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Scribonius

(2,206 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, probably from Caudium (CIL I2 1744 f.) and attested from the time of the 2nd Punic War. The branch of the Libones (S. [I 5-7; II 4-7]) attained the consulship with S. [I 7] and was part of the Roman high nobility in the early Imperial period. The Curiones (S. [I 1-4]), prominent in the 2nd and 1st cents. BC, disappeared with the Republic. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] S. Curio, C. As aedile in 196 BC, he built the Temple of Faunus on the Tiber Island. Praetor urbanus in 183 and the second plebeian to be elected curio [2] maximus

Ninnius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Courtney, Edward (Charlottesville, VA) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer from a distinguished Campanian family seem to have offered Hannibal accomodation in Capua in 216 BC Pacuvius and Sthenius N. Celer belonged to a distinguished Campanian family. They seem to have offered Hannibal sumptuous accommodation in Capua in 216 BC (Liv. 23,8). Punic Wars Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im 2. Punischen Krieg, 1975, 30-31. [German version] [2] N. Crassus Republican writer, translator of the Iliad in Latin Republican writer, who translated the ‘Iliad into Latin…

Oppius

(1,221 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Oscan praenomen, later a widespread nomen gentile; literary refs. at Rome from as early as the 5th cent. BC (O. [I 5]), but historical evidence only from the 2nd cent. The Tusculan Opiter O., who is said to have given his name to the Mons O. at Rome, is an invention (Varro in Fest. 476 L.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] O., C. Author of a law of 215 BC to limit displays of wealth Restricted the opportunities for women to display wealth by his law of 215 BC (Liv. 34,1,1-3 et alibi; MRR 1, 255). In 195, this legislation was repealed despite the res…

Sextilius

(473 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman plebeian family, historically attested at Rome from the 3rd cent. BC. The name was a common one, but its bearers were politically insignificant. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Legate of L. Licinius [I 26] Lucullus in 69 BC. Distinguished himself in the Armenian war (Plut. Lucullus 25,4-6; App. Mithr. 381-385), but fell into Parthian hands in 68 (Cass. Dio 36,3,2 f.). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] Praetor before 67 BC, together with his colleague Bellinus, he was kidnapped by pirates (Plut. Pompeius 24,6). Fündling,…

Orchius

(90 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] In 182 BC, O. proposed the first attested Roman lex sumptuaria (“law against luxury”). It limited the number of people who could attend a banquet (Macrob. Sat. 3,17,2). Like other laws of this period, this one too was meant to regulate the competition between political opponents. M. Porcius Cato [1] had to fight against mitigation of the law. (Fest. 280-82 L.). It was superseded in 161 BC by the tougher lex Fannia (see Fannius [I 6]; luxus ). Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography E. Baltrusch, Regimen morum, 1989, 77-81.

Quinctilius

(2,074 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman patrician family, derived from the praenomen Quintus; in inscriptions and MSS also Quintilius. In the annalistic tradition the family was one of Rome's oldest, supposed to have arrived in Rome under the king Tullus Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7; cf. Liv. 1,30,2, though he has Quinctii); of a consul recorded in 453 BC and a consular tribune in 403 nothing further is known. In the historical period, members of the family are known from the end of the 3rd cent. on (bearing the inherited cognomen Varus), but they achieved no lasting noble status. The most promin…

Orient and Occident

(656 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] The designations 'Orient (Or.)' and 'Occident (Oc.)', as regions of the world, are based on the compass directions in which they are located. These in turn were named after sunrise (ἀνατολή/ anatolḗ, 'sunrise', cf. 'Anatolia'; Lat. sol oriens) and, by analogy with this, sunset (δύσις/ dýsis, Lat. sol occidens). Homer had already used these phenomena to determine a primary east-west axis for recording and describing the world (Od. 10,190-192), which differed from that used in Egypt that was based on the direction of the flow of …

Trebius

(110 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
Oscan/Italian praenomen (usual abbreviation in Lat. inscriptions Tr.), later also a Roman gens name, recorded from the 1st cent. BC onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] T., Statius Supposed to have handed his home city of Compsa over to Hannibal [4] in 216 BC (Liv. 23,1,1-3; Zon. 9,2,7). Punic Wars (II) Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. von Ungern-Sternberg, Capua im Zweiten Punischen Krieg, 1975, 69. [German version] [2] T. Gallus, M. Roman equestrian, Caesar's prefect or tribune in Gaul, who demanded grain from the Coriosolites (…

North and South

(364 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] (νότος/ nótos, Latin auster, and βορέας/ boréas, Latin aquilo). Whereas the Nile's north-south-axis provided Egypt with a main compass direction, north and south were considered by the Greeks and Romans ‘as edges and border regions in an oikoumene thought of as an east-west ellipse and organised into climate zones’ ([1. 311]). The north and south winds, in contrast, were even regarded by some authors as chief winds (Strab. 1,2,21). Although there were old trade relationships far into the …

Migration

(797 words)

Author(s): Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] Migration denotes the more than temporary transfer of the residence of individuals and groups to another location. A uniform concept was lacking in antiquity, which elaborated only individual aspects of the associated concept: sedentarism was considered the norm. This resulted in a fundamental contrast to nomadism ( Nomads), which was conceived as anti-civilization. Phenomena such as synoikismos and Colonization were perceived as the constitution, enhancement or expansion of one's own cultural space, i.e., as fundame…

Plautius

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family, in the late Republic also often spelt Plotius, with no clear difference in use (cf. Claudius/Clodius). The earliest epigraphic evidence comes from Praeneste (among it the maker of the Ficoronian Cista, Novios Plautios, CIL I2 561), while the family in Rome achieved political eminence after 367 BC (Münzer therefore considers them to have migrated from Praeneste [1. 42; 44f.; 412]), providing seven consuls between 358 and 318; their migration may explain their interest in integrating Latini (cf. P. [I 5]…

Sempronius

(6,399 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of a Roman family. According to tradition, its members of the 5th cent. BC (Atratini, S. [I 3-8]) are supposed to have been patricians and champions of patrician privileges (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 10,41,5; 10,42,3), an assumption that may have been a retrospective invention (the Sempronii only became patricians under Caesar or Augustus); in the historical period, we know only of plebeian branches of the family during the Republic (Asellio, Blaesus, Gracchus, Longus, Tuditanus) who played an important role in the 3rd and 2nd cents. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period …

Mamilius

(656 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Latin name of an ancient dynasty from Tusculum (in manuscripts frequently confused with Manilius and Manlius). Because the city was considered a foundation of Telegonus, the son of Odysseus and Circe, the Mamilii, from the early 2nd cent. BC at the latest, traced their lineage to Odysseus, via Mamilia, the daughter of Telegonus (coins: RRC 149; 362; in literature, from the Augustan period: Fest. 116f. L; Liv. 1,49,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,45,1). In the 5th cent. BC, with M. [I 1] the family was accepted in Ro…

Villius

(650 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn)
[German version] [1] V., Ap. Livy (3,54,13) lists V. as peoples' tribune in 449 BC among those who, after the end of the D ecemviri [1], had been voted into this office "more due to the hopes (that had been put into them) than due to their merits". Müller, Christian (Bochum) [German version] [2] V. Annalis, L. As peoples' tribune in 180 BC, he introduced a law about age limits that regulated the competition for offices and thus proved fundamental in the development of the cursus honorum [1]. In this, he had the consent of the Senate, which earned him and his…

Pomponius

(5,501 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Et al.
Name of a Roman plebeian family probably deriving from the Italic praenomen Pompo, tracing back, like the Aemilii, Calpurnii and Pinarii, to one of the sons of Numa Pompilius (Plut. Numa 21,2; cf. Nep. Att. 1,1). In the 3rd century BC the Mathones (cf. P. [I 7-9]) achieved consulship, but later the family was insignificant. The most prominent member was a friend of Cicero, T. P. [I 5] Atticus. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] P., Cn. People's tribune in 90 BC People's tribune in 90 BC, killed in the Civil War in 82; Cicero quite often heard him in his youth; his j…

Volumnius

(521 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
Name of an originally Etruscan plebeian family (Etruscan form Velimna) that was significant in the early Republic. The Volumnii of the 1st cent. BC are not its descendants. The tomb of the V. in Perusia (modern Perugia) with bilingual inscriptions (CIL XI 1963 - CIE 3763) was used from the 2nd cent. onwards. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] V., P. Fought in 42 BC as a friend of M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in the battle of Philippi, and wrote about it in a now lost work (Plut. Brutus 48; 51). Possibly identical to V. [4]? Bartels, Jens (Bonn) [German version] [2] V. Amintinus Gallus…

Papirius

(3,269 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile, in its older form, Papisius (Cic. Fam. 9,21,3), from which one of the 16 old rural tribes ( tribus ) took its name. The patrician gens formed several branches at an early time (5th/4th cents. BC: Crassi, Cursores, Mugillani, 3rd cent.: Masones) who played a significant role in the military successes of the Republic, but became either extinct no later than the 2nd cent. BC or politically insignificant. The younger plebeian branch of the Carbones rose in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. and gained notoriety…

Veturius

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Name of a Roman family (also often given as Vetusius; on the origin of the gens Veturia [1. 284]), for which the tribus Voturia was named [2. 42]. The Veturii played a prominent political role in various phases of the Republic: from the beginning of the Republic to the leges Liciniae Sextiae (367 BC) with the Veturii [I 3-6] Cicurini, in the time between 334 and 321 with V. [I 1], and in the time of the 2nd Punic War with the Veturii [I 7-8] Philones. While the patrician status of the Cicurini and Philones can be regarded as certain (but cf. [3.…

Metilius

(623 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Roman gens name, probably of Latin origin with Etruscan parallels (the patrician gens in Dion Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,29,7 is invented), historically attested no earlier than the 3rd century BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Between 220-219 BC Creator of a lex Metilia In 220-219 BC, at the instigation of the censors C. Flaminius [1] and L. Aemilius [I 27] Papus, a l ex Metilia was passed on the professional status of fullers ( fullones) (Plin. HN. 35,197; MRR 1, 236). Its exact purpose, its creator and his office remain…

Octavius

(2,326 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Kaster, Robert A. (Princeton) | Et al.
Widely occurring Roman nomen gentile derived from the numeral praenomen Octavus ('one born in the eighth month', which disappeared later, still surviving in Octavus Mamilius [2]). Of political importance in Rome from the 2nd cent. BC is only the older line which consecutively produced five consuls (O. [I 4-8]; preferred praenomen: Cn.; regarding the family relationships [1. 405-407]); the members of the related younger line (resident in Velitrae), on the other hand, from which the later princeps Augustus originated, did not rise above equestri…
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