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(4,165 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] A. Preliminary remarks The study of communication ‘deals with the problems of interhuman communication and all related phenomena’ [1]. It has a broad agenda which cannot be considered here in all of its diverse aspects. This article focuses on the eminent aspect of linguistic communication whose widespread manifestations can only receive selective attention. Ancient theories of signs and philosophical theories of communication ( Philosophy of language), for instance, will not be addressed. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) [German version] B. The spread of Greek an…


(73 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] Neoplatonic (4th cent. AD), pupil of Iamblichus' pupil  Aedesius [1] in Pergamum. He taught the future emperor Julian, at first in Pergamum with Eusebius of Myndus, then in Ephesus with the Neoplatonic philosopher Maximus. C. was also the teacher of Eunapius, who, in his Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum (ch. 23 p. 90,21-101,16 Giangrande), sketches a most vivid portrait of him. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) Bibliography R. Goulet, in: Id. 2, 1994, 320-323.


(3,872 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Πλωτῖνος; Plōtînos). Greek philosopher, founder of Neoplatonism. [German version] A. Life P. was born in AD 205 (in the 13th year of the rule of Septimius Severus) and died in 270 at the age of 66 (Porph. Vita Plotini 2,34). His ethnic origin is difficult to determine. Eunapius (p. 456 Boissonnade) lists as his place of birth Lycon in Egypt (the town has been identified as Lyconpolis). The information is problematic because according to Porphyrius P. kept his place of birth secret. Proclus (Platonis Theol…


(2,436 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] A. Definition The term ‘Neoplatonism’ was coined in the 19th cent. and originally referred to a specific form of Platonism (Plato) in the 3rd to 5th cents. AD; in a wider sense, the term refers to the intellectual trends of the same period or later that share some of Platonism's characteristics. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) [German version] B. General characteristics Like most ancient philosophical schools, the Neoplatonic schools in Rome, Athens, Alexandria, Apamea etc. were communities of teaching and learning that imposed on their members a…

Philosophical life

(1,518 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
Ancient Greek and Latin philosophy was characterized not only by the fact that it formulated theories about the world and mankind; it also represented a way of life. Hence choosing to adhere to a certain philosophical school meant not so much the adopting a particular doctrine as it did the realization of a particular way of life [1; 2; 3; 4; 5] (cf. Sext. Emp. Adv. math. 9,178-180), i.e. living in a way that outsiders might regard strange and even absurd. This was often realized within the philosophical schools - communities in which teachers and pupils had daily contact with one another ( contu…


(3,777 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Πλωτῖνος). Griech. Philosoph, Begründer des Neuplatonismus. [English version] A. Leben P. wurde 205 n.Chr. (im 13. Regierungsjahr des Septimius Severus) geboren und starb 270 im Alter von 66 J. (Porph. vita Plotini 2,34). Seine ethnische Herkunft zu bestimmen, ist äußerst schwierig: Eunapios (p. 456 Boissonnade) nennt als Geburtsort Lykon in Ägypten (man hat diese Stadt mit Lykonpolis identifiziert). Die Angabe ist zweifelhaft, denn P. hat Porphyrios zufolge seinen Geburtsort stets verschwiegen. Proklos …

Philosophisches Leben

(1,441 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
Die antike griech. und lat. Philos. ist nicht ausschließlich dadurch gekennzeichnet, daß sie Theorien über die Welt oder den Menschen ausgearbeitet hat; vielmehr stellte sie auch eine Lebensform dar. Die Wahl einer bestimmten philos. Schule bedingte somit weniger die Aneignung einer bestimmten Doktrin als vor allem die Verwirklichung einer gewissen Lebensform [1; 2; 3; 4; 5] (vgl. S. Emp. adv. math. 9,178-180), d.h., in einer Weise zu leben, die den Außenstehenden oft seltsam und widersinnig ers…


(82 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] Neuplatoniker (4.Jh. n.Chr.), Schüler des Iamblichos-Schülers Aidesios [1] in Pergamon. Er unterrichtete zunächst dort zusammen mit Eusebios von Myndos, dann in Ephesos zusammen mit dem neuplatonischen Philosophen Maximos, den künftigen Kaiser Julian. Ch. war auch der Lehrer des Eunapios, der in seinen Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum (cap. 23 p. 90,21-101,16 Giangrande) Eunapios, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum, cap. XXIII, S. 90,21-101,16 Giangrande ein äußerst lebendiges Portrait von ihm entwirft. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) Bibliography R. Goule…


(345 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] Neuplatonische Philosophin in Alexandria [2] (gest. 415 n.Chr.), Tochter des vor allem als Mathematiker bekannten Philosophen Theon von Alexandria. Die Ausgabe des Almagest, die dem Komm. des Theon vorangestellt war, besorgte sie ab Buch III [1]. Sie verfaßte (heute verlorene) Komm. zu Diophantos [4], zu den ‘Kegelschnitten des Apollonios [13] von Perge und den ‘Handlichen Tafeln des Ptolemaios (Suda I.4,664-646 Adler). Großen Erfolg hatte ihr philos. Unterricht (darin auch die mathematischen Wiss.), …


(2,389 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] A. Begriff Der Begriff des “N.” wurde zu Beginn des 19. Jh. geprägt und bezeichnet im eigentlichen Sinne die spezifische Form des Platonismus (Platon) vom 3. bis 5. Jh.n.Chr., in erweitertem Sinne die geistigen Strömungen, die gleichzeitig oder später Analogien zu dessen charakteristischen Aspekten aufweisen. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) [English version] B. Allgemeine Kennzeichen Wie die meisten philos. Schulen des Alt. waren auch die neuplaton. Schulen in Rom, Athen, Alexandreia, Apameia usw. Lehr- und Lerngemeinschaften, die ihren …

Philosophy, teaching of

(2,204 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] A. Institutional aspects Plato probably modelled his school, the Academy ( Akadēmeía) - named after the gymnasium in which instruction was held - after the Pythagorean communities (Pl. Resp. 10,600b; Pythagorean School). In turn, his institution served as a model for later philosophical schools, which (unlike the Sophists, whose groups of pupils met at a variety of locations for brief periods of time) continued to exist in Athens for centuries: the Lyceum (Peripatos) founded by Aristotle (Ar…

Alexandrian School

(238 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] Collective term for the Neoplatonists who taught in Alexandria from the 5th to the 6th cents. AD, among them Hypatia, Hierocles, Hermias, Ammonius, David, Elias, Philoponus (the latter only to the extent that he published a number of commentaries by Ammonius). Here, the term ‘school’ does not imply a consistently organized institution of learning such as the Neoplatonic school in Athens. Instead, all teachers of Neoplatonism in Alexandria were economically independent. Most of the…


(1,022 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (Σιμπλίκιος/ Simplíkios, Latin Simplicius; c. AD 490-560). Neoplatonic philosopher, from Cilicia, according to Agathias (Historiae 2, 30, 3-31,4 Keydell). Pupil of the Neoplatonists Ammonius [12] and Damascius. One commentary survives, on the Encheiridion ('Handbook') of Epictetus [2], along with commentaries on writings of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]): on the Categoriae, the Physica, De caelo and De anima. The authenticity of the last commentary has been disputed by C. Steel [1. 105-140], without sufficient reason [2]. The commentarie…


(364 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (Ὑπατία; Hypatía) Neoplatonic philosopher at Alexandria [2] (died in AD 415), daughter of the philosopher (best known as a mathematician)  Theon of Alexandria. She provided the edition of the Almagest by Ptolemaeus [65] I (from book III), which was placed before Theon's commentary [1]. She wrote commentaries (now lost) on  Diophantus [4], on the ‘Conics’ of  Apollonius [13] of Perge and on the ‘Handy Tables’ of Ptolemy (Suda I.4,664-646 Adler). The (presumably private) lessons she gave in philosophy, which in…


(3,037 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(γυμνάσιον; gymnásion). [German version] I. Building style Public facility for sporting and musical leisure activities in the Greek polis; the term is derived from γυμνός/ gymnós (naked) and refers to the  nakedness at sports practices and competitions. Synonymous with gymnasium for the period from the 4th cent. BC in ancient written sources as well as in modern specialized literature is the concept of the  palaistra (cf. Vitruvius 5,11). This as the ‘Wrestler school’ originally referred only to a functionally determine…


(247 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (not Chalcidius). Christian philosopher; his dates are disputed: he either lived from the second half of the 3rd to the first half of the 4th cent. AD [1] or from the first half to the middle of 4th cent. [2]. Assigning his commentary on Plato's Timaeus to a particular school of thought (for Middle Platonism see [1] or Neoplatonism, see [2; 3; 4; 5]), is further complicated by the fact that important tenets, like those on providence and fatum, have basically remained unchanged from Middle Platonism to the end of Neoplatonism [6]. C.'s Timaeus commentary is also the first …


(208 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Neoplatonist from Cappadocia Neoplatonist from Cappadocia († before AD 355), pupil of  Iamblichus. Only source: Eunapius, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum. After the death of Iamblichus, he apparently took over Iamblichus' pupils and then retired back to Cappadocia, and finally ended up teaching in Pergamum together with the philosopher Sosipatra. As he considered himself too old, after a short time he transferred the responsibility of the philosophical education of Julian, the future emperor, …


(217 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [1] C., Ti. Teacher of Latin rhetoric and orator, 2nd cent. AD Teacher of Latin rhetoric and orator of high-flown speeches at the time of Antonines who was even listened to by  Gellius (13,22); befriended by  Fronto (ep. ad am. 2,2), highly regarded by  Hadrianus because of his fine education and moral attitudes. C. favoured the reading of Republican authors (Sallust, Metellus Numidicus, C. Gracchus: Gell. NA 2,27; 1,6; 11,13) is linked with the revival of old Roman virtues: Stylistic and moral judgment go hand in hand in the spirit of Cato's vir bonus, peritus dicendi; C. …


(200 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basel) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] [1] C., Ti. Lehrer der lat. Rhet. und Deklamator, 2. Jh. Lehrer der lat. Rhetorik und Deklamator z.Z. der Antoninen, den auch Gellius (13,22) hörte; Fronto in Freundschaft verbunden (ep. ad am. 2,2), geschätzt von Hadrian wegen seiner großen Bildung und moralischen Grundeinstellung. C.' bevorzugte Lektüre republikanischer Autoren (Sallust, Metellus Numidicus, C. Gracchus: Gell. 2,27; 1,6; 11,13) ist mit der Belebung altröm. Tugenden verbunden: Stilistische und moralische Beurteilung gehen im Sinne des Catonischen vir bonus, peritus dicendi Hand in Hand; …


(216 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[English version] (nicht Chalcidius). Christl. Philosoph. Umstritten ist seine Lebenszeit: entweder 2. Hälfte 3. bis 1. Hälfte 4.Jh. n.Chr. [1] oder 1. Hälfte bis Mitte 4.Jh. [2]. Die Entscheidung über die Schulzugehörigkeit seines Komm. zu Platons Timaios (zum Mittelplatonismus [1] oder Neuplatonismus [2; 3; 4; 5]) wird dadurch erschwert, daß wichtige Lehren wie diejenige über Vorsehung und fatum seit dem Mittelplatonismus bis zum Ende des Neuplatonismus in den Grundzügen dieselben geblieben sind [6]. Der oben genannte Timaios-Komm. überliefert mit den z.T. auf grie…


(191 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[English version] [1] Neuplatoniker aus Kappadokien, Schüler des Iamblichos, 4. Jh. Neuplatoniker aus Kappadokien († vor 355 n. Chr.), Schüler des Iamblichos. Einzige Quelle: Eunapios, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum. Nach dem Tode des Iamblichos übernahm er anscheinend dessen Schüler, zog sich dann nach Kappadokien zurück, um schließlich in Pergamon gemeinsam mit der Philosophin Sosipatra zu unterrichten. Da er sich selbst zu alt fühlte, übertrug er nach kurzer Zeit die philos. Ausbildung des künftigen Kaisers Julian s…


(391 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Ἀσκληπιόδοτος; Asklepiódotos). [German version] [1] Ptolemaean governor of Caria after 305 BC After 305 BC Ptolemaean governor (?) of Caria. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The administration of the Ptolemaic possessions outside Egypt, 1976, 90f. [German version] [2] Military theoretician (1st cent. BC) Author of a treatise in 12 chapters on military theory (Ἀσκληπιοδότου φιλοσόφου τακτικὰ κεφάλαια; transmitted in the cod. Laur. LV-4 (F) and 11 other MSS dependent from it) and identified with a listener of Poseidonius me…


(842 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] [1] The prophet Elijah (Elijah, prophet). The biblical character of E., according to the evidence of the Deuteronomic History, appears as a prophet of the northern kingdom at the time of king Ahab (871-852 BC) (cf. the E. traditions in 1 Kgs 17-19; 21; 2 Kgs 1-2); probably because of his miraculous translation to heaven (2 Kgs 2), E. comes to play a very important role in post-biblical Judaism. Thus, even in early Judaism, the notion arose of E.'s eschatological return (cf. Mal 3,23; …


(1,726 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [1] [...]us C. s. M.  Arruntius Claudianus Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Claudius C. Graeco-Latin poet, c. AD 400 Graeco-Latin poet (about AD 400) from Alexandria. C. first wrote Greek poetry of which the opening of a ‘gigantomachy is preserved, whose praefatio in elegiac distichs indicates recitation in Alexandria. Of the seven epigrams in the  Anthologia Palatina attributed to a Klaudianos (see Claudius  Claudianus [3]), four were written by this C. (5,86,, 9,140. 753f.). He may also be the writer of (lost) epic poems…


(1,503 words)

Author(s): Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basel) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] [1] Mythos Sohn des Anchises und der Venus, sagenhafter Stammvater Roms (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας; lat. Aeneas). Thrako-illyr. Name [17. 311 f.]. Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) [English version] A. Stammbaum und Mythos Sohn des Anchises und der Aphrodite (Hom. h. Veneris; Hes. theog. 1008-1010). Vollständige Genealogie in der Rede des A. an Achilleus (Hom. Il. 20,200-258, bes. 215-240); Stammbaum [1. 509]. Troia: In der Ilias ist A. neben den Söhnen Antenors Anführer der Dardaner (Hom. Il. 2,819-823), tapferer Kämpfer (de…


(365 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basel) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
(Ἀσκληπιόδοτος). [English version] [1] Ptolemäischer Statthalter Kariens (nach 305 v.Chr.) Nach 305 v.Chr. ptolemaischer Gouverneur (?) Kariens. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. Bagnall, The administration of the Ptolemaic posessions outside Egypt, 1976, 90f. [English version] [2] Militärtheoretiker (1. Jh. v. Chr.) Verf. einer militärtheoretischen Schrift in 12 Kapiteln (Ἀσκληπιοδότου φιλοσόφου τακτικὰ κεφάλαια; tradiert im cod. Laur. LV-4 (F) und 11 weiteren, davon abhängigen Hss.) und wird mit einem von Seneca erwähnten Hörer …


(1,637 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] [1] [...]us C. s. M. Arruntius Claudianus Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Claudius C. griech.-lat. Dichter, um 400 Griech.-lat. Dichter (um 400 n. Chr.) aus Alexandreia. C. schrieb erst griech. Gedichte; erh. ist der Anfang einer ‘Gigantomachie, deren Praefatio in elegischen Distichen auf Rezitation in Alexandreia weist. Von den in der Anthologia Palatina einem Klaudianos (s. Claudius Claudianus [3]) zugeschriebenen sieben Epigrammen stammen vier von unserem C. (5,86; 9,140. 753f.); er dürfte auch Verf. (verlorener…


(1,657 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Heckel, Hartwig (Bochum) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [3] Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Αἰνέας; Ainéas). From Stymphalus. Stratēgos of the Arcadians around 366 BC (Xen. Hell. 7,3,1). Whether identical to  Aeneas [2] Tacticus, cannot be clarified.  Thebae Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography D. Whitehead, Aineias the Tactician, 1990, 10-13 A. Winterling, Polisbegriff und Stasistheorie des Aeneas Tacticus, in: Historia 40, 1991, 191-229, 201. [German version] [1] Myth Mythical figure from Trojan war (Αἰνείας, Αἰνέας [Aineías, Ainéas]; Latin Aeneas). Thraco-Illyrian name [17. 311 f.]. Hecke…


(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…


(1,354 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
(Ἀμώνιος; Ammónios). [German version] [1] Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas), middle of the 2nd cent. BC Favourite of  Alexander [II 13] I (Balas); ruled in his place in Syria, executed relatives and followers of (the deceased) Demetrius I and oppressed the Antiochenes. When he attempted an attack on Ptolemy VI, certainly Alexander's most important supporter, and Ptolemy demanded that A. be handed over, Alexander actually declined to do this, so Ptolemy broke with Alexander: despite dressing as a woman, A…


(1,280 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Makris, Georgios (Bochum) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Et al.
[English version] [1] Günstling von Alexandros [II 13] I. (Balas) (Mitte 2. Jh. v. Chr.) Günstling von Alexandros [II 13] I. (Balas); herrschte an dessen Stelle in Syrien, ließ Verwandte und Anhänger des (toten) Demetrios I. umbringen und unterdrückte die Antiochener. Als er einen Anschlag auf Alexandros' wohl wichtigsten Förderer, Ptolemaios VI., versucht hatte und dieser seine Auslieferung forderte, Alexandros sie jedoch verweigerte, brach Ptolemaios mit Alexandros: Trotz seiner Verkleidung als Frau wurde A.…
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