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Marzabotto

(401 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] An Etruscan city lying c. 30 km south of modern Bologna on the Pian di Misano plateau above the River Reno in the northern foothills of the Emilian Apennines. Italian excavations since the 19th cent. have uncovered large parts of the city and an acropolis on the hill Misanello to the west. The city, which was constructed in the last quarter of the 6th cent. BC in an orthogonal compass-aligned layout (cf. site map), was in its earlier mid-6th century settlement only a small col…

Manturanum

(185 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] (modern San Giu…

Bomarzo

(131 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] In the vicinity of the modern town of B. were several small Etruscan settlements, e.g. on the hill of Pianmiano 2 km to the north-east, and Piano della Colonna 3 km to the nort…

Narce

(210 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The Faliscan settlement of N. lay on three steep-sided tufa plateaux, 9 km south of Cività Castellana. The three plateaux (Narce, Monte li Santi and Pizzo Piede) successively formed the centres of the settlement. Evidence has been found of late archaic temples on the Pizzo Piede and west of the Monte li Santi; a large flight of steps and a rock throne south of the Monte li Santi also belonged to a sanctuary. The rich necropoleis attest to the importance of the site from the 14th c…

Castellina-in-Chianti

(156 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria At the northern town exit lies a large Etruscan grave tumulus (so-called Monte Calvario; diameter 53m; height 40 m) with chambers facing the four points of the compass. The south and west tombs have rectangular burial chambers, dromos and two dromos cells, the central burial chamber is missing in the east tomb, whilst the dromos …

Blera, Bieda

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city near Tarquinii, in the hills of tufa rock between Ricanale (in the north) and Biedano (in the south); now Blera (Bieda in the Middle Ages; in the province of Viterbo). Roman municipium of the tribus Arnensis, Augustales (CIL XI p. 507). Stopping-place on the via Clodia with the bridges della Rocca and del Diavolo. Necropolis of tumuli and burial mounds from the 7th cent. BC. Heyday in the 6th and 5th cents. BC. Ancient Bieda is situated on a narrow, high plateau with s…

Pontecagnano

(329 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture Little more than its dimensions is known about the Etruscan-Campanian settlement on a plain rising slightly above the Piana del Sele near the present-day site of P. (10 km south of Salerno) of c. 85 hectares. Only two shrines have been excavated in the western quarter along with some workshops (ovens of brickworks from the 6th and 5th cents. BC and a dye works) in the eastern. The large necropoleis southwest and east of the ancient settlement have been systemat…

Castel di Decima

(188 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Medieval fortress 18 km south of Rome on the via Laurentina. On the hill of the castle there is a settlement from the 8th-6th cents. BC with a large necropolis from which since 1971

Ghiaccio Forte

(125 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] In antiquity the Etruscan settlement situated on a hill that was flat on top and fell away steeply on the edges, 14 km south-east of Scansano, probably belonged to the area of influence of Vulci. In the 6th cent. BC there was a rural sanctuary here. A settlement can only be proven for the late 4th and early 3rd cents. BC. The settlement that was fortified by a surrounding wall made of large blocks with rough stone filling was violently destroyed in about 280 BC. American excavatio…

Murlo/Poggio Civitate

(309 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria From 1966 on, American excavations have been uncovering a large Etruscan building complex on the Poggio Civitate hill near Vescovado di Murlo, 18 km south-east of Siena. Two different construction phases have been identified. The first building, dating from around 650 BC, was destroyed by fire in the last quarter of the 7th cent. The later, almost square-shaped structure, about 60 m in length, consists of four wings,…

San Giovenale

(213 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Swedish excavations, 1956-1967, uncovered large sections of an Etruscan settlement on a high plateau at the confluence of two water courses in the northeastern foothills of the Tolfa Mountains. The floor plans of houses from three settlement phases are important for the study of the architecture of archaic Etruscan houses (cf. House [II C]): a late Bronze Age hut settlement with timber-framed buildings smaller than the long houses in Luni sul Mignone was located under the courtyar…

Rossano di Vaglio

(170 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The Lucanian sanctuary of the Oscan goddess Mefitis Utiana in the mountains above Vaglio Basilicata has been systematically excavated since 1969. Several buildings of sandstone and limestone blocks, belonging to two phases, are grouped around a 27 × 21 m paved courtyard. The centre is formed by an elongated altar along the southern side. A large votive pit with Oscan/Lucanian inscriptions (in the Greek alphabet), chariot wheels, marble statues, terracottas, thymiateria, bronze fibulae and coins shows that the cu…

Marsiliana d'Albegna

(166 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Of the Etruscan settlement (possibly Caletra in antiquity) on the confluence of Albegna and Elsa in the Maremma/south Etruria only the necropoleis are known, and they provide evidence for a significant agrarian centre in the late 8th to 6th cents. BC. Earliest phase: pozzetto graves dating from th…

Castel d'Asso

(184 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Medieval fortress west of Viterbo on the site of the Roman Castellum Axia (Cic. Caecin. 7,20), situated on a tuff plateau that falls away steeply to water courses to the west, north and south. The tuff spur is protected from the hinterland by three ditches. In archaic times, the settlement stretched as far as the eastern ditch, but in the Hellenistic period it was situated only on the western part of the spur…

Luni sul Mignone

(226 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Place of settlement in early history in the northern foothills of the Tolfa mountains c. 80 km northwest of Rome. On a 560 by 150 metre tuff plateau with steeply dropping edges bounded in the north and south by valleys. Swedish excavations (1960-1963) were able to reveal three phases of settlement. The Bronze Age settlement (14th-11th cents. BC) belongs to the Apennine culture. In three adjacent long houses, fragments of Mycenaean ceramics wer…

Norchia

(230 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria The Etruscan settlement lay on a high plateau at the confluence of two watercourses south-west of Viterbo. A late Bronze Age settlement (2nd half of 2nd millenium BC) was followed initially by a hiatus lasting into the 6th cent. BC. N. experienced a cultural peak in the late Etruscan period, when the Tarquinii expanded into the interior of Etruria in the mid-4th cent. The plateau was 10.5 ha in size; it was fortified…

Suana/Sovana

(183 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria The now almost entirely abandoned episcopal city of S. near Pitigliano, to the west of Lake Bolsena, was called Suana in the Roman period. Like the Etruscan settlement which belongs to Volci/Vulci territory, it lies on a steep-sided tuff outcrop at the confluence of two water courses. Excavations by the University of Pisa and surveys by the Tuscan Monument Authority have mainly studied the necropoleis. Two periods of prosperity h…

Musarna

(173 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Port in Gedrosia (Μουσάρνα; Mousárna). Port in Gedrosia, visited by Nearchus [2] (Arr. Ind. 26,10-27,2). He found a pilot here who was able to guide the fleet as far as Carmania. According to Ptol. Geog. 6,8,9, M. was the easternmost settlement of Carmania, west of the Gedrosian frontier. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) [German version] [2] Settlement at Viterbo The civitas of M. is generally identified with a small, late Etruscan settlement discovered in 1849 on the Poggio della Civita, 10 km west of Viterbo. French excavations undertaken since 1983 have exposed town walls made of of tufa blocks, dating from the late 4th c…

Acquarossa

(206 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)

Heba (Magliano)

(157 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria The Roman colony H., established in the 3rd or 2nd cent. BC, lay on a hill south-east of Magliano. The equation with the H. mentioned by Ptol. 3,1,43 and Plin. HN 3,52 is confirmed on the basis of an inscription on a  cippus. A previous Etruscan settlement is assumed only because of necropoleis which are documented from the late 7th cent. BC and were esp. wealthy in…
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