Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)" )' returned 66 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Second Sophistic

(2,887 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] I. Concept A term often used by modern scholarship, particularly for the Greek culture (esp. literary culture) during the Roman Empire between AD 60 and AD 230 when 'Sophistic declamation' (μελέτη/melétē) became one of the most prestigious cultural activities in the Greek world. Philostratus (Philostr.VS 1 praefatio 481, cf. 1,18,507) first uses (and, it seems, coined) the term 'Second Sophistic' to distinguish the declamatory conventions that he claims were introduced by Aeschines ( i.e., for example, the adoption of 'personae' of oligarchs, tyrants o…

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Cleobuline

(49 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Κλεοβουλίνη). (Probably fictive) daughter of  Cleobulus [1] of Lindus, to whom riddles in an elegiac distichon (Fr. 1-2 West) or a single hexameter (Fr. 3 W.) have been attributed since the late 5th cent. BC (Dissoi logoi 3,10 = Fr. 2 W.). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Chrestus

(81 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Χρηστός; Chrēstós) from Byzantium. Sophist; pupil and emulator of  Herodes Atticus; taught in Athens. He had 100 pupils, among them many of significance; an alcoholic; he declined the attempt of the Athenians shortly after 180 to appoint him as successor to Hadrianus as professor of rhetoric in Athens. He died at c. 50 years of age (Philostr. VS 2,11). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography I. Avotins, The Holders of the Chairs of Rhetoric at Athens, in: HSPh 79, 1975, 320-1.

Lollianus

(1,348 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Λολλιανός; Lollianós) [German version] [2] addendum to the family name Hedius. [German version] [3] Q. Hedius L. Plautius Avitus Consul ord. 209 AD For the form of the name, in which Gentianus is also recorded once, cf. [1. 232f.]. Patrician, brother of the virgo Vestalis maxima Terentia Flavola; son of L. [8]. L.'s career up to the consulate is known from CIL VI 32412 = ILS 1155. It is conspicuous that as patrician between the praetorship and office of consul, he was also iuridicus Asturicae et Callaeciae as well as legate of the legio VII Gemina, both in Hispania citerior. Cos. ord. in AD 20…

Hipponax

(888 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἱππῶναξ; Hippônax). [German version] A. Person H. was a poet of iambs (ἰαμβοποιός; iambopoiós) from Ephesus (cf. Callim. fr. 203,13). Based on the Marmor Parium 42, his life can be dated from c. 541/0 BC, Pliny (HN 36,11) mentions Ol. 60 = 540-537 BC. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Metrics As opposed to  Archilochus and  Semonides, H. is not attributed with elegiac verses. In his Íamboi, he primarily (1-114a, 155-155b West) used choliambic trimeters (x -  - x -  - x - x) interspersed with occasional pure trimeters (e.g. 36,4; 42,4; 118a W.). Also …

Aelianus

(806 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster)
[German version] [1] Greek military author Greek military author, wrote the τακτικὰ Αἰλιανοῦ; Taktikà Ailianoû, a textbook addressed to Trajan, in which the tactics and structure of the Greek and specifically the Macedonian armies of the classical and Hellenistic eras are explained. A. was a theoretician without any practical experience and it is for this reason that his work appears mechanical. By his own admission (1,2), he drew on the work of many older authors (Aeneas Tacticus, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Posidoni…

Heraclides

(4,218 words)

Author(s): Högemann, Peter (Tübingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Et al.
(Ἡρακλείδης; Hērakleídēs). Famous persons: the politician and writer H. [19] Lembus, the philosopher H. [16] Ponticus the Younger, the doctor H. [27] of Tarentum. I. Political figures [German version] [1] Spokesman on behalf of Athens at the Persian court, end of 5th cent. BC H. of Clazomenae (cf. Pl. Ion 541d) was in the service of the Persians and probably called basileús for that reason. Thus, he was able to perform valuable services for Athens at the Persian court in 423 BC for which he received Attic citizenship soon after moving there (after 400, Syll.3 118). To move the Athenians …

Zenobius

(737 words)

Author(s): Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ζηνόβιος/ Zēnóbios). [German version] [1] General of Mithridates [6] VI, 1st cent. BC General of Mithridates [6] VI in the first of the Mithridatic Wars (89-85 BC). He captured Chios in 86 BC and organized, despite the payment of the imposed fine of 2,000 talents, deportation of the entire population to the Black Sea (App. Mithr. 180-187; Colchis: Ath. 6,266), in order to warn other cities against secession (cf. Syll.3 785, lines 13-15). During a subsequent stay in Ephesus (still in 86: [1. 172 f.]), however, he was killed by the citizens, who feared a simila…

Nicostratus

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Νικόστρατος; Nikóstratos). [German version] [1] Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen Son of Menelaus [1] and Helen [1]. According to  Hom. Il. 3,175 and Hom. Od. 4,12, Menelaus and Helen had only a daughter (Hermione, cf. Eur. Andr. 898; Lycoph. 851), but in another tradition they also had a son (Hes. Fr. 175,2 M.-W.; Soph. El. 539). Later authors tried to resolve this discrepancy by making N. the son of a slave (Paus. 2,18,6). In Amyclae, N. and Megapenthes [2] were portrayed on horseback, as a counterpart to t…

Philagrus

(129 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Φίλαγρος; Phílagros). Sophist from Cilicia, regarded as arrogant and irritable (Philostr. VS 2,8), possibly related to Q. Veranius Philagrus of Cibyra [1]; pupil of Lollianus [2], probably at Athens, where he quarrelled with Herodes [16] Atticus and his pupils. He may have been Lucian's (Lucianus [1]) target in the latter's Lexiphánēs (cf. [2]). Offered the chair of Greek rhetoric at Rome (in the 170s (?) AD), he died either in Italy or at sea (Philostr. VS 2,8). His pupils included Phoenix (ibid.). Artem. 4,1 (p. 242,11-13 Pack…

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Damocrates

(60 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δαμοκράτης; Damokrátēs).   [German version] (M.?) Servilius D. Freedman of M. Servilius ( cos. ord. AD 3) whose daughter he cured (Plin. HN 24,7,28). Under Nero and Vespasian he wrote prescriptions in iambic trimeters in the didactic tradition of  Apollodorus [7]; some of these are extant in  Galen. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography Edition: F. Cats Bussemaker, Poetae bucolici et didactici, 1862.

Simylus

(202 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Σίμυλος/ Símylos). [German version] [1] Poet of the New Comedy, 3rd cent. BC Poet of the New Comedy, victorious at the Lenaea in 284 BC with his play Ἐφεσία/Ephesía ('The Girl of Ephesus') [1. test. 1]. Pollux also lists the comedy Μεγαρική/Megarikḗ ('The Girl of Megara'), which according to an uncertain expansion of the list of Dionysia victors was supposed to have been performed in 185 as 'Old Comedy' [1. test. 2]. It is equally uncertain whether two and a half iambic trimeters cited by Theophilus of Antioch are attributable to the comic poet S. [1. fr. 2] (cf. S. [2]). Hidber, Thomas (Berne) B…

Ananius

(83 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] Ionian iambographer (?  c. 6th cent. BC). Athenaeus quotes four choliambic fragments: three in trimeters and one in nine tetrameters (9W, the longest), on the most appropriate foods for the respective season. Athenaeus ascribes 2W either to A. or Hipponax; Stobaeus ascribes 3W to Hipponax, and the scholiast of Arist. Ran. 659 ff. that ascribes to A. which Dionysus ascribes to Hipponax, in which there is an underlying confusion in ascribing it to about 406/5 BC. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2,34-36.

Alexander

(7,586 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Et al.
(Ἀλέξαδρος; Aléxandros). Famous personalities:  Alexander the Great [4] (III.); the Philosopher Alexander [26] of Aphrodisias. I. Myth [German version] [1] see Paris see  Paris. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) II. Associated Hellenistic ruling families [German version] [2] A. I. Macedonian king, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC Son of  Amyntas [1] and his negotiator with  Darius. As Macedonian king he supported  Xerxes' invasion of Greece, but pretended to be a friend of the Greeks (later called ‘Philhellen’). Herodotus has subtly shown his ambigu…

Quirinus

(910 words)

Author(s): Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] Roman god Roman deity Doubordieu, Annie (Paris) [German version] A. Name The etymology of the name (Q. from * co-uir-inus as with Quirites from * co-uirites, 'the totality of the citizens') makes its bearer the protector of the Roman citizenry. The age and importance of Q. are documented by the mention of his flamen ( F lamines ) in fourth position of the priestly hierarchy ( R ex sacrorum ) transmitted in Fest. 299 f. L. Nevertheless, his nature remains opaque: His origin is connected with the founding of the city of Ro…

Hermocrates

(514 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg)
(Ἑρμοκράτης; Hermokrátēs). [German version] [1] Syracusan statesman, 424 BC Syracusan statesman and general. Became prominent for the first time at the peace conference of Gela in 424 BC and successfully invited the Sicilian Greeks with the slogan ‘Sicily to the Siceliots’ to settle the internal disputes (Thuc. 4,58-64). In 415 he recommended the formation of a coalition against Athens reaching beyond Sicily (Thuc. 6,32,3-34). Initially chosen as one of three authorized strategoi, but soon, like his colleagues, deposed because of his lack of success (Thuc. 6,73,1; …

Nicetes

(317 words)

Author(s): Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Νικέτης; Nikét ēs). [German version] [1] Greek rhetor at Rome, Augustan period Greek rhetor active at Rome in the Augustan period, known solely through several references by Seneca the Elder. Most of these report brief judgements and pithy remarks on fictional disputes (Sen. Controv 1,4,12; 1,5,9; 1,7,18; 1,8,13; 9,2,29; 9,6,18; 10,5,23); others exemplify the peculiarity of his teaching method (ibid. 9,2,23: N. only declaimed himself, and did not listen to students' practice speeches) and indicate his evid…

Iambographers

(1,272 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] A. Archaic and Classical Poets Among archaic Greek poets,  Archilochus,  Semonides and  Hipponax were regarded as the earliest authors of iambics ( íamboi), followed by  Ananius and, later in the 5th century BC,  Hermippus [1]. The term iambopoioí is found not before the Byzantine lexica. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] B. Term and metrics ί̓αμβος ( íambos) seems, although its earliest use (Archil. 215 W) is not decisive, initially to identify a type of poem defined by content (cf. Pl. Leg. 935e) rather than by metre (cf. Hdt. 1…

Theognis

(1,349 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg)
(Θέογνις/ Théognis). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Elegiac poet, 6th cent. BC Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) [German version] I. Life and textual history T. was born in Megara [2] in Greece (Didymus in schol. Plat. leg. 630a), hardly Megara [3] in Sicily (Suda Θ 136 and probably Plat. l.c.,), ca. 544-1 BC (Suda l.c.; acc. to [17] 65-71 ca. 630-600). Plat. l.c. (citing El. 77-8) and Isoc. Or. 3,42-3 first name T. as a good adviser, and according to Stob. 4,29,53 Xen. wrote On Theognis and cited El. 22-3 and 183-190. T.'s poems were probably sung at 5th and 4th cent. B…

Tyrtaeus

(621 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Τυρταῖος; Tyrtaîos). Spartan elegist and aulete, c. 640 BC (Suda s.v. Τυρταῖος, 1205; cf. T.' dating of Theopompus [1] to two generations before his own day, 5 W). The (probably Hellenistic) edition of his poems in 5 vols. (Suda loc.cit.) contains (1) martial exhortatory elegies, (2) the Eunomía and (3) war songs. (1) The battle exhortations (ὑποθῆκαι/ hypothêkai, Suda loc.cit.) urged the Spartans (always in the pl.) to courageous action against the enemy (Messenians: 23 W; Arcadians and Argives: 23a W). Honour in victory or death wa…

Echembrotus

(74 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Eχέμβροτος; Echémbrotos) Arcadian aulode and elegist. Paus. 10,7,5-6 reports about his victory in the aulode competition during the newly arranged Pythian Games in 586 BC and quotes his verse(?) epigram on a tripod in Thebes dedicated to Hercules. His description as a singer of μέλεα καὶ ἐλέγους is the earliest record of the term élegoi. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography IEG 2, 62 M. L. West, Studies in Greek Elegy and Iambus, 1974.

Tettix

(214 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
(Τέττιξ, lit. “cicada”). [German version] [1] Founder of a city at the entrance to Hades A Cretan said to have founded a city on the Taenarum near the supposed entrance to Hades: there the man who killed Archilochus in battle, Callondas, nicknamed Corax, was sent by Delphi to placate Archilochus' ghost (Plut. De sera 17.615E, whence Suda α 4112, probably via Ael. (fr. 80)). The hypothesis of [1] that Archilochus called himself T. remains unproven, in spite of Lucian, Pseudol. 1 and Archil. fr. 223  West. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography 1 Göber, s. v. T. (1), RE 5 A, 1111. [German version] [2…

Chares

(964 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Steinhart, Matthias (Freiburg) | Et al.
(Χάρης; Chárēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 4th cent. BC Athenian strategos of the 4th cent. BC. In 367/6 he supported Phleius when it was hard-pressed by Argos and Sicyon. The aid he gave to the oligarchs on Corcyra led to that island's leaving the 2nd Athenian League, and brought Athens discredit among its confederates. Not re-elected as strategos until 357/6. The treaty between Athens and the Thracian kings  Berisades, Amadocus I and Cersobleptes under C. in 357 both confirmed the division of Thracian rule and established Athenian poss…

Apsines

(151 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ἀψίνης; Apsínēs) Valerius [1] A., sophist from Gadara, pupil of the sophist Heracleides and of Basilicus, a teacher of Gaianus, rival of Fronto of Emesa in Athens during the reign of Maximinus, where he was granted the ornamenta consularia (Suda α 4735 Adler). Father of the sophist Onasimus (Suda α 4734, 4736), friend of Philostratus (Philostr. VS 2,33). The works ζητήματα and a Demosthenes commentary (Maximus Planudes 5,517 Walz) have been lost; a corrupt work περὶ τῶν ἐσχηματισμένων προβλημάτων follows a revision o…

Solon

(2,951 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σόλων/ Sólōn). [1] S. of Athens Poet, legislator, c. 600 BC [German version] I. Life griech. Gesetzgeber, um 600 v. Chr. S. (b. c. 640 BC), an Athenian of the family of the Medontidae, supposedly related through the maternal line with Peisistratus [4], the most important Greek legislator (alongside the legendary Spartan Lycurgus [4]) of the Archaic period and the first prominent Athenian poet. S. first emerged around 600 BC, when he successfully appealed for the conquest of Salamis [1] during the conflict with Megara…

Pamphilus

(1,304 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Et al.
(Πάμφιλος; Pámphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian soldier, 4th cent. BC Athenian hípparchos and stratēgós. In 389 BC, he erected a permanent emplacement on Aegina and besieged the island, but had to be relieved after five months, himself besieged by the Spartan Gorgopas. Convicted of embezzlement and fined heavily at Athens, P. still owed the city five talents at his death after having sold his estates (Lys. 15,5; Xen. Hell. 5,1,2; Aristoph. Plut. 174; 385; Plat. fr. 14 PCG; Dem. Or. 39,2; 40,20 and 22). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography Davies, 36…

Scopelianus

(132 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκοπελιανός; Skopelianós). Sophist from Clazomenae, active c. 80-115 AD. According to Philostr. VS 1,21,514, our only source, S. was taught by Nicetes [2], presumably in Smyrna where S. too taught (his pupils included Polemon) and declaimed. Renowned especially for subjects drawn from the Persian Wars, S. had a vigorous style (apparent also in his epic Γιγαντία ( Gigantía), criticised as 'dithyrambic'. Like his ancestors he was high priest of the province of Asia (ἀρχιερεύς/ archiereús). Often an envoy to emperors, c. 92 AD he successfully opposed Domitian's…

Scythinus

(124 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σκυθῖνος; Skythînos). iambic poet from Teos (Steph. Byz. s. v. Τέως), perhaps 5th or 4th century B.C. S. composed a poem expounding Heraclitus' [1] philosophy (cited in Diog. Laert. 9,16 = fr. 46 Wehrli), perhaps entitled On Nature (περὶ φύσεως), as in the lemma of Stob. 1,8,43 citing fr. 2 W. on 'time', either in prose or in corrupted trochaic tetrameters [1], the metre of S.' two lines about Apollo's lyre cited Plut. de Pyth. or. 16,402a. Ath. 11,461e cites an account of Herakles' conquests from an apparently prose ‘ historía’ (FGrH 13 F 1). Iambographers  Bowie, Ewen (O…

Athenaeus

(2,425 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg) | Et al.
(Ἀθηναῖος; Athēnaîos). [German version] [1] Lacedaemonian, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens Lacedaemonian, son of Periclidas, contributed in 423 BC to the truce with Athens (Thuc. 4,119), which he officially announced to  Brasidas a little later together with the Athenian Aristonymus (Thuc. 4,122). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Son of Attalus I of Pergamum, member of the 'Royal Council' A. was, as the youngest son of Attalus I of Pergamum, a member of the ‘Royal Council’; he is also documented as an agonothete (Alt. Perg. 8,3,…

Zenothemis

(214 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Ζηνόθεμις; Zēnóthemis). Elegiac poet, probably from the late 4th or early 3rd cent. BC. The only surviving fragment is an elegiac distichon from a Periplous which names the Issedones and the Arismaspi as neighbours (SH 855, quoted by Tzetz. Chil. 7,765f.). This poem is probably also the source of references to Hyperboreans (ibid. 7, 642-671 = SH 856), Amazones in Ethiopia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,963-965c = SH 857), and fish in a Paeonic lake that are fed alive to cattle (Ael. NA 17,30…

Herodes

(2,828 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἡρῴδης; Hērṓidēs). [German version] [1] H. I.; Herod the Great. Born in c. 73 BC, son of  Antipater [4] and the Arabian woman Cyprus. In 47 appointed strategos of Galilaea, he came into conflict with the Sanhedrin of Jerusalem because of the execution on his own authority of persons involved in a revolt. The Roman governor of Syria Sex.  Iulius [I 11] Caesar made him the strategos of Coilesyria and Samaria. In 43 he proved himself to be indispensable to one of the murderers of Caesar, C.  Cassius [I 10], in the exploitation of the land, likewise in 41 after …

Antipater

(2,083 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Macedonian commander (320-319 BC) Son of Iolaus,  399/398 BC, was certainly already active militarily and diplomatically under  Philippus and under his father  Amyntas and brothers. He was especially connected with  Alexander [4] and secured his throne after the murder of Philippus. During Alexander's invasion in Asia he remained with half of the Macedonian army as governor of Europe. He monitored Greece and sent mercenaries and Macedonian contingents during the first year of the …

Callinus

(432 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Καλλῖνος; Kallînos). [German version] [1] Elegiac poet Elegiac poet from Ephesus, c. 650 BC. His only long fr. (21 verses, 1 W./G.-P., from Stobaeus) urges young men ( néoi), presumably symposiasts, to defend their city. The enemy were perhaps the Cimmerians -- they are mentioned in a hexameter in 5(a) W./G.-P., which was adduced by Str. 14,1,40 (cf. 13,4,8) as evidence for a Cimmerian invasion that led to the capture of Sardes (thus c. 652 BC). This invasion had taken place earlier than that of the Trerians (also in 4 W./G.-P.), which destroyed Magnesia. In theme, …

Phocylides

(409 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin)
(Φωκυλίδης/ Phōkylídēs). [German version] [1] Poet from Miletus, c. 540 BC Greek poet from Miletus (Phryn. 336, p. 463 R.; Suda) who wrote hexameters and elegiac gnomai (gnome; elegiac: Athen. 632d; both: Suda φ 643), c. 540 BC (Suda). The Γνῶμαι/ Gnômai, aphorisms, are ascribed to P. by many authors (e.g. Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Strabo, Dion [I 3] Chrysostomus, Athenaeus, Clement of Alexandria). They begin (as do those of Demodocus [2] of Lerus) with καὶ τόδε Φωκυλίδου/ kai tóde Phōkulídou, 'P. says this, too'). They are written in hexameters (from one to eight verses…

Polemon

(1,776 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Donohue, Alice A. (Bryn Mawr) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Πολέμων/ Polémōn). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher, 4th-3rd cents. BC Academic philosopher, born c. 350, died probably in 276/5 BC. Xenocrates [2] introduced him to philosophy (legendary account of his vocation in Diog. Laert. 4,16 f.). P. succeeded him as head of the Academy. He taught Crates [3] and Crantor, as well as the Stoics Zeno of Citium and Ariston [7] of Chios. Very little remains of his many writings mentioned in ancient sources (Diog. Laert. 4,20; Suda s. v. Π 1887) (fr. collected in …

Semonides of Amorgos

(576 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Σημωνίδης/ Sēmōnídēs: Choiroboskos in Etym. M. 713,17; most citations spell Σιμωνίδης/ Simōnídēs). One of the earliest known composers of iambic poetry (Iambographers) of the 7th cent. The dating of Cyrillus (Contra Iulianum 1,14) to 664-611 BC is to be preferred (cf. Archilochus) to that of the Suda σ 446 to 490 years after the Trojan War, i.e. 693 BC (cf. the information wrongly transmitted under Simmias σ 431). According to the Suda σ 431 he led colonists from Samos to found Minoa, Aigialos and Arkesine in Amorgos. S. wrote Íamboi and an 'Early History' (Ἀρχαιολογία/ Ar…

Clonas

(84 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Κλονᾶς; Klonâs). Poet and musician who is claimed to be from both Tegea and Thebes; possibly early 7th cent. BC, as he is classified between  Terpander and  Archilochus (Ps.-Plut. De musica 1133a). Heraclides Ponticus (fr. 157 Wehrli = Ps.-Plut. ibid. 1131f-1132c, cf. Poll. 4,79) credits him with elegiac poems and hexameters as well as with having introduced nómoi for vocal music (αὐλῴδια/ aulṓidia) accompanied on the aulós, and processional songs (προσόδια/ prosódia). Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) Bibliography M. L. West, Ancient Greek Music, 1992, 333-334.

Mimnermus

(760 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Μίμνερμος; Mímnermos) of Colophon or Smyrna, 2nd half of the 7th century BC. One of the earliest writers of Greek elegy. In antiquity, he was viewed, along with Callinus [1] and Archilochus as its possible ‘inventor’. The Suda dates M. to the 37th Olympiad (632-629 BC), but the opinion of scholars is divided: that M. was still living around 600 cannot be proved by citing Solon (20 W., purporting to be a reply to M.) ( contra [7]); praise of a victor from an earlier generation over the Lydians (14 W.), as well as a poem about a battle against Gyges [1] (P…

Glycon

(378 words)

Author(s): Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Γλύκων; Glýkōn). [German version] [1] Poet Named by Heph. 10,2 Consbruch as the inventor of Glyconic verse ( Metre). His existence is disputed and the three verses ascribed to him (= 1029 PMG) are generally viewed as alexandrine in terms of metre: G. could hardly have lived before Sappho (late 7th cent. BC), who used this meter. Choeroboscus names G. (in his Comm. on St. In Heph. Consbruch) as a comedic poet, but probably mistook him for Leucon (PCG V 612). Anth. Pal. 10,124, a two-liner on the futil…

Adaeus

(272 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Ἀδαῖος; Adaîos). [German version] [1] Dynast in south-eastern Thrace, (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) Dynast in south-eastern Thrace, middle of the 3rd cent. BC, probably offspring of a Macedonian governor appointed by  Philip II. He minted several emissions of bronze coins. Probably identical to A., who reigned in Cypsela (Athen. 11,468 f.) and A., who was executed by  Ptolemaeus III (Pomp. Trog. prol. 27; SEG 34, 1984, 878). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Buraselis, Das hell. Makedonien und die Ägäis, 1982, 122-123, 139. [German version] [2] Macedonian epigrammatist Maced…

Panarces

(79 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
[German version] (Πανάρκης; Panárkēs). Date and origin uncertain; Ath. 452c, adducing Clearchus' [6] On Riddles (Περὶ γρίφων, Perì gríphōn), attributes riddles to him but cites only one, known also from Pl. Resp. 479b, where the scholiast quotes two versions, each in four iambic trimeters, and attributes them to Clearchus = fr. 95 Wehrli. It is uncertain whether P. lived as early as that, or whether the riddle was attributed to him, in Plato's time. Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)

Elegy

(3,415 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Spoth, Friedrich (Munich)
I. Greek [German version] A. Definition Poem in elegiac verse metre (alternating a dactylic catalectic hexameter and a pentameter). This important Greek literary genre is documented since c. 650 BC. Once the inscriptional  epigram had developed into the literary epigram and the elegiac distich had become its customary verse metre, often no difference was recognizable between the two genres. The Greek metric term for the couplet is elegeíon (ἐλεγείον; formed from élegos, ἔλεγος), first in Pherecrates PCG VII, fr. 162,10 (in plural) and Critias 4,3 West, later docume…

Buntschriftstellerei

(1,226 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Krasser, Helmut (Gießen)
[German version] A. Greek The term was coined by German classicists (based on  Aelianus' [2] title ποικίλη ἱστορία, poikílē historía), to classify prose works which present their material in a deliberately indiscriminate order. We have no ancient generic term for works of this kind (neither do we have a detailed critical explanation), but can make the following distinction: (a) works whose contents follow one another apparently haphazardly and whose subjects are different and (b) works whose contents follow one an…

Demodocus

(382 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford)
(Δημόδοκος; Dēmódokos). [German version] [1] Singer at the royal court of the Phaeaces Singer at the royal court of the  Phaeaces; as an indirect self-portrait, his slightly idealized description (Hom. Od. 8), just as that of  Phemius, constitutes an important source for the self-perception, working style and social status of the Homeric   aoidoi . D. is highly regarded in society; his name (‘whom the people receives’) is very telling and specifically explained in ‘etymological’ terms in Od. 8,472. D. presents his songs accomp…
▲   Back to top   ▲