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Stenger, Johann Melchior

(190 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Sep 26, 1638, Erfurt – Mar 7, 1710, Wittstock). After studying in Jena (1654), Leipzig, Wittenberg, Straßburg (Strasbourg; 1658), and Erfurt, Stenger became a deacon at the Predigerkirche in Erfurt in 1666. His terministic teaching regarding repentance and grace, for which he relied primarily on Sonthoms Güldenes Kleinod (E. Sonthom), set off the “Stenger controversy,” which precipitated a crisis in “early Erfurt Pietism” (Wallmann), which P.J. Spener unsuccessfully tried to resolve. Relieved of his office in Erfurt in 1670, …

Hartlieb, Samuel

(176 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (or Hartlib; c. 1600, Elbing – 1662, London). After studying at Cambridge (1625/1626), Hartlieb moved permanently to England c. 1628. He combined enthusiasm for F. Bacon's scientific reforms with chiliastic expectations and utopian Christian ideas (J.V. Andreae), to whose realization he dedicated himself as an organizer, publisher, correspondent, and publicist. He saw the Puritan revolution as the onset of the millennium, which would bring to England a golden age of science togeth…

Anton, Paul

(209 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 12, 1661, Hirschfelde – Oct 20, 1730, Halle). Anton began his studies in Leipzig in 1680; in 1681 he became acquainted with P.J. Spener. In 1686, together with A.H. Francke, he founded the Collegium Philobiblicum, the nucleus of the Pietist movement in Leipzig. In 1695 Anton was called to Halle as professor of theology and …

Rambach

(367 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] 1. Johann Jakob (Feb 24, 1693, Halle – Apr 19, 1735, Giessen). From 1712, Rambach studied in Halle; in 1715 he worked on J.H. Michaelis’s edition of the Biblia Hebraica; from 1719 (together with G.A. Francke), he studied in Jena (esp. under J.F. Buddeus), where in 1720 he gained his M.A.; in 1723 he became assistant in the Halle faculty of theology; in 1726, assistant professor; in 1727, full professor of theology in Halle; in 1731, Dr.theol.; from 1731, professor and general superintendent in Giessen. Ramba…

Breithaupt, Joachim Justus

(225 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1658, Northeim near Göttingen – Mar 16, 1732, Berge Monastery near Magdeburg) studied (1676–1683) in Helmstedt and Kiel (where he lived in the house of C. Kortholt with A.H. Francke) and became associate professor of homiletics there in 1684. In 1685, he became court preacher and consistorial counselor in Meinigen. After a stay with P…

Halle, University of

(794 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] The initiative to establish a university in Halle goes back to Albert of Brandenburg, who in 1531 obtained the founding privilege from the papal legate cardinal L. Campeggio. Lack of money and the introduction of the Reformation in the archdiocese of Magdeburg forestalled these plans, which were directed against Wittenberg University (Wittenberg, University of). When in 1680 the archdiocese fell to Brandenburg as the Duchy of Magdeburg, the founding plans were revived and were rea…

Lange, Joachim

(298 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Oct 26, 1670, Gardelegen, Altmark – May 7, 1744, Halle). After attending school in Osterwieck, Quedlinburg (1687), and Magdeburg (1689), Lange entered the university at Leipzig in the fall of 1689. There he joined A. Francke and the Collegium Philobiblicum and because a private tutor for C. Thomasius. In 1690 he followed Francke to Erfurt and in 1692 to Halle; in 1693 he moved to Berlin and joined the circle around P. Spener, K. v Canstein, and J. Schade. After receiving his master's degree in absentia from Halle, he was appointed principal in Köslin, Farther Pom…

Hellmund, Egidius Günther

(312 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Aug 6, 1678, probably in the region of Neunheilingen near Langensalza – Feb 6, 1749, Wiesbaden). After studying in Jena and Halle, where he aligned himself with the Pietism of A.H. Francke, Hellmund was a Saxon-Weimarian military chaplain in the War of the Spanish Succession (1700–1707), then adjunct pastor in Berka/Werra, pastor in Daaden, Westerwald (1708), and pastor in Wetzlar (after 1711). Confronted with the vigorous hostility of his anti-Pietist colleague, J. Geibel and th…

Mengering, Arnold

(197 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Sep 1, 1596, Halle an der Saale – Jan 2, 1647, Halle an der Saale). After studying in Wittenberg (from 1615) and Jena (from 1619), Arnold Mengering officiated as pastor in the area of Magdeburg from 1622 onward (1622: Colbitz, 1624: Sudenburg, 1627: Löbejün). In 1627, he became cathedral preacher in Halle, was deposed and expelled in 1630 following recatholicization of the cathedral during the Thirty Years War, was appointed third court chaplain in Dresden in 1631, and court chap…

Reitz

(169 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[English Version] Reitz,  Johann Henrich (24.6.1655 Oberdiebach – 25.11.1720 Wesel), ref. Theologe, Studium in Heidelberg (ab 1675), Bremen (ab 1678), Herborn und Leiden (ab 1679), Rektor in Frankenthal, 1681 Pfarrer in Freinsheim, 1689 Inspektor in Ladenburg, 1694 Pfarrer in Asslar, 1695 Hofprediger und Inspektor in Braunfels. Unter dem Einfluß von B. Ch. Klopfer und H. Horche für den Separatismus und Chiliasmus gewonnen, wurde R. 1697 amtsenthoben. In den folgenden Jahren nur kurzzeitig in Ämtern…

Porst

(242 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[English Version] Porst, Johann (11.12.1668 Oberkotzau bei Hof – 9.1.1728 Berlin), nach Studium in Leipzig 1689–1692 Hauslehrer in Neustadt an der Aisch, wo er sich infolge der Lektüre von Ph.J. Speners Bußpredigten dem Pietismus anschloß und Konventikel einrichtete. 1695 übersiedelte P. nach Berlin und gewann Zugang zum Kreis um Spener, der ihn förderte. 1698 wurde er Pfarrer in Malchow, 1704 Zweiter Pfarrer an der Friedrichwerderschen und Dorotheenstädtischen Kirche in Berlin, 1709 Hofprediger be…

Stenger

(170 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[English Version] Stenger,  Johann Melchior (26.9.1638 Erfurt – 7.3.1710 Wittstock). Nach Studium in Jena (1654), Leipzig, Wittenberg, Straßburg (1658) und Erfurt ab 1666 Diakonus an der Erfurter Predigerkirche. Der über S.s terministische Buß- und Gnadenlehre, für die er sich v.a. auf »Sonthoms Güldenes Kleinod« (E. Sonthom) berief, entbrannte »Stengersche Streit« führte den »Erfurter Frühpietismus« (Wallmann) in eine Krise, in der Ph.J. Spener erfolglos zu vermitteln versuchte. 1670 in Erfurt amt…

Quandt

(190 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[English Version] Quandt, Johann Jakob (27.3.1686 Königsberg – 17.1.1772 ebd.), nach Studium in Königsberg (ab 1701), Leipzig (ab 1706, 1707 M.A.), Halle und Jena sowie einer Bildungsreise durch Deutschland und die Niederlande, wo er v.a. orientalistische Studien trieb, ab 1710 M. legens in Königsberg, 1715 Dr. theol. (Rostock), 1716 a.o. Prof. der Theol., 1718 zugleich Pfarrer in Königsberg-Löbenicht, 1721 Oberhofprediger, Konsistorialrat und o.Prof. der Theol., 1736 Generalsuperintendent in Preuße…

Sonthom(b)

(160 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[English Version] Sonthom(b), Emanuel (Anagramm für E. Thom[b]son; Lebensdaten unbekannt), engl. Kaufmann in Danzig und Stade (dort nachgewiesen 1599–1612), übers. unter dem Titel »Güldenes Kleinot der Kinder Gottes« (Frankfurt/M., 1612) das »First Booke of the Christian Exercise« (1582) des engl. Jesuiten Robert Persons, das ihm in der prot. Bearb. durch Edmund Bunny vorlag (A Booke of Christian Exercise, 1584). Seit der Ausg. Lüneburg 1632, der ein vermutlich von J. Gesenius vf. dritter Teil beig…

Michaelis, Johann Heinrich

(246 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1668, Klettenberg, South Harz – Mar 10, 1738, Halle). After a commercial apprenticeship in Braunschweig, Michaelis attended the Latin school in Nordhausen; in 1688 he began the study of oriental languages in Leipzig. There he became a disciple of A.H. Francke, whom he followed to Halle in 1692. He received his master's degree there in 1694 and was appointed to the philosophical faculty as adjunct in 1696. After a study year in 1699 with H. Ludolf in Frankfurt am Main, whe…

Elers, Heinrich Julius

(203 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (Jun 28, 1667, Bardowick near Lüneburg – Sep 13, 1728, Halle/Saale), already at school (Lüneburg 1688) and as a theology student (1689 Leipzig) was a friend and supporter of A.H. Francke, on whose side he was involved in Pietistic disputes (Pietism: I, 1). From 1690 to1694 he was an informant in Arnstadt; he was imprisoned in 1694 and expelled for founding conven…

Meldenius, Rupertus

(138 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (anagram of Petrus Meuderlinus [Peter Meiderlin]; 1582, Oberacker near Maulbronn – Jun 1, 1651, Augsburg), pseudonymous author of the Paraenesis votiva pro pace ecclesiae ad theologos Augustanae confessionis (1626), which reproached the theologians for seeking vain quarrels (esp. in relation to the intra-Lutheran christological controversy), and for declaring J. Arndt a heretic, and called for a distinction between necessaria and non-necessaria in dogmatics. The maxim in necessariis unitas, in non necessariis libertas, in utrisque charitas, often cited …

Ammersbach, Heinrich

(196 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo
[German Version] (1632, Halberstadt – Jul 17, 1691, Halberstadt). In 1658, after studying at Jena, Ammersbach was chosen to be pastor in Halberstadt. He held this office throughout his lifetime. Beginning in the early 1660s, he published – mostly at his own expense and often using the pseudonym Heinrich Hansen or Christian Warner – a steady stream of polemics …

Niemeyer

(648 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Christophersen, Alf
[German Version] 1. August Hermann (Sep 1, 1754, Halle – Jul 7, 1828, Halle), great-grandson of A.H. Francke. Following school at the Pädagogium Regium of the Frankische Stiftungen (Francke institutions), he began to study philosophy, classical philology, and theology in Halle. In 1776 he began teaching in the Halle schools. After receiving his doctorate, he began lecturing in 1777; in 1779 he was appointed associate professor and in 1784 full professor of theology and superintendent of the Pädagogiu…

Niemeyer

(535 words)

Author(s): Sträter, Udo | Christophersen, Alf
[English Version] 1.August Hermann , (1.9.1754 Halle – 7.7.1828 ebd.), Urenkel A.H. Franckes; nach der Schulzeit im Pädagogium Regium der Franckeschen Stiftungen ab 1771 Studium der Philos., klassische Philol. und Theol. in Halle, ab 1776 Lehrertätigkeit an den Schulen der Stiftungen. Als Dr. phil. seit 1777 Vorlesungen; 1779 a.o. Prof., 1784 o. Prof. für Theol. und Inspektor des Pädagogium Regium, 1785 Mitdirektor des Waisenhauses, 1792 Konsistorialrat, 1794 Dr. theol., 1799 Direktor der Franckesc…
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