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Gutturals

(254 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] The Neo-Latin terminus technicus gutturals (‘guttural sounds’) for a class of consonants is traditional (nouns that before the endings have a g, k/c or χ are called guttural stems). Today research prefers the more appropriate term ‘Tectals’, as in the articulation of this consonant the back of the tongue is pressed against the roof of the mouth (Latin tectum) in order to obstruct the stream of air through constriction or blockage, so producing the sound typical of gutturals. To the proto-Indo-European are attributed nine or ten tectal ph…

Septimus

(88 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg)
[German version] Must be a former Roman individual name (see below) which in the classical period no longer appears as a praenomen. Etymologically, it corresponds to the Latin ordinal septimus, 'the seventh' (cf. Quintus, Sextus). A synonymous name exists in Umbrian (old-Umbrian nom. Se(f)tums). The (neo)-Umbrian vocative evolved, with phonetic and graphic variations, into the Etruscan Sehtume (genitive Sehtumna). The common genitive Septumius/ Septimius is a regular derivation from the older Latin * Septumos. Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) Bibliography Salomies, 111-114…

Servius

(1,028 words)

Author(s): Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Suerbaum, Werner (Munich)
[German version] [1] Roman praenomen Rare Roman praenomen; Siglum: SER, at times confused with Sergius; carried by King S. Tullius in the 6th cent. BC. Up to the Imperial Period, it was used mainly by the noble families of Cornelii, Fulvii and Sulpicii. The nomen gentile Servīlius is derived from S., specifically from an undocumented diminutive of S. The etymology is regarded as uncertain, but an Etruscan origin is unlikely. Present-day scholarship is largely unanimous in regarding the ancient opinion that S. Tullius was the son of a slave as based on the similarity in sound of servus, 'sla…
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