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M(a)enaca

(288 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē, Lat. Menace), city in southern Spain. The name is probably derived from μαίνη/ maínē or Lat. maena, a salted fish (Avien. 426-431 confused M. with Malaca [1. 80]; Scymn. 147; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ., where M. is called Celtic). According to Str. 3,4,2 M. was a colony of Phocaea, which no longer existed at that time. Schulten [2. 35-38] assumed it was located west of the mouth of the Vélez on the hill Cerro del Peñón. This hypothes…

Carthago Nova

(350 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome Carthago Nova (CN) was founded by  Hasdrubal in c. 225 BC as his new centre of power in the location of Mastia (with the best harbour of the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast; modern Cartagena). The Carthaginian town was adorned with many representative buildings: a temple to the Punic deities  Baal and  Eshmun, palaces, docks, as well as a massi…

Iuliobriga

(109 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Celtic for ‘castle of Iulius’; [1. 87]). Probably a foundation by Augustus dating from the Cantabrian campaign [2. 195]. Remains near the village of Retortillo, 3 km south of Reinosa, not far from the source of the Ebro. References: Plin. HN 3,21; 27; 4,111; Ptol. 2,6,50; Not. Dign. Occ. 42,30; CIL II Suppl. p. 1148. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 1919 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures, 1943. A. García y Bellido, Excavaciones en Iuliobriga, in: Archivio español de arqueo…

Arx Gerontis

(130 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Place name, originating from Geron/Theron, a king of  Tartessus ( fani est prominens et ... Gerontis arx est eminens: Avien. Ora maritima 261; 263; 304). The sanctuary was supposedly located within the delta area of the  Baetis [1. 237], the Arx Gerontis to the south of it, possibly on the Salmedina peninsula, of which these days only a few cliffs remain, washed over by the sea [2. 39, 41, map 1; 1. 236f.]. According to a later source (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,767), the place was also called ἄκρα Γλαύκου ( ákra Glaúkou), showing the identification of King Geron with the…

Laeetani

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe ( laiescon [1. 19]) on the Spanish east coast between Barcelona and Blanes; regarding the various spellings and misspellings of the name ( Laietani, Leetani, Lacetani, Laletani, Lasetani) cf. [2. vol. 6, 235; 3; 4]; Plin. HN 3,21; Str. 3,4,8; Ptol. 2,6,18; 72; ILS 2714a; CIL II Suppl. 6171. Wine of inferior quality was cultivated there in large amounts (Plin. HN 14,71; Mart. 1,26; [2. vol. 1, 136, vol. 3, 51, vol. 6, 235f.; 5. vol. 8, 184, 195, 292]). Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Hübner, Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, 1893 2 A. Schulten (…

Nertobriga

(148 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in northern Spain City in northern Spain (Celtic place name: narto, ‘strength’, briga, ‘fortress’ [1]), modern Calatorao in the Jalón valley, 30 km to the northeast of Bilbilis. The consul M. Claudius [I 13] Marcellus conquered N. in 152 BC. The city was finally subjugated in 143 BC (App. Ib. 48; 50; Flor. Epit. 1,33,10). Itin. Anton. 437,4; 439,2; coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1, 533; 2, 723. Tovar 2, 414  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 158f. [German version] [2] City in central Spain City in central Spain, as a Roman colony N. Concordia Iulia (Pli…

Iliberis

(242 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] I., Iliberri This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town, probably near Granada in the Sierra de Elvira. Mentioned in Plin. HN 3,10 and Ptol. 2,4,9. Diocese in the Christian era, site of the concilium Eliberitanum (AD 306 ?) [1]. Often mentioned on coins and in inscriptions, here several times as municipium Florentinum (e.g. CIL II 1572; 2070). After the Arab invasion, the town appears to have steadily declined and the population to have moved to Garnatha, modern Granada. Inscriptions: CIL II p. 285ff., Suppl. p. 1146. Ba…

Lacetani

(88 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (not to be confused with the Iaccetani; e.g. Ptol. 2,6,71; [1]), who settled the southern foothills of the eastern Pyrenees, west of Llobregat, east of Segre, south of Noya and Cervera (Liv. 21,61,8; 28,24,4; 34,20,1; Plin. HN 3,21). They were one of the earliest tribes to be subjugated by the Romans (Plut. Cato Maior 11,2; cf. Cass. Dio 45,10; Sall. Hist. 2,98,5; [2. 50f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. iaccos 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935. Tovar 3, 35ff.

Asturia

(108 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Region on the Atlantic coast of northern Spain. It corresponds with the modern provinces of Asturias, Leon and Valladolid. The Astures split up into tribal groups ( populi), first reported by Posidonius (in Str. 3,3,7). Like the  Cantabri, they were subjugated by Augustus. The gold reserves of the country were legendary. In the town of Astorga, there was a military unit under the command of the procurator metallorum (Flor. Epit. 2,33,60; ILS 9125ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturias preromana y altoimperial, 1989 N. Santos Yang…

Ebora

(236 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Whether the name E. is Iberian, Ligurian or Celtic, remains unclear [1. vol. 1, 1394; vol. 2, 205; 2. 68; 3. 150]. [German version] [1] Town of the Carpetani, modern Montalba Town of the Carpetani, today Montalba on the Tajo. The town Aebura referred to in Livy (40,30; 32f.) is probably identical with Libora (Ptol. 2,6,56; Geogr. Rav. 4,44, Lebura; but cf. CIL II p. 111 s. Caesarobriga). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Modern Évora in Portugal Today Évora in Portugal (Alentejo); its identity is confirmed by inscriptions and archaeological remains (fort, …

Minius

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Spanish river (Str. 3,3,4: also Βαῖνις/ Baínis; App. Hisp. 301: also Βαίτις/ Baítis), modern Miño; Name according to [1] perhaps Iberian, according to [2] Etruscan, though this is unlikely [1. 595, 2354ff.; 3. 361]. The ancient derivation from minium (‘cinnabar’, Just. Epit. 44,3,4; Isid. Orig. 19,17,7) is unfounded. M. and its tributaries had the same course as they do now [4. 276], but contained more water. According to Str. l.c. it was navigable for 800 stages (i.e. 160 km), but today this is only about 100 km. On its banks was the Mons Medullius. Barceló, Pedro (P…

Carpetani

(180 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The C. are mentioned by Pol. 3,14,2 in the context of  Hannibal's expansion into central Spain as the most powerful tribal group of that region. Hannibal clashed with them when he went to war against the Olcades in 221 BC, and against the Vaccaei a year later. When he wanted to cross the Tagus, he faced opposition from the C. (Pol. 3,14,5-9). Hannibal attacked them again in 219 BC during the siege of  Saguntum, alongside the  Oretani (Liv. 21,11,13). In line with most Spanish trib…

Sexi

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars Phoenician settlement (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 43: Σίξος/ Síxos; Str. 3,4,2; 3,5,5: Ἐξιτανοί/ Exitanoí; Mela 2,94; Plin. HN 3,8: Sexi Firmum Iulium; Ptol. 2,4,7: Σέξ/ Séx; It. Ant. 405,3: Saxetanum) on the southern coast of the Iberian peninsula, probably at modern Almuñécar, to date not excavated. It is scarcely recognisable today owing to considerable sedimentation that the Phoenician settlement was originally on a peninsula or island, su…

Acra Leuce

(225 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Ἀκρα Λευκή; Ákra Leukḗ) Because of its Greek name, García y Bellido [2. 5925,10,3] took the town's foundation by  Hamilcar, as reported in Diod. Sic. 25,10,3 f.; 25,10,12, as evidence for the existence of a preceding Greek settlement at A. Generally, based on a rather questionable interpretation of the toponymy of Acra -- Castrum Album/Lucentum/Alicante -- its location is supposed to be within the municipal area of Alicante; other …

Massieni

(105 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Mastieni). Iberian tribe on the southeast coast of Spain (Avien. 422; 425; 450), with dwelling places from the Chrysus (modern Guadiaro) River to Carthago Nova [1. 52, 197, 186f.]. The principal town was Mastia (cf. Pol. 3,24,2; 4, here called Ταρσήιον/ Tarsḗion, indicating that it probably belonged to Tartessus' sphere of influence). Hasdrubal [2] may have founded Carthago Nova on the site of Mastia around 221 BC. The Bastetani, which may possibly be identified with the M., later appeared in their place [2]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.),…

Bebryces

(52 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The Spanish B. are mentioned by Scymn. 201 (prior to 202 BC). Avien. 485 describes the ‘Berybrakes’ as a rough, wild people, whose areas of settlement are not clearly known. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Fernández Nieto, Beribraces, edetanos e ilercaones, in: Zephyrus 19/20, 1968/69, 115-142 Tovar 3, 64.

Mons Medullius

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Mountain in north-eastern Spain; the name is Celtic [1]. Here, in 25 BC, the Cantabri put up the last resistance against the army of Augustus (Flor. 2,33,50; Oros. 6,21,7). Schulten [2. 170] identified the MM, probably wrongly, with the Monte S. Julián at Tuy on the Miño; it is much more likely to have been (cf. [3. 153ff.]) on the Sil near  Las Médulas (Prov. León). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 528 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1 3 F.J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989. P. Barceló, Das Kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olsh…

Belli

(58 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian tribe on the Jalón, a tributary of the Duero, with the main city of Segeda. The B. played a pre-eminent role in the Celtiberian Wars (154-133 BC); after that, they are no longer mentioned (Pol. 35,2,3; 11; App. Ib. 44ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 200 Tovar 3, 92.

Mellaria

(153 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Μελλαρία; Mellaría). The name of two cities. According to [3], it is uncertain whether it is Iberian, Celtic or Latin; according to [1; 2. vol. 8, 352] it is Latin for ‘City of Honey’). [German version] [1] City in the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar In the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar, between Traducta (near modern Tarifa) and Baelo, known from Sertorius' landing near M. in 80 BC (Plut. Sertorius 12; [2. vol. 4, 169]; cf. Strab. 3,1,8; Mela 2,96; Plin. HN 3,7; Ptol. 2,4,6; It. Ant. 407,2). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City near modern Fuente Ovejuna M. (Baetu…

Mirobriga

(169 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Merobriga). Name of three towns in Spain (celtic ‘fort of Miro’ [1. 599]). [German version] [1] Town near modern Capilla This item can be found on the following maps: Town near modern Capilla east of Mérida near Almadén (cf. CIL II 2365f.), located by Plin. HN 3,14 in Baeturia Turdolorum and mentioned among the oppida non ignobilia (cf. Ptol. 2,4,10; 6,58; Itin. Anton. 444,6) [2; 3] Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town in the area of Salmantica Town in the area of Salmantica (modern Salamanca) and Bletisa (modern Ledesma): CIL II 858f. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) …
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