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(1,710 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Günther, Matthias (Bielefeld) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Military tribune in the army of Vespasianus in Iudaea Military tribune in the army of Vespasianus in Iudaea. in AD 67, following the conquest of Iotapata, he was instructed to convince Iosephus [4], the leader of the Jewish army, to surrender to Vespasianus, but proved unsuccessful (Jos. BI 3, 344f.). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Curator aedium sacrarum in AD 214 Senator. Curator aedium sacrarum in AD 214 (CIL VI 36899 = ILS 452). His nomen gentile was probably Max[imius]. PIR2 M 436. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] P. of Milan Secretary to…


(23,376 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Literary communication is communication by means of texts - stabilized, coherent and substantial statements. These may be written or eventually put down in writing, but they may also remain oral ( Literacy). Since for earlier societies as a rule only written texts can be studied, the term ‘literature’ focusses on such sedimented media of literary communication. Nevertheless, particularly for ancient societies the mainly oral character of literary communication must be emp…


(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent.…

Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris

(116 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] Anonymous Latin poem, dated between the end of the 4th and beginning of the 6th cent. AD, and dedicated to a Symmachus, perhaps the father-in-law of  Boethius; it is a skilfully formed and clearly structured didactic poem ( Didactic poetry) in 208 hexameters about weights and measures, the procedure for ascertaining the specific weight of fluids as well as the relative proportions of metals, especially of gold-silver alloys. Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Editions: 1 F. Hultsch, Metrologicorum scriptorum reliquiae 2, 1866, 88-98 2 PLM 5, 71-82. Secondary…


(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] …


(102 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Historia Augusta see Historia Augusta Gruber, Joachim (Munich) [German version] [2] Poet and teacher of rhetoric in Burdigala, 5th cent. AD Poet and teacher of rhetoric in Burdigala (Bordeaux), a friend of Sidonius Apollinaris who is the only source of information about him: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 8,9 is addressed to L. Around AD 460 he was invited to Arles by the emperor Maiorianus (ibid. 9,13,4); he was murdered soon after 475 (8,11,3). Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Bibliography: O. Seeck, s.v. L. (2), RE 12, 586 C. E. Stevens, Sidonius Apollinaris and his Age,…


(72 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] In the 6th cent. AD, he probably arranged (in Africa or Rome) a systematic collection ( Concordia canonum) of synodal laws ( Canones) and papal decisions ( Decretales), based on the collection of  Dionysius Exiguus. An extended version with the inclusion of te…


(110 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)


(495 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Governor of Britannia Superior, 3rd cent. AD V. was governor of the province of Britannia Superior (Zos. 1,66,2; Zon. 12,29 D.) and may be identical with Pomponius Victori(a)nus, cos. ord. and praefectus urbi in AD 282 (Chron. Min. 1,66 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Birley, 180 f.  PIR2 P 762  PLRE 1, 962, nr. 3 and 963, nr. 2. [German version] [2] Imp. Caesar M. Piavonius V. Invictus Augustus Emperor of Imperium Galliarum from the end of AD 269 to the spring of 271 (RIC 5,2, 379-398; CIL XIII 9040), son of Victoria, from ri…

Somnium Neronis

(142 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] A Latin text, appended in the 6th cent. to the so-called Gospel of Nicodemus ( Acta Pilati, see New Testament Apocrypha), whose narrative sections can be traced by way of Rufinus [6] and Eusebius [7] to Iosephus [4] Flavius. It is about Jesus appearing in a dream to the emperor Nero and announcing to him Vespasian's revenge on the Jews (ch. 1), the omens of the destruction of Jerusalem (ch. 2), the destruction itself and the killing of the Jews (ch. 3). The remainder (ch. 4-12) consists of a cent…


(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus

(2,318 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] A. Life Son of the consul for 487, B. was born around 480. After his father's early death he was adopted into the household of  Symmachus, whose daughter, Rusticiana, he married. Given an excellent education, he was as familiar with the writings of Plato, Aristotle and the Neoplatonists, especially Porphyry and the Athenian School, as with Augustine, and he soon acquired a reputation as a scholar. In 510 he became consul sine collega, and in 522 his two sons, not fully grown-up, obtained the consulate. Probably in the same year he became magister officiorum, but evidently had only little backing at court. He was thus drawn into the trial of Albinus for high treason; a trial in which the tensions between a pro-Byzantine party in the Senate bent on church union and the east Gothic court in Ravenna reached a climax after the sudden death of the designated successor to the throne,  Eutharich. His involvement on behalf of Albinus and the Senate led to his arrest in Pavia; he was charged with


(89 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] from Thagaste, son of Romanianus, a patron of Augustinus, probably accompanied him to Carthage and Rome. He is involved in the debate in the latter's dialogue Contra Academicos. A poem in 154 hexameters is extant in which L. asks Augustine for sending his work De musica, since he expects to get help for reading Varro's Disciplinae. After AD 395 there are no longer any records about him. Grub…