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Phlegyas

(116 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φλεγύας; Phlegýas). Eponym of the Phlegyans, a mythical people in Thessalia (Hom. Il. 13,302), also localized in Boeotia, Phocis or Epidaurus (Erythraean Paean [1. 372-374]). Son of Ares and Dotis, father of Ixion (Eur. TrGF fr. 424) and Coronis [1], mother of Asclepius (H. Hom. 16; Pind. Pyth. 3,8-11; Isyllos IG IV2 1, 128,37-56 = Paean 40 E Käppel [1. 382]). The Phlegyans were a people of brigands (H. Hom. 3,278), and P. himself set fire to the temple of Apollo in Delphi, thus becoming one of the penitents in the Underworld (…

Makaron Nesoi

(326 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(αἱ τῶν μακάρων νῆσοι; hai tôn makárōn nêsoi, Lat. insulae fortunatae, ‘Islands of the blessed'). [German version] [1] Mythical country Since Hes. Op. 167-173, the mythical country to which heroes are transported - instead of to dark, mouldy Hades like ‘normal people’ - when their lives on earth are over. The concept of the makaron nesoi (MN) is closely linked with the idea of Elysium (Hom. Od. 4,561ff.) as the place were the blessed reside after death (cf. Pind. Ol. 2,68-80; Hdt. 3,26; Aristoph. Vesp. 640; Eur. Hel. 1677; Aristot. Protrepticus fr. …

Isyllus

(277 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ἴσυλλος; Ísyllos) from Epidaurus, son of Socrates. Around 300 BC, poet of a consecutive series of poems (in trochaic tetrametres, dactylic hexametres, ionics, elegiac distichs), extant as inscriptions, for the cult of  Asclepius of  Epidaurus (IG IV 12 128 = [1. 380-383]). In these, I. creates on the one hand a specific Epidaurian mythology of Asclepius, which relocates the roots of the god to the healing sanctuary that had been of increasing importance since the 5th cent. BC. The traditional myth, on the other hand…

Molus

(71 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μόλος/ Mólos). Mythical Cretan, son or brother of Deucalion, uncle or brother of Adomenes, father of Meriones (Hom. Il. 10,269; Apollod. 3,17; Diod. Sic. 5,79). There is a report about a Cretan festival in Plut. De def. or. 14, in which a headless doll called M. makes an appearance: this doll symbolises M.'s beheading as a punishment for ravishing a nymph. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography Nilsson, Feste, 440, 468f.

Phobos

(122 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φόβος/ Phóbos, Latin Pavor ). Personification of terror, esp. terror in war (cf. Aesch. Sept. 45); therefore, along with his brother Deimos, son of Ares and Aphrodite (Hes. Sc. 195f., 463f.). The brothers are found in Homer in connection with their father's chariot (Hom. Il. 4,440f.; 13,299f.; 15,119f.); they appear on the shield of Agamemnon together with Gorgo [1] (Hom. Il. 11,36f.), P. alone appears on the aegis of Athena (Hom. Il. 5,739) and of Heracles [1] (He…

Nasamon

(40 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νασάμων; Nasámōn). Son of Amphithemis (Garamas according to Apoll. Rhod. 4,1492) and the nymph Tritonis, great-grandson of Minos. N. was the progenitor and eponym of the Nasamones in Libya (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1322). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Telephus

(789 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τήλεφος /Tḗlephos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Auge Son of Heracles [1] and Auge [2] (Hes. fr. 165,8-10 M./W.). There are two legendary versions of his youth. According to one version (probably in essence epic, but also assumed by Euripides [1] in his T.), Auge of Tegea, a priestess of Athena, was made pregnant by Heracles [1], gave birth to T. and hid him in the sanctuary. When, as a consequence of this, the goddess imposed a famine and the child was discovered, Auge's father Aleus [1] had the child exposed (Exposure, myths…

Ochimus

(55 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄχιμος/ Ochimos). Mythological king of Rhodes, the oldest of the Heliadae. His brother Cercaphus married Cydippe [3], the daughter of O., although she was betrothed to another man, and the couple had to flee; following their return Cercaphus became O.'s successor (Hellanicus FGrH 140 F 37; Diod. Sic. 5,56f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Neaera

(250 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Νέαιρα; Néaira). [German version] [1] Helios' mistress Helios' mistress, mother of the cowherds tending their father's herd on Thrinacie (Hom. Od. 12,133). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Strymon's mistress Strymon's mistress and mother of Euadne, who was spouse of Argos [I 1] (Apollod. 2,3). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Daughter of Pereus Daughter of Pereus, spouse of Aleus [1], mother of Auge [2] (Apollod. 3,102). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Spouse of Aetas Spouse of Aetas (alsoIdyia; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 3,240). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) …

Ne(i)leus

(207 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
[German version] [1] Founder of Miletos (Νειλεύς/ Neileús; Νηλεύς/ Nēleús; Νείλεως/ Neíleōs). Mythical founder of the city of Miletus [2]; from Pylos; son of the Attic king Codrus, brother of Medon [5]; since he is second to his brother in the succession, he leaves Attica with a group of Athenians und Ionians from Pylos, settles the Ionian cities in Asia Minor, founds Miletus and the Milesian dynasty of rulers. His son Aepytus founds Priene (Hellanicus FGrH 125 F 10; Hdt. 9,97; Callim. Iambi fr. 191,76; Str. 14,1,3; Paus. 7,2,1ff). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Greek surgeon a…

Nomia

(131 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Νομία/ Nomía). [German version] [1] Nymph, with the same name as the Arcadian mountain range Nymph; eponym of the mountain range in Arcadia, N. [3] (Paus. 8,38,11). Depicted by Polygnotus in Delphi, together with Callisto and Pero (Paus. 10,31,10). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Sicilian nymph Sicilian nymph, who transforms Daphnis [1] into a stone, when he spurns her (Ov. Met. 4,277; Serv. Verg. Ecl. 8,68). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mountain range in the south-western Peloponnese A 1389 m high mountain range in the south-western Peloponnese, to t…

Macris

(53 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μάκρις; Mákris). Daughter of Aristaeus [1], wet-nurse of Dionysus on Euboea. After she was banished by Hera she lived on Corcyra, which was named M. after her, in a grotto which was later the place where Iason and Medea got married (Apoll. Rhod. 4,540; 990; 1130ff.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Modius

(595 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
Roman surname. [German version] [1] M., Q. Horse breeder Cited by Varro (Rust. 2,7,1) as a distinguished horse breeder. His (probably invented) cognomen Equicolus, which indicates this activity, may have been interpreted by Varro as Aequicolus, so that a later period reveals a Septimus M. as the first king of the Aequiculi (Lib. de praenominibus 1). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] M. Fabidius Founder of the city of Cures Son of a virgin of the Aborigines who comes to dance in the sanctuary of Quirinus in the territory of Reate, but is then seized…

Myscelus

(82 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Μύσκελ[λ]ος/ Mýskel(l)os). Mythical founder of Croton. Son of Alemon of Rhypes in Achaea. According to Ov. Met. 15, 12-59, his foundation of Croton was connected with Heracles [1] (according to others, with the Delphic Apollo): after his home town indicted Myscelus because of his illegal plan to found a city, Heracles turned the black voting stones white at the ballot, thus enabling the foundation (variants in [1. 254f.]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 F. Bömer, P. Ovidius Naso, Metamorphosen, vols. 14-15, 1986.

Phocus

(169 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φῶκος; Phôkos). [German version] [1] Mythical hero of Aegina Mythical hero of Aegina, son of Aeacus and the Nereid Psamathe; the latter had attempted in vain to stop Aeacus from raping her by turning herself into a seal ( phṓkē): hence the name P. for the child of this union (Hes. Theog. 1004f., Apollod. 3,158 and 160; Pind. Nem. 5,12). In Phocis P. marries the princess Asterodia and gives his name to this region (Apollod. 1,86). P. is ultimately killed by his step-brothers Peleus and Telamon, and he is buried in Aegina (Paus. 2,29,…

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Nysus

(44 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Νύσος/ Nýsos). Male counterpart of Nysa [1]. He is the tutor of Dionysus. He exercises power in Thebes during the latter's campaign to India, but it is seized back again on his return (Hyg. Fab. 131, 167, 179). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Ogygia

(183 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὠγυγία/ Ōgygía, epic -η/ ē). Mythical island on which the goddess Calypso lives (Hom. Od. 1,49ff.; 5,13ff.) and on which Odysseus stayed for almost ten years. In the 'Odyssey', O. is situated in the west (cf. Hom. Od. 5,271ff.) - as omphalòs thalássēs ('navel of the sea', cf. on this aspect [1. 2070ff.]). Since antiquity the geographical position has been a contentious issue: (1) near Crete (Antimachus fr. 142 Wyss); (2) in or near Italy: (a) Gozo (Callim. fr. 470), (b) Lacinium (Scylax 13 GGM), (c) Nymphaea (Apoll. Rhod…

Rhea, Rheia

(196 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ῥέα/ Rhéa, Ῥέη/ Rhéē, Ῥεία/ Rheía, Ῥείη/ Rheíē). Greek goddess; daughter of Uranus and Gaia, sister and consort of her brother Kronos, and by him the mother of Zeus, Hera, Demeter, Hades, Poseidon and Hestia (Hes. Theog. 453-463). Kronos devours the children in order to avoid the danger of being deprived of his power by one of them. However R. hides Zeus in Crete and instead gives Kronos a stone wrapped in swaddling bands. When Zeus is grown up he frees his brothers and sisters and with…
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