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Moesi, Moesia

(984 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Geography The members of a group of tribes of Thracian origin who lived in the northeastern part of the Balkan peninsula were referred to, in Greek, as Moisoí (Μοισοί), Mysoí (Μυσοί), and in Latin as M. or Moesae. Other tribes settled there as well, such as the Dardani, Triballi, Timachi and Skythae, who were later counted among the Moesicae gentes as inhabitants of the province of Moesia (Plin. HN 3,149; 4,3). After the territory of the Getae was incorporated into the province of Moesia inferior, its inhabitants as well were referred t…

Drobeta

(215 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Garrison and civilian settlement on the Danube east of the ‘Iron Gate’ in Dacia inferior or Dacia maluensis, modern Turnu Severin (Oltenia, Romania). Near it was Pontes, where Apollodorus of Damascus erected the famous Danube bridge for Trajan. In the 2nd Dacian War D. was used as a military base by the Romans. In Trajan's time the cohors Cretum sagittariorum built a large garrison here, in which various auxiliary troops were later stationed ( cohors III campestris: CIL III 14216,8,10; co…

Lugio

(174 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Λουγίωνον; Lougíōnon, Ptol. 2,15,3; Lugione, It. Ant. 244; Tab. Peut. 6,1; Lucione, Cod. Iust. 9,20,10f.). Roman auxiliary fort in Pannonia inferior, modern Dunaszekcsö (in the Hungarian county of Baranya), in the post-Diocletian period Florentia. The camp was probably established under Domitian to protect the crossing of the Danube and the road junction situated in L. The first garrison was made up of the cohors II Asturum et Callaecorum and the cohors VII Breucorum. After the withdrawal of the cohors II Asturum (under Commodus), the cohors I Noricorum moved into…

Periplous

(737 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (περίπλους, 'circumnavigation', plural περίπλοι/ períploi), Greek description of a sea voyage and coast. In addition to explicit logbooks, many periploi were written as handbooks: these were limited to purely nautical issues, and recorded such features as harbour sites and points of anchorage, distances covered, climatic factors, and local peculiarities. The development of periplous-style literature reflects the significance of ancient voyages of discovery. Such voyages could be of political, economical, and military use, and were …

Tibiscum

(216 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Daci, Dacia (Τιβίσκον/ Tibískon). Roman base in Dacia superior (Daci with map) on the upper Tibiscus (or Tibisia, modern Timiş), a left tributary of the Danube (Ister [1]; cf. Ptol. 3,8,10; 3,8,1; Iord. Get. 24,178; Geogr. Rav 4,14; 4,18; Tab. Peut. 7,4), modern Jupa (county of Caraş-Severin, Romania); on road from Viminacium via Lederata to Sarmizegetusa, where a road branched off to Dierna. In the camp of T., (320 m × 170 m) auxiliary units were stationed ( Cohors I Vindelicorum, Cohors I Sagittariorum, Num…

Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…

Adamclisi

(187 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] ‘Church of Men’ (Turkish), the ancient Tropaeum Traiani in  Moesia inferior or Scythia minor (CIL III 7481-84; 12461-75; 13733-36; 14214-1421418; 16,58), founded by  Trajanus and settled by Traianenses Tropaeenses (CIL III 12470). It became a   municipium probably under Emperor  Marcus, was destroyed at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, later rebuilt by  Constantinus I and  Licinius (remains of buildings from the 4th cent., partly Christian). In the 6th cent. AD destroyed by the  Avares. About 1.5 km t…

Varciani

(99 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Οὐαρικιανοί/ Ou arikianoí). A possibly Celtic people in Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,148; Ptol. 2,15,2), whose settlement area can probably be found in the southeast of Pannonia Superior to the east of the Sisciani (Siscia). V. were recruited into the Roman army probably as early as during the Great Pannonian Rebellion (AD 6-9) (cf. CIL XIII 7707; 7804; 8188; CIL V 875; CIL VI 3257) and deployed primarily in the Cohors Varcianorum Equitata. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography B. Saria, s. v. V., in: RE 8 A, 363-365 A. Graf, Übersicht der antiken Geographie von Pannonien…

Germisara

(86 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia (CIL III 1395; Γερμίζερα; Germízera Ptol. 3,8,4; cf. Germigera Geogr. Rav. 4,7; Germizera Tab. Peut. 8,1). Roman fortress and civilian settlement in Dacia superior, modern Geoagiu (Romania). G. lay in the Marisus valley and was administratively dependent on Sarmizegetusa. Tile of the Legio XIII Gemina (CIL III 8065; 14h). Thermae at the site (cult of nymphs) and a quarry in the vicinity. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 34, 1968, 60 (Bibliogr.).

Candidiana

(154 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Late-antique Roman fort on the road along the banks of the Danube in Moesia inferior, west of Durostorum, near the modern Malăk Preslavec in north-eastern Bulgaria (It. Ant. 223,2; Not. Dign. or. 40,24; Procop. Aed. 4,7,9). It had probably been built under Diocletian, in order to replace the Nigrinianis fortress (Tab. Peut. 8,2; Geogr. Rav. 4,7), an important link in the Danube limes, which had been destroyed by the Carpi (?) towards the middle of the 3rd cent.It was the garrison of the cohors I Lusitanorum Maximiana. Remains of buildings, archaeological finds, tre…

Siculus Flaccus

(77 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Along with Frontinus and Hyginus, most significant of the Roman surveyors. He probably lived under Trajan and Hadrian in the 2nd cent. AD and in his work De condicionibus agrorum ('On the legal status of landholdings') described the forms of Roman land ownership and the working methods of gromatici ( groma ); what survives of it [1] relates to Italy. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography 1 C. Thulin (ed.), Corpus agrimensorum Romanorum, vol. 1.1, 1913, 98-130.

Siscia

(190 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome Roman settlement in Pannonia superior ('Sicce', Geogr. Rav. 4,20; Σεγεστική/ Segestikḗ, Str. 7,5,2) at the confluence of the Colapis (modern  Kulpa) and Savus (modern Sava), modern Sisak in Croatia. The region had already been settled in the pre-Roman period. In 35 BC it came under Roman rule. In the 1st cent. AD the Legio IX Hispania was stationed there until 42/3. Under Vespasian, S. was elevated to a colonia, under Septimius [II 7] Severus designated Colonia Flavia…

Naissus

(645 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pertinax | Pilgrimage [German version] I. Site; Roman period Municipium in Moesia Superior (or Dardania; Ναϊσσός/ Naïssos: Ptol. 3,4,9; Νάϊσ(σ)ος/ Náïs(s)os: Zos. 1,45,1; 3,11,1f.; Procop. Goth. 3,40,2; Ναϊσσούπολις/ Naïssoúpolis: Procop. Aed. 4,1,31; Naissus/ Naisus is the usual form in Latin sources; Naessus: Amm. Marc. 21,10,5), modern Niš in Serbia. Originally a Thracian settlement, which by the 1st cent. AD was evidently used by the Romans as an occasional base. Its indig…

Castra

(2,134 words)

Author(s): Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon) | Förtsch, Reinhard (Cologne) | Šašel Kos, Marjeta (Ljubljana) | Lombardo, Mario (Lecce) | Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Et al.
A. Military camp [German version] [I 1] General The Roman soldiers always made sure that they were protected by fortifications. This also applied when they only stopped for a night on campaigns. In the evening of their arrival the field camp had to be set up and destroyed again on the morning of departure. The plural castra was the name given to any kind of military camp, the singular castrum certainly existed but was not used in mil. vocabulary. Castellum is the diminutive form of castra (Veg. Mil. 3,8) and also had a civilian meaning. The origin of the Roman camps is uncertain; because …

Savus

(81 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Σάουος; Sáouos). Right-hand tributary of the Danube in the south of  Pannonia (Plin. HN 3,128; 147 f.; Ptol. 2,16,1 f.; 3,9,1;  Str. 4,6,10; Geogr. Rav. 4,20), modern Sava (Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia). In its middle and lower reaches it was navigable. On its banks there were important communications nodes (Neviodunum, Siscia, Sirmium, Singidunum). S. was also worshipped as a river deity (CIL III, 4009). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR L 33 Tergeste, 1961, 65  TIR L 34 Budapest, 1968, 100.

Oescus

(332 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior Right bank tributary of the Danube in Moesia inferior (Plin. HN 3,149; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus; Hdt. 4,49: Σκίος/ Skíos; Thuc. 2,96,4: Ὄσκιος/ Óskios), modern Iskăr (Bulgaria). Burian, Jan (Prague) [German version] [2] Roman town This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia Roman town (Ptol. 3,10,10: Οἶσκος Τριβαλλῶν/ Oîskos Triballôn, cf. 8,11,6; Tab. Peut. 8,1: Escus), modern Gigen (Bulgaria), near the confluence of the O. [1] with the Danube. O. is to…

Napoca

(369 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Municipium and colony in Dacia Porolissensis (Νάπουκα/ Nápouka: Ptol. 3.8.4; cf. Napu[ce]nses CIL III 7996; N. in Lat. sources), the modern Cluj (Klausenburg/Kolozsvár, Romania), on the site of a prehistoric (Dacian) settlement (the place-name is evidently of Daco-Getic origin). The sources do not supply us with any information about the history of N. prior to Trajan's conquest of Dacia (AD 101/2 and 105/6). N.'s significanc…

Zaldapa

(133 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Ζάλδαπα/ Záldapa). Late Roman and early Byzantine settlement and fort (Iohannes Antiochenus FHG 4,32; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20; name probably Thracian) in Moesia inferior (Scythia minor). Formerly identified with Abrit(t)us, today Z. is equated with modern Abtaat to the southwest of Tropaeum Traiani (modern Adamclisi). There were road connections with Tropaeum Traiani, Scopis, Durostorum and Tomis. Z. was the birth-place of Vitalianus, a usurper against Anastasius [1] I. Towards the end of the 6th cent., the settlement was destroyed by Avari and Slavs. Burian, Jan…

Scordisci

(228 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic tribe with Illyrian and Thracian elements. They originally settled in the northern central Balkans (Str. 7,5,12) - the 'Greater S.' to the east of the Noarus as far as the Margus [1] (modern Morava), and the 'Lesser S.' on the right bank of the latter. To the south the territory of the S. extended as far as the sources of the Margus. The precise boundaries of the tribal territory, however, are hard to ascertain; in the 1st cent. BC its nucleus was at the confluence of the Savus and the Danube. About the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC the S. and other Celtic tribes …

Margus

(305 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Burian, Jan (Prague)
(Μάργος; Márgos). [German version] [1] Strategos 255 BC M. from Carynea, probably serving as nauarch of the Achaean fleet contingent during the Illyrian War, was killed in 229 BC near Paxos ‘after faithfully serving the koinon of the Achaeans ’(Pol. 2,10). During the reformation of the league, he killed the tyrant of Bura in 275, thus forcing Iseas, the tyrant of Carynea, to resign and to have his town join the league (Pol. 2,41). Before Aratus [2] he played a prominent part and in 255 he was the first to be elected sole strategos (Pol. 2,43). Cobet, Justus (Essen) [German version] [2] Ptolemai…
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