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Cluvia Pacula

(50 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Facula in Val. Max. 5,2,1). Prostitute from Capua; by a decision of the Senate she had her property and freedom returned to her after 210 BC, for having secretly supplied food to Roman prisoners in the Second Punic War (Liv. 26,33,8; 34,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Augusta

(3,972 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Gaggero, Gianfranco (Genoa) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Walser, Gerold (Basle) | Et al.
(Αὐγούστα, Αὐγοῦστα; Augoústa, Augoûsta). [German version] [0] Title First to receive the name A. (‘the Sublime’) was  Livia [2], by the terms of the will of her husband  Augustus (Tac. Ann. 1,8,1; Vell. Pat. 2,75,3; Suet. Aug. 101,2), who at the same time adopted her into the Julian family (thus: Iulia Augusta). Hellenistic influence is disputed (in favour [1], against [2. 140-145]); the name Σεβαστή/ Sebastḗ with the same literal meaning was bestowed on the wives of Roman emperors in the Greek-speaking world independently of any conferring of the name of A…

Cossutia

(43 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of a wealthy equestrian with whom Caesar became engaged probably for financial reasons [1. 16], but whom he divorced because of his office as priest [2. 14] (Suet. Iul. 1,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography 1 G. Walter, Caesar, 1955 2 W. Will, Caesar, 1992.

Scribonia

(264 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Wife of Octavian, 1st cent. BC Born c. 66 BC, daughter of L. Scribonius Libo, sister of L. Scribonius [I 7] Libo, cos. in 34. Her third marriage was to Octavianus (Augustus; Tac. Ann. 2,27) in 40 BC, before that she was married to Cn. Cornelius [I 52] Lentulus Marcellinus, cos. 56, and P. Cornelius Scipio, the father of her son P. Cornelius Scipio (Suet. Aug. 62, but cf. the genealogy in [2], according to which S.'s second marriage was to P. Cornelius Scipio, cos. suff. in 35, son of Lentulus). At the end of 39 Octavianus divorced S. - one day after she gave …

Urgulania

(91 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Wife of M. Plautius (AE 1972,162), mother of M. Plautius [II 12] Silvanus, grandmother of Plautia [1] Urgulanilla, the wife of Claudius [III 1]. She abused her friendship with Livia [2], who ended up paying a fine (Tac. Ann. 2,34,4) after U. had refused to appear in court. Later she sent a dagger to her convicted grandson M. Plautius [II 13] (Tac. Ann. 4,21,1). Subject of  the novel  ‘Le Mystère du jardin romain by J.-P. Néraudau. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography C. M. Perkounig, Livia Drusilla - Iulia Augusta, 1995, 176 f.  PIR V 684.

Kaiser (Caesar, Emperor)

(361 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Old High German cheisar, keisar; Middle High German keiser; even in Gothic kaisar; Old Slavonic cjesari/ kesari; Russian/Slovenian cesar/ car, ‘czar’). The Gothic kaisar probably derives from the Bible translation (Lk 2,1) by Ulfila. In the Annolied (Song of Anno) (v. 271ff.) from the end of the 11th cent. AD keisere is derived from Caesar. The name ‘Caesar’ was initially a cognomen of the Iulii, but after Octavianus ( Augustus) was adopted by Julius Caesar it became Augustus' family name (cf. [3]). Starting with Claudius [III …

Tullia

(610 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4] Daughter of the Roman king Servius Tullius [I 4], the son-in-law of Tarquinius [11] Priscus, she was married to her uncle Arruns. Having failed in her attempts to talk Arruns into assuming rulership, T. turned towards Arruns' brother Tarquinius (the later Tarquinius [12] Superbus), husband of her sister of the same name. After the death of Arruns and of her sister (by murder?; Liv. 1,46,9; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 4,30,1), T. married Tarquini…

Apotheosis

(1,362 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[English version] Although apotheosis as such contradicts the principle of monotheism and therefore cannot occur in Christianity, Christian society from the time of Constantine found ways to maintain the elevation of the ruler above the mortal plane and into the sphere of divinity. In addition, individual forms of apotheosis can be observed again and again, intended either to correspond precisely to this need or to exemplify Christ’s ascension. A type of the latter, which shows Christ being wafted…

Vir egregius

(210 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (literally approximately 'outstanding man'). First encountered under Marcus [2] Aurelius as a general term for the members of the ordo equester [1.28] ( Equites Romani ), from 180/183 recorded as an official non-inheritable title of office (CIL VIII 10570, col. IV, l. 10). In the 3rd cent. AD its significance declined; in his decree of 317, Licinius [II 4] recognizes four grades of equestrian rank: perfectissimus vir, ducenarius vir, centenarius vir, and egregius vir as the lowest (Cod. Theod. 12,1,5, l. 5). The inferiority of the title was due to the…

Gesalicus

(147 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gesalech; also Gesalecus, Gisaleicus). Illegitimate son of  Alaricus [3] II; after the latter's death at Vouillé in AD 507 he was elected king of the Visigoths, as his legitimate half-brother  Amalaricus, grandson of the Ostrogothic king Theoderic, was still a minor (Procop. Goth. 5,12,43). G. was soon forced to retreat to Spain by the Burgundians and Franks (Chron. min. 1,665f. Mommsen). When Theoderic contested his leadership on behalf of Amalaricus (Procop. Goth. 5,12,46), G. …

Pomponia

(291 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Mother of P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus Mother of P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio Africanus, whom she (according to Liv. 26,19,6; Gell. 6,1,1-4) is supposed (in imitation of the history of the birth of Alexander [4] the Great) to have conceived with a snake (= Jupiter). He is also supposed to have given her an account of a dream of his, that he and his elder brother Lucius would take office as aediles, and she was very moved by this (Pol. 10,4,4-5,7); the story is incredible and fallacious (cf. [1. 200 f.]). Perhaps with its help Scipio married …

Postumia

(74 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Last member of the Postumii Albini gens. Born in c. 94, wife of the lawyer Servius Sulpicius Rufus ( cos. in 51). Her children were a son of the same name and a daughter Sulpicia. Cicero mentions P. and her son (Cic. Att. 5,21,9; cf. Shackleton Bailey ad. loc.; Cic. Fam. 4,2,1; 4,2,4; Cic. Phil. 9,5.). Suetonius (Suet. Iul. 50,1) mentions P. among the high-ranking women Caesar seduced. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Fritigern

(180 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Dux ( reiks) of the  Tervingi; in AD 376, with the permission of  Valens and under threat from the Huns, he led his tribe as dediticiideditio ) across the Danube to Thrace (Amm. Marc. 31,4,8; Iord. Get. 134), where the Arian won over parts of the indigenous population. After conflicts with the Romans the Goths defeated the Romans on 9 Sept. 378 in the battle of Hadrianople (Amm. Marc. 31,6,3-5; 11,5; 12,8 [1. 133-139]). F., who was not able to take advantage of the victory because his …

Helvia

(195 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Mother of Cicero Mother of Cicero, never mentioned by him, described by his brother as a painstaking housewife (Cic. Fam. 16,26,2), led a blameless life (Plut. Cicero 1,1). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Wife of Seneca the Elder, 1st cent. AD Wife of Seneca the Elder whom she lost in AD 40 (Sen. Dial. 12,2,4; 19,4).  Seneca the Younger, one of her three sons, wrote for her in exile the consolatory discourse Ad Helviam. PIR2 H 78. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [3] Sister-in-law of Seneca the Elder, 1st cent. AD Elder sister of H. [2]. Her…

Duenos inscription

(465 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] An inscription in archaic Latin on the so-called ‘Vasculum Dresselianum’, a ceramic vessel discovered in Rome, south-east of the Quirinal, in 1880 by H. Dressel. The triangular object with rounded tips and concave sides (length of sides: 10,3-10,5 cm; max. height: 4,5 cm; cf. [1. 55]) has a round opening at each tip. The inscription is on the outer side, written in three lines to be read from right to left (see fig.; other fig. in [1; 2. 134f., 140]; a version of transcription in [3. 70]). The dating of the text ranges from the 7th to the late 3rd cent. BC; ar…

British Usurpation

(197 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Usurpation within the Roman Empire, in Britain (AD 286-296) and in the coastal region of north-west Gaul (AD 286-293). The praefectus classis Britannicae  Carausius, under threat of execution for alleged misappropriation of booty, had himself acclaimed emperor, went to Britain with his fleet, and there and on the channel coast of Gaul ( Gesoriacum) set up the British Usurpation (BU). Rulership and administration followed the Roman model; consolidation of his rule and stimulation of th…

Lutatia

(56 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Daughter of Q. Lutatius [3] Catulus ( cos. in 102 BC) and Servilia, sister of Q. Lutatius [4] Catulus ( cos. in 78), she was the first wife of the orator Q. Hortensius [7] Hortalus to whom she remained married until her death in about 55 BC (Cic. De Or. 3,228f.). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Marcia

(1,003 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Possibly daughter of Q. Marcius Philippus (cos. 281 BC) Possibly daughter of Q. Marcius [I 16] Philippus ( cos. 281 BC), wife of M. Atilius [I 21] Regulus, mother of two sons (Sil. Pun. 6,403-409; 576). As a widow she allegedly took revenge on two Carthaginians who had promised to protect her husband (Diod. Sic. 24,12; HRR I 144f. fr. 5). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Grandmother of Caesar According to Suet. Iul. 6,1 from the royal family of the Marcii Reges, grandmother of Caesar. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [3] Probably daughter of…

Victoria

(690 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Roman goddess and personification of victory Roman goddess and personification of victory, etymologically derived from vincere, "to be victorious" [5. 2501]. In contrast to Nike, her Greek counterpart whom she followed closely in her personification and iconography (as winged goddess, often with cornucopia, wreath and palm leaf: [4. 239-269]), V. was worshipped early and independently in her cult as the symbol of victory achieved (mostly militarily, therefore the close connection to Mars, according to CIL III 4412; VII 220; V. in the pompa circensis: Cic. A…

Dies imperii

(223 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] The day of assuming power, usually also the official recognition of the ruler by the Senate or the army ( Soldier emperors). The exception is  Vespasian: his dies imperii was 1 July 69 AD but the recognition by the Senate came on 21 December 69. The dies imperii is attested, for example, for Caligula in the Acta Arvalium ( quod Imperator appellatus est, Acta Arvalium, CIL VI 32347, 9c 10, see [1]). As in the Hellenistic model, the annually repeated public celebration was the most important after the dies natalis ( Birthday B.) of the   princeps [2. 1137-1145]. The dies imperi…
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