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## Theudius

(210 words)

*Theúdios*). Mathematician and philosopher from Magnesia, probably 4th century BC. The only information about him comes from the catalogue of mathematicians in Proclus's [2] commentary on Euclid [1. 67, Z. 12-20]. T. is mentioned there after Eudoxus [1] and before Philippus of Medma, who was a pupil of Plato [1]; Therefore, T. was probably a contemporary of Aristotle [6]. According to Proclus, T., Menaechmus [3] and Deinostratus conducted research together at the Academy (

*Akadḗmeia*), improved the arrangement of the

*'Elements'*, and put many limited pr…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Eutocius

(168 words)

*Eutókios*) The mathematician E. of Ascalon was presumably born around AD 480; the widespread assumption that he was a pupil of the architect Isidorus of Miletus is hardly plausible [1. 488]. He wrote commentaries on three works of Archimedes [1] (

*Perì sphaíras kaì kylíndrou*, Περὶ σφαίρας καὶ κυλίνδρου,

*kýklou métrēsis*, κύκλου μέτρησις,

*Perì epipédōn isorrhopiôn*, Περὶ ἐπιπέδων ἰσορροπιῶν, text editions [3. 1-319]) as well as on the first four books of Apollonius'

*Kōniká*(Κωνικά) [13] (dedicated to Anthemius [3], text edition [4. 168-361]…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Gnomon

(272 words)

*gnomon*describes the shape of an angle bar that remains when a smaller square is removed from a larger square. The Pythagoreans represented arithmetic series with geometrically arranged dots (pebbles) in the form of figures, so t…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Philo

(5,673 words)

*Phíl*

*ōn*). [German version] [I 1] Athenian politician Athenian from Acharnae who was exiled by the Oligarchic regime in 404 BC (Triakonta). During the civil war, he lived as a

*metoikos*(resident without Attic citizenship) in Oropos awaiting the outcome of events. Following his return, when he applied to join the

*boulḗ*he was accused of cowardice and other misdemeanours at a dokimasia investigation (Dokimasia) (Lys. 31; possibly 398 BC). Walter, Uwe (Cologne) Bibliography Blass, vol.1, 480f. Th.Lenschau, A. Raubitschek, s.v. P. (2), RE 19, 2526f. …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Mechanical method

(255 words)

*Éphodos*) of Archimedes [1] is our source for his mechanical method from which he derived geometric formulas. To compare the surfaces of two figures, he disassembled each into an infinite number of parallel lines and balanced them on a scale. On one side of the scale, one surface is hung up at one point, i.e., as a whole. On the other side, the surface is hung up along the entire arm, i.e., each layer remains where it is and acts with a different leverage. When ea…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Axiom

(143 words)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Mathematics

(3,425 words)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Hermotimus

(132 words)

**1**P. Briant, Histoire de l'empire perse de Cyrus à Alexandre, 1996, 283-288

**2**P. Guyot, Eunuchen als Sklaven und Freigelassene, 1980, Register s.v. [German version] [2] Mathematician from Colophon of Colophon, mathematician. He continued …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Leodamas

(261 words)

*Leōdámas*). [German version] [1] Athenian orator, c. 400 BC The Athenian L. of Acharnae, a skilful orator (Aristot. Rh. 2,23,25 1400a 31-35), was rejected at his

*dokimasia*of 382 BC to assess his candidacy for the eponymous archonship ( Archontes) because of his political role prior to 403 (Lys. 26,13f.). Engels, Johannes (Cologne) Bibliography PA 9076 Davies 13921, p. 523 LGPN 2, s.v. Leodamas (2) Traill, PAA 605085. [German version] [2] Athenian rhetor, 4th cent. BC Son of Erasistratus of Acharnae, outstanding Athenian rhetor, student of Isocrates (Plut. Mor…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Diocles

(2,746 words)

*Dioklês*). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Iulianus

(4,648 words)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Eudoxus

(1,483 words)

*Eúdoxos*). [German version] [1] of Cnidus Ancient mathematician and astronomer One of the most important ancient mathematicians and astronomers, he was presumably born in 391/390 BC (on the problem of dating see [7. 137-139]). He studied mathematics with Archytas [1] and medicine with Philistion. At the age of 23 he went to Athens and it is said that, among other things, he attended lectures there with Plato. At the expense of his Cnidian friends, presumably in 365/4 [11], E. went with a letter…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Theaetetus

(1,081 words)

*Theaítētos*). [German version] [1] T. of Athens, mathematician, c. 400 BC Mathematician, a native of Athens, pupil of Theodorus [2] of Cyrene and later a member of Plato's Academy (

*Akadḗmeia*). In Plato's [1] dialogue named after him, T. appears (together with the aged Theodorus [2]) as about fifteen years old in 399 BC; he was therefore born

*c.*414. Plato describes him as gentle, courageous and quick to apprehend. After he had been wounded in the battle of Corinth, T. contracted dysentery and died in 369. T. contributed substantially to the theory of irrational quantiti…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

*Nikómachos*). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws (

*anagrapheîs tôn nómōn*). Exiled under the Thirty (

*triákonta*), he returned in 403 and again became

*anagrapheús*. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Helicon

(372 words)

*Helikṓn*). [German version] [1] Mountain range in central Greece Mountain range in central Greece, dividing the Copais Basin and the upper Cephissos Valley from the Gulf of Corinth (cf. Str. 9,2,25; Paus. 9,28,1-31,7). The western part of the H. belonged to Phocis and the eastern part to Boeotia. The highest elevation is the peak of the Palaiovouno (1,748 m). Few passes lead over the H., which is rich in springs and forests and was famed for its herbs. The H. has large areas that were used in anti…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Theodosius

(3,100 words)

*Theodósios*). [German version] [I 1] Greek mathematician and astronomer, 2nd/1st cent. BC Greek mathematician and astronomer. Folkerts, Menso (Munich) [German version] I. Life and works According to Str. 12,4,9, T. was one of the most important men in Bithynia; the birthplace Tripoli given in the Suda (s. v. Θ.) may relate to another T. As Strabo also names T.’ sons as important mathematicians, T. must belong in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, or, at the latest, the 1st half of the 1st. …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Deinostratus

(385 words)

*Deinóstratos*) D. is mentioned in Eudemus' list of mathematicians as the brother of Menachmus, who was a pupil of Eudoxus (Procl. in primum Euclidis elementorum librum comm., p. 67,11 Friedlein). He therefore lived in the middle of the 4th cent. BC Pappus of Alexandria reports (4,30, p. 250,33-252,3 Hultsch) that to square the circle D. used a curve that was accordingly called the quadratrix (τετραγωνίζουσα). This curve, said to have already been used by Hippias of Elis for the trisection…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Autolycus

(734 words)

*Autólykos*). [German version] [1] Son of Hermes and Chione Son of Hermes and Chione (or Philonis, who also bore the singer Philammon to Apollo, Hes. fr. 64,14). He was included in various mythical family circles, as the father of Odysseus' mother Anticlea (Hom. Od. 11,85), of Jason's mother Polymede (Apollod. 1,107) and of Aesimus, the father of Sinon. He gives the newborn Odysseus his name, and it is whilst hunting with his sons on Mount Parnassus that Odysseus receives the wound in his th…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Thymaridas

(162 words)

*Thymarídas*). Mathematician from Paros; according to Iamblichus (v. P. 104), T. was an early Pythagorean (Pythagorean School). He defined 'unity' (μονάς/

*monás*; i.e. the One that generates all the natural numbers) as περαίνουσα ποσότης (

*peraínousa posótēs*, 'limiting quantity'; Iambl. in Nicomachi arithmeticam introductionem 11,2-5) and called prime numbers εὐθυγραμμικός (

*euthygrammikós*, 'rectilinear'; ibid. 27,4), because they can only be set out in one dimension. The name 'Flower of T.' (Θυμαρίδειον ἐπάνθημα,

*Thymarídeion epánthēma*) is gi…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Carpus

(196 words)

*Kárpos*). [German version] [1] Son of Zephyrus and a certain Hore Handsome youth, son of Zephyrus and of a certain Hore ( Horae). He organizes a swimming race with Calamus, his best friend, but drowns in the event. In mourning, his friend kills himself and is turned into reeds. C. is turned into a crop of the field (Nonnus, Dion. 11,385-481). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] C. of Antioch Mathematician A mathematician, who lived presumably in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD. Information on him is given in four fragments by Pappus (8,3), Proclus (in Euc…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly