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Aeschines

(1,604 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina)
(Αἰσχίνης; Aischínēs). [German version] [1] Student of Socrates From the Attic deme of Sphettus, son of Lysanias, student of Socrates. Born between 430/420 BC, died after 375/6 BC. A. was present during Socrates' trial and death (Pl. Ap. 33e; Phaed. 59b). A. is said to have been poor when he joined Socrates. In a speech by Lysias, he was accused of being a notorious debtor (Ath. 13,611d-612f). It remains unclear, whether A. indeed composed court speeches and delivered lectures for cash -- as claimed by …

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Anaximenes

(648 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Ἀναχιμένης; Anaximénēs). [German version] [1] Nature philosopher, 6th cent. BC Nature philosopher of 6th cent. BC, last representative of the  Milesian School. Although the arche (ἀρχή; archḗ) is unlimited with A. as with  Anaximander, it is specified as air. Air envelops the world, and a part of this is a component of the world. A. developed the first, still rudimentary theory of metamorphosis: in densifying (πύκνωσις; pýknōsis) and ephemeralizing processes (μάνωσις [ mánōsis] or ἀραίωσις [ araíōsis]) air and the various substances change into each other, in this sequ…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Hierocles

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…

Sabinus

(1,149 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] A. Greek (Σαβῖνος; Sabînos) [German version] [1] Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, 1st-2nd cent. AD Hippocratic physician and commentator on Hippocrates, who was active in the 1st to 2nd cent. AD. He was the teacher of Metrodorus [8] and Stratonicus, who in turn was the teacher of Galen; the latter regarded S. as a more careful and concise interpreter of Hippocrates [6] than his predecessors had been (CMG 5,10,2,1, p. 17, 329-330; 5,10,2,2, p. 510). S.' weakness lay mainly in …

Philinus

(600 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Φιλῖνος; Philînos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician Athenian. P. proposed absorbing all thetai (thetes) into the hoplites ( hoplítai ) (Antiph. fr. 61 from the speech Katà Philînou). In 420/419 BC, he attempted to prevent a case brought against him for the improper use of public funds by inciting one Philocrates to raise a charge of accidental killing against the accuser immediately before the trial. Once the charge was accepted, P.' accuser was no longer permitted to enter any protected places, including places of justice ( nómima) (Antiph. 6,12; 21; 35f.). Schmitz, Winfrie…

Alciphron

(225 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀλκίφρων; Alkíphrōn). Atticist author, probably from the 2nd or the early 3rd cent. AD [5], mentioned only by Aristaen. 1,5. 25 and Eust. 762,62. Preserved under A.'s name is a collection of 122 fictitious letters (only partial fragments), organized into letters by: 1. fishermen, 2. peasants, 3. parasites, 4. love letters. All letters are set in a timeless and idealized 4th-cent. Attica, perhaps modelled after the New Comedy [10], possibly but not clearly an imitation of Lucian [8…

Aristaenetus

(235 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ἀρισταίνετος; Aristaínetos). Accepted name for the author of a collection of love letters in two books, probably from the 1st quarter of the 6th cent. AD. In reality, A. is the sender of the first extant letter, but in the beginning of the MS at least one folio is missing and so is the name of the real author. A.'s models are mainly Plato, Menander, Lucian, Alciphron, Philostratus, and the authors of the novels and love elegies by  Callimachus (Aristain. 1,10. 15), whose content c…

Lycoleon

(113 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Attic orator of the 4th cent. BC, known only because of a mention in Aristot. Rh. 1411b 6f.: a speech of L. for the defence of the strategos Chabrias is cited in which a statue erected in honour of the latter is metaphorically called hiketēría (olive branch wound around with wool as a symbol of one beseeching protection). (On the shape of this statue and the reasons for its erection, cf. Nep. Chabrias 1-3 and Diod. Sic. 15,33,4). The trial (it concerned treason in connection with battles for the Attic-Boeotian border fortre…

Rhetorica ad Alexandrum

(419 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] Greek rhetoric textbook, amounting to some 100 pages of modern print, recorded in the MSS (none earlier than the 14th cent.) as a work of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]), but not appearing in the ancient title lists of the Corpus Aristotelicum (e.g. in Diog. Laert. 5,22-27). The earliest surviving attribution to Aristotle is by Syrianus (In Hermog. comm. 2, p. 11,17-21 Rabe). According to Quint. Inst. 3,4,9, Anaximenes [2] of Lampsacus (2nd half 4th cent. BC) distinguished types of speech (εἴδη/ eídē) in his rhetorical textbook ( téchnē); the same distinction occurs at…

Menesaechmus

(142 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Μενέσαιχμος; Menésaichmos). Attic rhetorician of the 4th cent. BC. Lycurgus [9] (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843d) succesfully charged him with neglecting his obligations as leader of the festival legation to Delos (Fr. in [1. 115-118]). M. succeeded Lycurgus as leader of the financial administration of Athens (Dion. Hal. de Dinarcho 11) and accused him shortly before his death (ibid. 842f) and afterwards his sons, who were temporarily arrested (ibid. 842e). M. was one of the accusers of Demos…

Hermogenes

(2,256 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἑρμογένης; Hermogénēs). [German version] [1] Companion of Socrates Athenian, son of Hipponicus, brother of Callias, appears on many occasions in the Socratic writings of Plato and Xenophon as the companion of  Socrates. Together with the eponymous character, H. is the dialogue partner of Socrates in Plato's Cratylus. Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) Bibliography 1 SSR VI B 71-77 2 Davies, 269-270. [German version] [2] From Aspendus, assistant commander of Antiocus I H. from Aspendus. In the struggle of Antiochus [2] I (died in 261 BC) to regain territories in Asia Minor…

Theodectes

(976 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Θεοδέκτης/ Theodéktēs). Rhetor and tragedian of the 4th cent. BC, active in Athens, extant only in fragments, b. in Phaselis (Lycia), son of an Aristander. Only the Suda (s. v. Θ.) mentions a like-named son of T., who was also active in literature (historiographic and ethnographic works, text for rhetorical instruction in 7 books, encomium of Alexander [6]); no other source differentiates between the two T., so that in some cases it is difficult to assign a work. This information …

Athenaeus

(2,425 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg) | Et al.
(Ἀθηναῖος; Athēnaîos). [German version] [1] Lacedaemonian, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens Lacedaemonian, son of Periclidas, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens (Thuc. 4,119), which he officially announced to  Brasidas a little later together with the Athenian Aristonymus (Thuc. 4,122). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Attalus I of Pergamum, member of the 'Royal Council' A. was, as the youngest son of Attalus I of Pergamum, a member of the ‘Royal Council’; he is also documented as an agonothete (Alt. Perg. 8,3,…

Potamon

(195 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Ποτάμων/ Potámōn). Rhetor from Mytilene in Lesbos, son of the philosopher Lesbonax, known from the Suda (s. v. Π., Lesbonax and Theodorus of Gadara), mentioned in Seneca (Suas. 2,15 f.), Strabo (13,2,3), Lucian (Macr. 23) and several inscriptions  (cf. [1]). His life-span (90 years according to Lucian l. c.) reached probably from the 70s BC into the early reign of Tiberius. Three times he led a legation from his home city, twice to Caesar (in 47 and 45 BC), once to Augustus (in 27…

Craton

(75 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] (Κράτων). Greek rhetor, roughly a contemporary of the older Seneca, known as a bitter enemy of the dominant style of  Atticism during his time. Seneca the Older recorded a few utterances that attest to C.'s honest humour in the face of Emperor Augustus (contr. 10,5,21f.). Considering this fact, as well as his openly stated animosity towards the imperial confidant Timagenes, C. must have belonged to Augustus' inner circle. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)

Gaudentius

(730 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam) | Et al.
(Γαυδέντιος; Gaudéntios). [German version] [1] G. Philosophus Musician and philosopher Author of an introduction to harmony, Ἁρμονικὴ εἰσαγωγή ( Harmonikḕ eisagōgḗ) ─ probably written in line with Claudius Ptolemy's ─ translated into Latin by Cassiodorus' friend Mutianus (Cassiod. Inst. 2,5,142 Mynors). The incompletely preserved work (in 23 chapters) contains traditional teachings in a slightly modified form, especially from Aristoxenus and the Pythagoreans: voice, sound, interval, modes, composition (1-7), unison…

Eustathius

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Vassis, Ioannis (Athens) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin)
(Εὐστάθιος; Eustáthios). [German version] [1] from Caria Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD, imperial administrator, consularis Syriae Rhetor of the 4th cent. AD; studied in Athens and later settled in Tyre. He held many offices in the imperial administration, and used them to enrich himself (i.a.: rationalis summarum per orientem), in 388 he was consularis Syriae. He was at first a friend of  Libanius (panegyric: Lib. Or. 44), later his enemy (diatribe: Or. 54, cf. also Or. 1,271-275). There is no other witness apart from Libanius. Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) [German version] [2] Neop…

Tiberius

(2,375 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Steinbauer, Dieter (Regensburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
I Greek [German version] [I 1] Greek rhetor, prob. late 3rd/4th cent. (Τιβέριος/ Tibérios). Greek rhetor, probably of the late 3rd or 4th cents. AD, author of a small surviving treatise on figures (Περὶ τῶν παρὰ Δημοσθένει σχημάτων, Perì tòn parà Demosthénei schēmáton, 'On the figures in Demosthenes'), which uses Apsines as its main source. The latter's dates (1st half of 3rd cent. AD) are thus the only point of reference for dating T. The treatise deals separately with figures of thought (1-22) and figures of speech (23-42; Figures). E…
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