnâs), a freedman, previously perhaps a Cilician pirate, in about 40 BC S. Pompeius' admiral in the Tyrrhenian Sea. As an opponent of a settlement with the Triumviri (Plut. Antonius 32,6f.), M. defended Sardinia and Corsica. When Pompey threatened to strip him of his power at the instigation of his rival Menecrates [11], M. delivered the islands into the hands of Octavian in 38…

Servilia

(468 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Half-sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato, 1st cent. BC Born in c. 100 BC, daughter of Q. Servilius [I 13] Caepio and Livia [1], half-sister of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato. In c. 85, she married M. Iunius [I 9] Brutus (d. in 77) and became the mother of the future murderer of Caesar, M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus. S.'s second husband, the lacklustre D. Iunius [I 30] Silanus with whom she had three daughters probably owed his consulate to her. The intelligent, independent and poised woman who remained close to Caesar even aft…

Ventidius

(893 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of Q. Cornificius [3] in Africa vetus, killed in 42 BC in the battle against T. Sextius [I 2] (App. B Civ. 4,228; 236). Perhaps the V. who was proscribed in 43 and fled ( ibid. 4,198). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] V., P. Presumed father of V. [I 3]. Scholarship often saw him as an Italic leader in the Social War [3], settled in Asculum, where he was said to have died with the entire local nobility in 89 BC (Oros. 5,18,26; cf. CIL IX 5254: freedman of a P. V.). However, Ventidii…

Theomnastus

(96 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] (Θεόμναστος; Theómnastos). Prominent citizen of Syracuse, an adherent 73-71 BC of C. Verres, for whom he had honorary decrees declared and taxes collected (Cic. Verr. 2,2,50 f.; 2,3,101); in thanks T. became (by cheating in the drawing of lots: 2,2,126 f.) a priest of Zeus in Syracuse and was allowed to enrich himself in the purple trade (2,4,59). In 70 BC, after a short-lived resistance against investigations by Cicero, who presents T. as mad, T. lost nerve and handed over to him a list of valuable objects in Verres' possession (2,4,148 f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Magius

(793 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Family name of Oscan origin. [I 184]. The family was prominent in Capua (M. [I 3], cf. Cic. Pis. 24) and M.'s [I 5] sons were the first to be admitted to the Senate in the 1st cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Grandfather of the poet Vergilius on his mother's side Grandfather of the poet Vergilius on his mother's side; was allegedly an official messenger ( viator ; Donat. Vita Vergilii 1). Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) [German version] [I 2] M., Cn. Governor of Numidia AD 256-258. From Larinum in Samnium, died about 88 BC; heir of his (half…

Juba

(1,071 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Leonhardt, Jürgen (Marburg/Lahn)
(Ἰόβας; Ióbas, Ἰούβας; Ioûbas, Ἰόβα; Ióba). [German version] [1] King of Numidia, 1st cent. BC Born in c. 85 BC, died in 46 BC, king of Numidia, son and successor of Hiempsal. In 63 J. represented Numidian interests in Rome (Cic. Leg. agr. 2,59). In 62 he became the enemy of Caesar who protected  Masintha and pulled J.'s beard (Suet. Iul. 71; re his appearance [1; 2]). In 50 J. was already king, but not yet recognized by Rome [3. 126-128]. C.  Scribonius Curio demanded Numidia's annexation; the Senate rejected t…

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] O., C. Author of a law of 215 BC to limit displays of wealth Restricted the opportunities for women to display wealth by his law of 215 BC (Liv. 34,1,1-3 et alibi; MRR 1, 255). In 195, this legislation was repealed despite the res…

Sextilius

(473 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, historically attested at Rome from the 3rd cent. BC. The name was a common one, but its bearers were politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of L. Licinius [I 26] Lucullus in 69 BC. Distinguished himself in the Armenian war (Plut. Lucullus 25,4-6; App. Mithr. 381-385), but fell into Parthian hands in 68 (Cass. Dio 36,3,2 f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Praetor before 67 BC, together with his colleague Bellinus, he was kidnapped by pirates (Plut. Pompeius 24,6). Fündling,…

Iunius

(8,102 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Roman surname, derived from the name of the goddess Iuno [1. 470; 2. 731]. The gens was plebeian; the idea that this family originated from the patrician founder of the Republic L. I. [I 4] Brutus (Cic. Att. 13,40,1), which was particularly propagated by the murderers of Caesar, M. and D. I. Brutus [I 10 and 12], was already a matter of controversy in ancient times (Plut. Brutus 1,6-8). T.  Pomponius Atticus (Nep. Att. 18,3) composed a family history at the request of M. Brutus. This gens became politically im…

Masintha

(121 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Young noble Numidian, who fled to Rome to escape the demands for tribute exacted by King Hiempsal [2] II. Caesar represented him in court against Hiempsal's son Juba [1], later hid him and in 61 BC took him to Spain with him. His motives were probably assumed to be of a sexual nature. (Suet. Iul. 71). According to an interpretation of Vitr. De arch. 8,3,25 [1. 31-33], M. owned the territory around Ismuc, not far from Zama, and in 46 he and his son C. Iulius fought on Caesar's side against Juba. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) Bibliography 1 K. Jeppesen, Vitruvius in Africa, in: H. Geertman, …

Sallustius

(3,055 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
Italian nomen gentile, see also Salustius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] S., Cn. Friend and correspondent of Cicero Close friend of Cicero, with whom he demonstrably exchanged letters between 67 and 45 BC (Cic. Att. 11,11,2; Cic. Fam. 14,11). In 58, he accompanied Cicero on the first leg of his journey into exile, in 47, he lent him money, and they were together pardoned by Caesar (Cic. Fam. 14,4,6; Cic. Div. 1,59). S. read the draft of Cicero's De re publica and urged him - in vain - to state his views clearly and unambiguously (Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 3,5,1), a request…

Lyson

(152 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
Greek family name. [German version] [1] In 72 BC host of Verres, friend of Cicero L. of Lilybaeum. In 72 BC friend of Cicero, host of Verres who created a statue for him (Cic. Verr. 2,4,37). Cic. Fam. 13,34 is a letter of recommendation for L.'s son. Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [2] Host of Cicero, Pompeian L. of Patrae. Host of Cicero, in 50 BC looked after his sick secretary Tiro (Cic. Fam. 16,4,1f.). L. was a Pompeian in the Civil War and in 46 or 45, after Caesar's victory, he asked for his pardon (13,19; 24). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [3] Greek bronze sculptor Greek bronze…

Maenius

(930 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, perhaps of Etruscan origin [1. 185; 187]. The most important bearer of the name is M. [I 3]; the family is politically unimportant in the 1st cent. BC. Lex Maenia is the title of a Menippean satire of Varro (Varro Men. 153-155). The law concerned the power of the paternal head of the house; content and dating are contested [3. 1085 - 1121]. A further lex Maenia probably passed before 290 BC directed that the ‘agreement of the Senate’ ( auctoritas patrum) for elections be obtained before proclaiming the election results (Cic. Brut. 55). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Boch…

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

Racilius

(85 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Italic nomen gentile. Known from L. R., aide of C. Verres in Sicily in 73-71 BC (Cic. Verr. 2,2,31). In 56 a people's tribune of the same name (his son?) acted in the interests of the  Senate against P. Clodius [I 4] (Cic. Fam. 1,7,2; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,1,2; Cic. Planc. 77 with scholia Bobiensia 165 f. Stangl); probably the same R. conspired against Q. Cassius [I 16] Longinus in Spain in 48 and was executed (Bell. Alex. 53,3; 55,2). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)

Marius

(5,642 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Et al.
Oscan praenomen ( Egnatius [I 3]). Attested as a Roman nomen gentile from the 2nd cent. BC. The most important holder is the seven-time consul M. [I 1]; the prominent Imperial-period Spanish bearer of the name, M. [II 3], is probably a descendant of family members of that Marius. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] M., C. Seven-time consul, victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni, opponent of Sulla The seven-time consul; victor over Jugurtha and over the Cimbri and Teutoni. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] A. The rise to political prominence Born c. 157 BC…

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Praecia

(49 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] Proper name derived from praeco ('herald'). Known because of P., the mistress of P. Cornelius [I 15] Cethegus c. 75 BC. By giving her impressive gifts L. Licinius [I 26] Lucullus secured Cethegus’ support and with it the province of Cilicia (Plut. Lucullus 6,2-4). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
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