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Perseus

(1,751 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Περσεύς; Perseús). [1] Son of Danae and Zeus, Argive hero [German version] I. Mythology Son of Danae and Zeus, who impregnates her in the form of a shower of gold; grandson of Acrisius, the king of Argos, and Eurydice. Because of an oracle predicting that the son of his daughter will kill him, Acrisius sets Danae and P. adrift at sea in a chest. Mother and son are washed ashore in Seriphus and found and taken in by Dictys [1]. When Polydectes, the brother of Dictys and king of Seriphus, wishes to marry Danae…

Nicander

(1,519 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Νίκανδρος; Níkandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king, c. 715 BC Spartan king, Eurypontid, the father of Theopompus (Hdt. 8,131). N. led the raid of Spartans and Asinaeans into Argolis, in retaliation for which the Argives destroyed Asine [1] ( c. 715 BC). The settlement was refounded a few years later on the Messenian Gulf (Asine [2]; Paus. 2,36,4f.; 3,7,4; 4,14,3f.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998, 74f., 93, 96. [German version] [2] Strategos in the Aetolian League, 190/189, 184/3 and 177/6 BC Son of Bittus of Trichonium (Syll.3 5…

Phileas

(199 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Φιλέας; Philéas). [German version] [1] Of Athens, Greek geographer, middle of the 5th cent. BC Greek geographer from Athens (cf. Marcianus, Epitome peripli Menippei 2 = GGM 1, 565; Avien. 43f.), middle of the 5th cent. BC. His 13 directly preserved fragments have not been edited (sources and contents: [1. 2134f.]). As probably the first Attic successor to the early Ionian periegesis (Periegetes), P., in his Description of the Earth (γῆς περίοδος/ gês períodos, Harpocr. 152,2), probably discussed the entire Mediterranean region, not only the coasts, as in a periplous

Theodotus

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Et al.
(Θεόδοτος; Theódotos). [German version] [1] Greek architect, c.370 BC Mentioned several times in the construction records for the temple of Asclepius at Epidaurus as its architect; his origins are as unknown as his subsequent whereabouts. T.’ salary during the project amounted to 365 drachmae per year, together with further payments of unknown object. It is uncertain whether he is the same person as the sculptor T. named in IG IV2 102 (B 1 line 97) as having, for 2,340 drachmae, fashioned the acroteria for the pediment; it is possible that the name T. has been in…

Apelles

(821 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἀπελλῆς; Apellês). [German version] [1] Macedonian Politician, died 218 BC Macedonian, influential confidant of  Antigonus [3] Doson, from 222 BC guardian of  Philippus V. In 219/8, as ‘ traditionalist’, he criticized the Adriatic policy of the king and his pro-Achaean leanings under the influence of  Aratus, against whom he intrigued together with  Leontius and  Megaleas (Pol. 4,76; 82-87). In 218 their plot against Philip V was discovered and A. was executed in Corinth (Pol. 5,2,8; 16; 26-28; Plut. Arat. 48) [1. 167-170]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Mace…

Hanno

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] [1] King (suffete) ‘King’ (suffete) of Carthage, probably in the early 5th cent. BC, only known for his sea expedition along the western coast of Africa intended to create and secure Carthaginian colonies. It led from the ‘Columns of Hercules’ (Straight of Gibraltar) to the island of Kerne (near modern Mauretania?), and ─ for the purpose of discovering passages ─ further to the Bay of Notou Keras (‘Horn of the Southern Wind’, modern Cameroon?). References to H.'s voyage begin to appear in the 3rd cent. BC (Aristot. Mir. 833a 11), esp. in Mela (3,90; 93)…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 B…

Alexamenus

(83 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Ἀλεξαμενός; Alexamenós). From Calydon, strategos of the Aetolians 197/6 BC, organized at the bidding of  Flamininus the murder of  Brachylles (Pol. 18,43,11) [1. 56]. He was supposed to topple the regime in Sparta in 192 and murdered  Nabis, but, intent on looting, neglected the new political order and was killed (Liv. 35,35,7-35,9), so that Sparta entered the Achaean League [1. 73; 2. 77]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 J. Deininger, Der polit. Widerstand gegen Rom in Griechenland, 1971 2 P. Cartledge, A. Spawforth, Hellenistic and Roman…

Pyrrhias

(102 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Πυρρίας/ Pyrrhías). Aetolian, league strategos in 218/7 BC (Pol. 5,30,2-4; Liv. 27,30,1: 210/9), fought the Achaeans in the so-called Social War (Social Wars [2]) in the western Peloponnese, but was unsuccessful at Cyparissia in 217 (Pol. 5,30,2-4; 92,2-6; 94,2). In 209, in the 1st of the Macedonian Wars [A], despite material help from his co-strategos, king Attalus [4] I of Pergamum, he was defeated by Philippus [7] V at Lamia (Liv. 27,30,1-3). At the beginning of the 2nd Macedon…

Philocrates

(338 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλοκράτης; Philokrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Athenian who advised the Athenians at the negotiations in 392/1 BC to reject a peace treaty with Sparta (Dem. Or. 23,116f.). As stratēgós, P. in the summer of 390 BC commanded ten ships that were sent to Cyprus to help Evagoras [1] but were captured by the Spartan Nauarch Teleutias (Xen. Hell. 4,8,24). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography P. Funke, Homónoia und Arché, 1980, 95; 144f.; 150. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor and envoy, 4th cent. BC Son of Pythodorus from the de…

Aristippus

(645 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἀρίστιππος; Arístippos) [German version] [1] Tyrant of Argos (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) From Argus, friend of the Antigonids, against whom his rival Aristeas called  Pyrrhus into the town in 272 BC (Plut. Pyrrh. 30,2); after 272/1 probably the tyrant [1. 396]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Argos (240-234 BC) Grandson of [1] [1. 711], son of the tyrant  Aristomachus [3], tyrant in 240-235/4; vanquished in an ambush near Cleonae by the repeated attacks of  Aratus [2] (Plut. Arat. 27-29 [2. 61-63], whom A. had sued a…

Pausistratus

(177 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Παυσίστρατος; Pausístratos). P. from Rhodes, admiral energetically active in the second of the Macedonian Wars and in the Syrian War on the side of Rome. His and allied land troops fought the Macedonian general Deinocrates in Caria in 197 BC (Liv. 33,18,1-21). In 191/190 he was active off the Ionian coast, where in 190 his fleet suffered a ruinous defeat at Panormus in Samia at the hands of Polyxenidas and he was killed himself (Liv. 36,45,5f.; 37,9,5; 37,10,2-11,11; 37,12,8; App. Syr. 23,112-24,120: Pausímachos) [1. 153f.; 2. 196]. A strategem of P.'s during …

Philopoemen

(462 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
[German version] (Φιλοποίμην/ Philopoímēn). Son of Craugis from Megale Polis, 253-182 BC, prominent Achaean statesman, instigator of a 'limited resistance' against Rome [1. 112-127]; idealized by Polybius [2] and celebrated into the Roman Imperial Period as the 'last of the Greeks' and last champion of liberty (Paus. 8,52,6; Plut. Philopoemen 1,7), more recently criticized for his 'doctrinaire patriotism' [2. 227; 3. 51]. P.'s lofty reputation depended on his numerous military successes achieved as hípparchos and stratēgós of the Achaean League (209 and from 208/7 on;…

Hippocrates

(5,685 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Potter, Paul (London, Ontario) | Gundert, Beate (London, Ontario) | Et al.
(Ἱπποκράτης; Hippokrátēs). [German version] [1] Father of Peisistratus, from Brauron Father of  Peisistratus. H. is presumed to have come from Brauron, the later deme of Philaidai, and traced his ancestry back to Neleus (Hdt. 1,59; 5,65; Plut. Solon 10; 30). Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) Bibliography Traill, PAA 538385. [German version] [2] Son of Megacles from Athens, approx. 6th cent. BC Son of the Alcmaeonid ( Alcmaeonids)  Megacles from Athens, born around 560 BC, H. was the brother of Cleisthenes, the father of  Megacles and Agariste [2] and thus th…

Syracusae

(4,720 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Συράκουσαι/ Syrákousai, Lat. Syracusae). Syracuse, town on Sicily's southeast coast, modern Siracusa. [German version] I. Topography Colony of Corinth (Colonization), founded in 734/3 BC. The place name is said to have derived from the swamp area of Lysimeleia, also called Συράκω/ Syrákō (cf. Scymn. 280-282), which existed until the 20th cent. and was located west of the slim promontory, which, together with the island Ortygia facing it, constituted the original bridgehead settlement (inhabited from the early Paleolithic). The factor …

Xenarchus

(885 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | A.FA.
(Ξέναρχος; Xénarchos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Comedy writer of the (probably late) 4th cent. BC. Eight play titles (quite typical of this period) and 14 fragments have been preserved (exclusively in Athenaeus [3]). In fragment 1, a speaker (perhaps a slave, also the eponym character, Butalíōn) laments in exuberant dithyrambistic language, that there is no means of curing his master's impotence [2. 263]; in fragment 4 (Πένταθλος/ Péntathlos, 'Pentathlete') a brothel-keeper sings a song in praise of prostitutes and risk-free love-for-s…

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Nicon

(255 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Νίκων; Níkōn). [German version] [1] Theban military leader, 413 BC Theban leader of 300 Boeotian hoplites who, together with some Spartan units, crossed over to Sicily in 413 BC in order to defend Syracuse (Thuc. 7,19,3). Beck, Hans (Cologne) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 4th/3rd cent. BC Comedy writer of the 4th or 3rd cent. BC; there is a preserved fragment of a play Kitharōdós, in which apparently the direct speech of a non-Greek slave is quoted (fr. 1). Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 38. [German version] [3] Co-founder of the anti-Roman alliance of…

Callicrates

(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…
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