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Idomeneus

(647 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἰδομενεύς; Idomeneús). [German version] [1] Commander of the Cret. troops at Troy Son of  Deucalion, grandson of  Minos; the name is indirectly attested as early as in Linear B [1]. I. is one of  Helena's suitors (today fr. 204,56ff. M-W) and a guest of Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,230-233). He commands the rather large Cretan contingent (80 ships) in the Trojan campaign, assisted by his loyal follower  Meriones (Hom. Il. 2,645-652); he is the oldest Greek at Troy after Nestor, still fit for action ( aristeia in Il. 13); I. belongs to the inner circle of Greek army leaders, but does n…

Polycritus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολύκριτος/ Polýkritos) of Mende, historian from western Greece c. middle of the 4th cent. BC and author of a History of (the Young) Dionysius [2] and a History of Sicily (Sikeliká), whose compass, perspective and extent in time are unknown; only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 559 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Theagenes

(873 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
(Θεαγένης/ Theagénēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megara, 7th cent. BC Tyrant of Megara [2] in the last quarter of the 7th cent. BC; he probably descended from a noble family and maintained hospitality with aristocrats all over Greece. According to a later tradition, when he seized power, he is said to have won the people's confidence in his fight against the city's landowners (by slaughtering their flocks: Aristot. Pol. 5,1305a 21-26) and to have been granted a body guard by the assembly (Aristot. Rh.…

Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Nymphis

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νύμφις; Nýmphis). N. from Heraclia [7] on the Pontus, son of Xenagoras, historian, b. c. 310 BC, d. after 246. He played an eminent role among the exiles who returned to their home in 281 BC after the end of the tyranny under Clearchus [3] and the death of Lysimachus [2] (FGrH 432 T 3 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 7,3). In 250, N. was the leader of the delegation that induced the Galatians to withdraw from Heracleotis (T 4 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 16,3). Works: 1) ‘On Heraclia in 13 bks.: Extensive local history of his home town, connected with the ‘great’ history and pr…

Gelon

(562 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων; Gélōn). [German version] [1] Greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, about 491-479 BC Son of Deinomenes from Gela, greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, period of reign c. 491-478 BC. Firstly bodyguard, later master-of-horse of Hippocrates of Gela, after whose death in 491 he usurped the tyrannis over Gela and brought the east Sicilian archḗ of his predecessor, comprising Gela, Camarina, Callipolis, Leontini, Catana, Naxos and numerous Sicilian communities, into his power (Hdt. 7,154). Called to help around 485 by the Syracusan gamoroi (land owners), who …

Heloris

(139 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἕλωρις; Hélōris). Syracusan, close friend, perhaps even the adoptive father of the older  Dionysius [1] (Diod. Sic. 14,8,5). During an uprising of the Syracusans against the tyrant in 404/3 BC he uttered, according to Diodorus (loc. cit.), the remark that was quoted right through to late antiquity: ‘Tyranny is a beautiful shroud’ ( kalòn entáphiòn estin hē tyrannís). Later banished for unknown reasons, he fought in 394 in Rhegium against Dionysius, laid siege to Messana in vain in 393 and defended Rhegium successfully in 392 against th…

Agatharchides of Cnidus

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀγαθαρχίδης; Agatharchídēs). [German version] A. Life Historian and geographer. Particulars about his life and work in a vita by Photius 213. As a consequence of a self-attestation in Photius 250 in 132/1 BC (or already 145?) an old man. Birth therefore before 200. Active as reader and secretary of Heracleides Lembos in Alexandria. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] B. Works 1. History of Asia ( Asiatiká) in 10 books, reaching up to the era of the Diadochi. From book two (as well as book eight of Artemidorus' description of the earth) comes the depict…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Local chronicles, local history

(563 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Historical or antiquarian works on particular areas or localities, often dated according to eponymous officials. According to [1], Greek local chronicles and local historiography grew out of official lists and indices (officials, priests, victors in competitions) in which notes on all sorts of events were scattered. From these preliterary town chronicles, local chronicles and histories supposedly developed in the 6th/5th cents. BC, with the Hóroi (Annual Books) of Samos being the earliest; later the Atthís followed. This opinion, whic…

Phintias

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Town on the southern coast of Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Φιντιάς; Phintiás). Town on the southern coast of Sicily, modern Licata, founded in c. 280 BC by P., the tyrant of Acragas and settled by the residents of Gela driven out by the Mamertini (Diod. Sic. 22,2,2; 22,7,1); the inhabitants of P. therefore also continued to call themselves Gelṓioi (Γελῷοι, IG XIV 256-261; [1. 711 no. 588f.]). In 249 BC a Roman fleet was defeated at P. by the Carthaginians in connection with the 1st Punic War (Diod. Sic. 24,1,7…

Damocles

(90 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δαμοκλῆς; Damoklês). Courtier and sycophant of the tyrant  Dionysius [1] I (according to Timaeus FGrH 566 F 32 of Dionysius II). The anecdote of the ‘sword of Damocles’ became famous through Cicero (Tusc. 5,61f.): as D. considered the powerful and rich tyrant to be the happiest person in the world, the latter had a sumptuous meal prepared for him but above his head had a sword suspended on a horse hair in order to demonstrate to him the true ‘happiness’ of a tyrant. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Andriscus

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀνδρίσκος; Andrískos). [German version] [1] (Pseudophilippos) the Macedonian; king Philippus VI (149-148 BC) (Pseudo-Philippus) from Adramyttium, incited 153 BC a rebellion in Syria as alleged son of  Perseus and was handed over by  Demetrius I to the Romans, but he fled and 151 arrived at Pergamum, where he came into possession of a diadem, in an ominous way, before he sought restoration of the Antigonid throne from Thrace with the help of his ‘relative’ Teres; 149 in Pella he was named king (Philip VI), 1…

Mnesiptolemus

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Μνησιπτόλεμος/ Mnēsiptólemos). Son of Calliarchus from Cyme, a city in Asia Minor (IG XI 697), Greek historian at the court of king Antiochus [5] III of Seleucia (222-187 BC). In his Historía, now completely lost, he was ‘probably more concerned with the deeds of Antiochus the Great than with the entire history of the Syrian kings’ [1]. Because of the many trivial details about the court in his writings, he was ridiculed in comedy (cf. Ath. 10,40 p. 432bc = T 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 FGrH 164 with commentary.

Heracleon [1-4]

(362 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn). [German version] [1] Favourite of Antiochus [10] VII, 1st cent. BC from Beroea, a favourite of Antiochus [10] VIII, caused the latter's death in 96 BC during a plot to become king, but was foiled by the succession of Seleucus VI to the throne. H.'s son Dionysius ruled parts of northern Syria incl. Bambyce, Beroea and Heraclea (Pomp. Trog. prologus 39; Str. 16,2; 7; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,365; Ath. 4,153b). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Pirate leader, 1st cent. BC Pirate leader, defeated the fleet of Syracuse in 72 BC ( Heraclius [2]) and pe…

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Terias

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηρίας; Tērías). River on the eastern coast of Sicilia with Leontini on its upper reaches (Scyl. 13; Diod.  Sic. 14,14,3;  cf. Thuc. 6,50,3; 6,94,2; Plin. HN 3,89), modern San Leonardo di Lentini. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 125.

Sicanus

(74 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σικανός; Sikanós). From Syracuse, son of Execestus; in the autumn of 415 BC he, Hermocrates [1] and Heracleides [2] were elected plenipotentiary strategoi (Thuc. 6,73). Sent in 413 to conquer Acragas, he returned without achieving anything (Thuc. 7,36; 7,50,1). His attempt to set fire to the ships salvaged by the Athenians from a lost sea battle (at the beginning of September 413) failed (Thuc. 7,70-74). Peloponnesian War Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Memnon

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων; Mémnon). [German version] [1] Mythical King of the Ethiopians Mythical King of the Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Eos, brother of Emathion (Hes. Theog. 984-5). His entry into Troy as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Penthesilea, his successful single combat with Antilochus, his death at the hands of Achilles and the immortality conferred upon him by Zeus at the behest of Eos were, as the summary of Proclus (Chrestomathia 172) shows, depicted in the lost Cyclic epic Aithiopís . Hom. Od. 4,187-8 and Pind. P. 6,28-39 also refer to his single combat with Antiloc…

Demarchus

(98 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δήμαρχος; Dḗmarchos). [German version] [1] Lycian, honoured in Samos Son of Taron, Lycian, rewarded with citizenship and privileges of honour for his services to the Samians (at the time of their banning) and to  Phila on Samos (Syll.3 333). Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) [German version] [2] Syracusan strategos c. 400 BC Syracusan strategos, who in 411 BC, as one of the followers of the exiled Hermocrates, commanded the Syracusan fleet in the Aegean (Thuc. 8,85,3; Xen. Hell. 1,1,29) and was removed in 405/4 by Dionysius I as a political rival (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berli…

Gellias

(62 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Γελλίας; Gellías). Wealthy Acragantian, whose unique hospitality and generosity were extolled by Diodorus (13,83) when portraying the prosperity of Acragas in the 5th cent. BC (Diod. Sic. 13,81,4-84,7 = Timaeus FGrH 566 F 26a). Cf. also Ath. I 4 and Val. Max. 4,8 ext. 2. G. died when Acragas was destroyed by the Carthaginians in 406/5. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Agroetas

(52 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγροίτας; Agroítas). Greek historian of the Hellenistic era (from Cyrene?). Author of Libyka in at least three books. The few preserved fragments display a rationalistic reshaping of mythology. A. apparently influenced the mythological handbook cited by Diod. Sic. 4,26,2-4 and used at 3,52 ff. (FGrH 762). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Deinias

(83 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δεινίας; Deinías). From Argos, lived in the 3rd cent. BC; he was the author of Argoliká in at least nine books. They ranged in scope from extensive treatment of the mythical period to the battle of Cleonae ( c. 235), at which  Aratus [2] defeated the tyrant Aristippus of Argos (FGrH 306 F 5). His identity with the D. who murdered the tyrant Abantidas of Sicyon in 251/50 (T 1), is not established. FGrH 306 (with comm.). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Antander

(287 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Ἄντανδρος; Ántandros). [German version] [1] of Syracuse Brother of Agathocles [2], end of the 4th cent. BC Brother of Agathocles [2]. At the beginning of the African campaign in 310 BC appointed ‘curator of Syracuse’ (Diod. Sic. 20,4,1) by his brother, whose life he later chronicled (Diod. Sic. 21,16,5), although Jacoby considers it a mere obituary. By some scholars, e.g. by Manni, A. is considered the author of the P Oxy. 2399 (FGrH 565 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Note siceliote, I: un frammento di Antandro?, in Kokalos 12, 1966, 163-171 K. Meister…

Logos

(3,385 words)

Author(s): Ierodiakonou, Katerina (Oxford) | Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[1] Philosophical [German version] A. Term The Greek noun lógos (λόγος) is derived from the verb légein, ‘say’. Greek philosophers made extensive use of it in a wide range of meanings: what has been said, word, assertion, definition, interpretation, explanation, reason, criterion, proportion, relation, argument, rational discourse. Ierodiakonou, Katerina (Oxford) [German version] B. Pre-Socratics Attempts to trace the use of the word in detail have proved to be unsuccessful. It is, however, evident that logos was already being used by the Pre-Socratics, chiefly in re…

Alcimus

(496 words)

Author(s): Liebermann, Wolf-Lüder (Bielefeld) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen)
(Ἄλκιμος; Álkimos). [German version] [5] Latinus A. Alethius Rhetorician, writer of panagyrics and poet Appears as a famous rhetorician (probably based on a catalogue of model speeches from Bordeaux) in  Sidonius, where he is praised for his oratorical fortitudo: Epist. 5,10,3 (see Jer. Chron. a. Abr. 2371). Probably also the author of a rhetorical handbook that is otherwise no longer distinguishable (Sid. Apoll. Epist. 8, 11, 2; in the same source: origin in Agen; concerning false identifications, see PLRE 2, Alethius 2, against [3…

Meno

(805 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μένων; Ménōn). [German version] [1] Recipient of Athenian citizenship according to Demosthenes For his support for the Athenians in their attack on Eion [1] on the Strymon, M. of Pharsalus was, according to Demosthenes (Or. 13,23), awarded atéleia or (Or. 23,199) Athenian citizenship [1. 20-23]. Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Military official under Cyrus the younger, ca. 400 BC M. of Pharsalus, was, like his ancestors, closely connected to the Thessalian dynasty of the Aleuadai (M. was the erṓmenos, ‘beloved’, of Aristippus) and bound by paternal hosp…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Leptines

(618 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Λεπτίνης; Leptínēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian politician, suggested an alliance with Sparta in 369 BC. In 356, L. carried through a law according to which all exemptions from liturgies which had been granted were to be lifted, and no more were to be granted in the future (Dem. Or. 20 hypoth. 2,2; 20,18). Bathippus brought an action against it on the grounds of illegality, but died shortly thereafter (Dem. Or. 20,144f.). In 355, a new action was brought against the …

Nereis

(102 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νηρηίς/ Nērēís). Daughter of the Molossian king Pyrrhus II. In 233/2 BC, for dynastic reasons, Hiero [2] II married her to his son Gelo [2]; she bore three sons, including Hieronymus [3], and one daughter. The name of the queen is inscribed in the theatre of Syracuse (Syll.3 429). N. also had statues of her family erected at Delphi and Olympia (Syll.3 453; Pol. 7,4,5; Liv. 24,6,8; Paus. 6,12,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 110f. 2 G. de Sensi Sestito, Gerone I…

Lanassa

(170 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Λάνασσα; Lánassa). [German version] [1] Ancestress of the Molossian dynasty Daughter of Cleodaeus, granddaughter of Hyllus, great-granddaughter of Hercules [1], ancestress of the Molossian dynasty of Epirus (Plut. Pyrrhus 1,2; Lysimachus, FGrH 382 F 10). Neoptolemus abducts her from the Zeus temple of Dodona, marries her and has eight children with her, among them Pyrrhus (Iust. 17,3,4). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) Bibliography P. Levêque, Pyrrhos, 1957, 643 M. Schmidt, s.v. L., RE 12, 617. [German version] [2] Wife of Pyrrhus and Demetrius Poliorcetes, 3rd cent. BC Daughter…

Theron

(366 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θήρων/ Thḗrōn). Tyrant of Acragas from the line of the Emmenids; he lived c. 540/530-472 BC. His children from his first marriage were Thrasydaeus and Demarete, the consort of Gelo [1]; from c. 485 BC T. was married a second time to a daughter of Polyzalus (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 93; scholium Pind. Ol. 2,29b-d; see stemma in Deinomenids). T. gained control of Acragas in 488 BC (Diod. Sic. 11,53,1) and in 483 BC took the town of Himera by driving out Terillus (Hdt. 7,165); he entrusted the town to his son Thrasydaeus. The cry for help fro…
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