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Zenicetes

(63 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ζηνικέτης; Zēnikétēs). Lycian/Isaurian pirate chieftain, defeated during P. Servilius [I 27] Vatia Isauricus' campaign in 77 BC, with Z. being killed in his own house in Olympus [11]  (Str. 14,5,7) [1. 216 f.; 2. 259-263, 226]. Piracy Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 H. A. Ormerod, Piracy in the Ancient World, 1924 2 H. Pohl, Die römische Politik und die Piraterie im östlichen Mittelmeergebiet vom 3. bis zum 1. Jahrhundert v. Chr., 1993.

Onomastus

(79 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ὀνόμαστος/ Onómastos). Confidant and official of Philippus V [1. 109f.], as governor in Thrace in 185/4 BC he and Cassander actuated a bloody raid by the Thracians on pro-Roman Maronea [1] (Pol. 22,13,3-7; Liv. 39,34,2), which, however, Philippus protected from being handed over to Rome (Pol. 22,14,1-5; Liv. 39,34,6-10). In the Demetrius [5] high treason affair O. probably advised rigour (Liv. 40,8,4-6; cf. 16,1-3).…

Phaeneas

(185 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φαινέας; Phainéas) from Arsinoe. Strategos of the Aetolian League in 198/7 and 192/1 BC (Aetolians, with map), who in vain presented to T. Quinctius Flamininus in the second of the  Macedonian Wars Aetolian demands against Philippus [7] V (in 198: Pol. 18,2,6; 4,3; Liv. 32,32,11; 33,8; 34,2-3; in 197: Pol. 18,37,11f.; 38,3-7) and later in the escalating conflict with the Romans…

Myttones

(109 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Μυττόνης/ Myttónēs, Pol.; Μοττόνης/ Mottónēs, Syll.3 585,87; Muttines, Liv.). Senior Carthaginian officer of Libyo-Phoenician origin from Hippo [5], whom Hannibal [4] sent to Sicily in 212 BC to support Epicydes [2] and Hanno [9]. He fought with success there against the Romans, but in 210, after being slighted by Hanno, he betrayed Acragas to M. Valerius Laevinus (Pol. 9,22,4; Liv. 25,40,5-13; 26,21,14f.; 40,3-8; [1. 369f., 378; 2. 317f., 335]). In reward, M. won Roman citizenship as M. Valerius Mottones (Syll.3 …

Demotikon

(201 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] Modern word formation to describe a name component of a full Greek citizen: apart from the person's name (e.g., Δημοσθένης/

Theaedetus

(120 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Θεαίδητος; Theaídētos) from Rhodes, father of Astymedes [1. 1552], significant moderately Rome-friendly statesman [2. 185, 188]; in the peace treaty of Apamea [2] (Antiochus [5] III) with Cn. Manlius [I 24] Vulso in 189 BC he and Philophron had achieved i.a. the apportionment of Lycia (Lycii) to Rhodes (Pol. 22,5,2; [1. 85; 3. 182]). T. was about 80 years old when he travelled to Rome as naúarchos in the s…

Ethnikon

(167 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Modern term, from ἐθνικός/ ethnikós, ‘belonging to an éthnos’; ethnic). Scholarly term in epigraphy for the designation of origin of a person mentioned outside his native polis or region. The ethnikon (cf. Str. 14,2,18) identifies affiliation with the inhabitants of a particular polis (e.g., Korínthios) or a particular region (e.g., Boiōtós, Sikeliṓtēs). The phenomenon is well attested: the ethnikon was also applied t…

Aristotimus

(92 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] From Elis, son of Demaratus, in 271/70 BC tyrant in Elis, propped up by (Oscian?) mercenaries and the protection of  Antigonus [2] Gonatas; his reign of terror caused 800 citizens to flee to the Aetolians and abandon their families to the madman. It came to an end during Cyllon's conspiracy (cf. Syll.3 423) when A. was murdered in the temple asylum and his entire family was extinguished (Paus. 5,5,1.6; 14,11; Plut. Mor. 250f-253f; Just. Epit. 26,1,4-10) [1. 403-404, 713].…

Hamilcar

(877 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Carthaginian name Hmlk = ‘grace is to mlk’; Gk. Ἁμίλκας/ Hamílkas). [German version] [1] Carthaginian commander about 500-480 BC Son of Hanno and a Syracusan woman (Hdt. 7,165), grandson of  Mago [1. 36,183f.], father of  Geskon [1]; Carthaginian commander in c. 500-480 BC, whose role in his brother Hasdrubal's campaign against Sardinia remains unclear (Iust. 19,1,6f.) [1. 37]. It is seriously disputed whether he was king, or rather suffete [2. 459-461; 3. 70f., 90-97]. In 480, H. undertook a military expedition against  Himera, whi…

Carthalo

(395 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Punic *Qrthls = ‘(Ml)qrt has saved’; Greek Καρθάλων; Karthálōn). [German version] [1] Son of Malchus (6th cent. BC), Carthaginian priest of Melqart Son of  Malchus (2nd half of the 6th cent. BC?). As the Carthaginian priest of  Melqart he was entrusted with presenting the tithe of the booty to the god in  Tyrus but on his return refused to support his father's rebellion and was executed by him (Just. Epit. 18,7,7-15) [1. 23f.]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Carthaginian nauarch in 1st Punic War in 256/5-248/7 BC In the First Punic War the Carthaginian nauarc…

Agesilochus

(61 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀγησίλοχος; Agēsílochos) (also: Hagesilochos; Hegesilochus). Rhodian, son of Hagesias,   prytanis 171 BC (Pol. 27,3,3; Liv. 42,45,3-4). 169 envoy to Rome (Pol. 28,2; 16,5.8) and 168 to Perseus and  Aemilius Paullus (Pol. 29,10,4; Liv. 44,35,4-6). A. represented the Rhodian Rome politics of the ‘tertia’ pars [1. 185-190]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971.

Eurycleides

(176 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Εὐρυκλείδης; Eurykleídēs). Son of Micion from Cephisia; the most significant Athenian statesman of the 2nd half of the 3rd cent. BC: treasurer of the war-chest 244/3 BC (?), strategos of hoplites c. 245/240 (?), eponymous archon 240/239 (?) (IG II/III2 I 2 1300; II 1 1705; Syll.3 491; 497) [1. 118-127]; in 229 BC E. together with his brother  Micion in cooperation with  Diogenes [1] became the liberator of Athens from Macedonian rule, and subsequently the mentor of a strict policy of neutrality, distanced from  Aratus [2] an…

Scerdilaedas

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Σκερδίλαιδας; Skerdílaidas). Chieftain of the Labeates of Illyria, brother-in-law of Agron [3], chieftain of the Sardiaei [1. 45 f.]. In 229 BC S. supported Teuta against the city of Phoenice in Epirus (Pol. 2,5,6-6,7), consolidated his rule over southern Illyrian tribes after the first Illyrian War (229/8) and continued his raids south of the border with Lissus (Pol. 4,16,6), especially in 220 as an ally of the Aetolians, before he changed sides to join Philippus [7] V (Pol. 4,29…

Alexamenus

(83 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀλεξαμενός; Alexamenós). From Calydon, strategos of the Aetolians 197/6 BC, organized at the bidding of  Flamininus the murder of  Brachylles (Pol. 18,43,11) [1. 56]. He was supposed to topple the regime in Sparta in 192 and murdered  Nabis, but, intent on looting, neglected the new political order and was killed (Liv. 35,35,7-35,9), so that Sparta entered the Achaean League [1. 73; 2. 77]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971 2 P. Cartledge, A. Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman Sparta, 1989.

Pyrrhias

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πυρρίας/ Pyrrhías). Aetolian, league strategos in 218/7 BC (Pol. 5,30,2-4; Liv. 27,30,1: 210/9), fought the Achaeans in the so-called Social War (Social Wars [2]) in the western Peloponnese, but was unsuccessful at Cyparissia in 217 (Pol. 5,30,2-4; 92,2-6; 94,2). In 209, in the 1st of the Macedonian Wars [A], despite material help from his co-strategos, king Attalus [4] I of Pergamum, he was defeated by Philippus [7] V at Lamia (Liv. 27,30,1-3). At…

Philopoemen

(462 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλοποίμην/ Philopoímēn). Son of Craugis from Megale Polis, 253-182 BC, prominent Achaean statesman, instigator of a 'limited resistance' against Rome [1. 112-127]; idealized by Polybius [2] and celebrated into the Roman Imperial Period as the 'last of the Greeks' and last champion of liberty (Paus. 8,52,6; Plut. Philopoemen 1,7), more recently criticized for his 'doctrinaire patriotism' [2. 227; 3. 51]. P.'s lofty reputation depended on his numerous military successes achieved as hípparchos and stratēgós of the Achaean League (209 and from 208/7 on;…

Lattabus

(59 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Λάτταβος; Láttabos). Aetolian who jointly with Nicostratus (and Dorimachus) attacked the Boeotians in 220 BC at their confederate festival (Pol. 9,34,11; cf. 4,3,5), probably identical with the epigraphically attested Naupactian (?) L., son of Strombichus and brother of a Nicostratus; not identical with the stratēgós Lattamus, son of Bucatieus (s. Syll.3 539,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)

Echedemus

(72 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἐχέδημος; Echédēmos). Prominent Athenian from Cydathenaeum [1. 189-193], tried in vain in 190 BC to mediate between the Aetolians and the Romans, i.a. with P. Cornelius Scipio (Pol. 21,4-5; Liv. 37,6; 7) [2. 277-288], and in 185/4 contributed decisively to the reorganization of the Delphian  amphictyony [3. 213]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 C. Habicht, Studien zur Gesch. Athens in hell. Zeit, 1982 2 P. Pantos, E., the Second Attic Phoibos, in: Hesperia 58, 1989 3 Habicht.

Amynander

(149 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀμύνανδρος; Amýnandros, also Ἀμυνᾶς; Amynâs). King of  Athamania since 220(?) or c. 205 BC (Pol. 4,16,9; Syll.3 565; Welles 35; Moretti II 94), usually allied with the Aetolians, he received  Zacynthus (Liv. 36,31,11-12) [1. 405] from Philip V for his neutrality in 207/6; in the second Macedonian War on the Roman side (Pol. 16,27,4; 18,1,3; 36,3; 47,13;) [1. 420-425; 2. 1-8]; in 198/8  Flamininus sent him as envoy to Rome (18,10,7) [3. 253 f.]. In 192/1 allied with  Antiochus, as he hoped to see…
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