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Celeutor

(76 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κελεύτωρ; Keleútōr). C. and his brothers snatch the rulership from their uncle  Oeneus, king of Aetolia, and lock him up; they make their father  Agrius [1] king, until Diomedes frees his grandfather Oeneus and kills all of Agrius' sons except for two who are able to flee. Since Oeneus is too old, Diomedes hands over the rulership to Oeneus' son-in-law  Andraemon [1] (Apollod. 1,77f.; Paus. 2,25,2; Hyg. Fab. 175). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Ceteii

(56 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κήτειοι; Kḗteioi). Warriors of  Eurypylus [2] (Hom. Od. 11,521; Str. 13,1,69f.), whose origin is in Mysian Theutrania in western Asia Minor (schol. Hom. loc. cit.). The name C. is interpreted variously: either as ‘the Great ones’ or as derived from the river Ceteius (Hsch. s.v. K.; Str. loc. cit.). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Laodocus

(334 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαόδοκος, Λαοδόκος, Λεώδοκος; Laódokos, Laodókos, Leṓdokos, ‘Who receives the People’). [German version] [1] Son of Apollo and Phthia Son of Apollo and Phthia, offers hospitality to Aetolus, who fled to them in the country of the Curetes; Aetolus slays L. along with his brothers Dorus and Polypoetes and renames the country ‘Aetolia’ (Apollod. 1,57). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Participant in the campaign of the Argonauts Son of Bias [1] and Pero; native of Argos; together with his brothers Talaus and Arius he takes part in the campaign of the…

Myrmidon

(122 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μυρμιδών/ Myrmidṓn, ‘ant’). [German version] [1] Progenitor of the Myrmidones Eponymous progenitor of the Homeric people of the Myrmidones (Hellanikos FHG 1 F 17); son of Eurymedusa, fathered by Zeus in the guise of an ant (Eratosth. In Serv. Aen. 2,7; Clem. Al. Protreptikos 34). With his wife Pisidice, daughter of Aeolus, M. fathered Antiphus and Actor (Apollod. 1,52) as well as the gluttonous Erysichthon (Hellanikos l.c.). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Military official under Ptolemy I, 315 BC Athenian, sent in 315 BC by Ptolemy I along with 10,000 soldier…

Macedon

(167 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μακεδών; Makedṓn). Tribal hero and eponym of the Macedonians. There are several genealogies: [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Thyia Son of Zeus and Thyia (the daughter of Deucalion), brother of Magnes [1] (Hes. fr. 7). His wife is Oreithyia, his sons are, among others, Europus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Εὐρωπός), Pierus, Amathus: also eponyms for Macedonian cities (schol. Hom. Il. 14,226). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Aeolus Son of Aeolus, the son of Hellen and brother of Dorus and Xuthus; thus M. links his people with the Hellenic genealogies (S…

Leucosia

(238 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Λευκωσία; Leukōsía). [German version] [3] Island on the Lucanian coast (Mela 2,7,121; Plin. HN 3,83: Leucothea) on the Punta della Licosa, modern Isola Piana. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) Bibliography G. Brugnoli, s.v. L., EV 3, 1987, 196f. BTCGI 9, 1991, 5; 14, 1996, 505f. [German version] [1] One of the three post-Homeric Sirens One of the three post-Homeric Sirens, who no longer - as with Homer - appear in a group but as individuals: L. reaches south-west Italy through colonization. Consequently her suicide (she plunges into the sea) is local…

Nycteus

(155 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νυκτεύς/ Nukteús). Son of Hyrieus and the nymph Clonia, and hence, through his father, the grandson of Poseidon (Apollod. 3,111). Alternatively, Hyginus says he is the son of Poseidon and Celaeno [1] (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,21). N. and his brother Lycus [6] fled from Hyria to Thebes after killing Phlegyas. In Thebes, N. was king and guardian of his grandson Labdacus, whom Polydorus fathered with N.'s daughter Nycteis (Paus. 2,6,2). When N.'s second daughter, Antiope [1], was impregnated by Zeus and fled to Sicyon and married its king, Epopeus, N. commi…

Laelaps

(81 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαῖλαψ/ Laîlaps, ‘hurricane’). [German version] [1] Dog of Cephalus The dog of Cephalus, inescapable because of its swiftness. L. is turned to stone during the chase (Ov. Met. 7,771ff.; Hyg. Fab. 189; Serv. Aen. 6,445). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Dog of Actaeon Dog of Actaeon that, together with the rest of a pack of hounds, attacks and kills his master who has been transformed into a stag by Artemis (Ov. Met. 3,211; Hyg. Fab. 181). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Laias

(112 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λαίας, Λαΐας; Laías, Laïas). [German version] [1] Son of the Aegid Hyraeus Son of the Aegid Hyraeus. Together with his brothers, L. erected heroic sanctuaries in Sparta to Cadmus and Aegeus, among others, because the Aegids trace themselves to the Theban dynasty (Paus. 3,15,8; Hdt. 4,147). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Oxylus Son of Oxylus, king of Elis, and Pieria. After the death of his older brother Aetolus, L. takes over the kingdom from his father; L.'s children, however, do not receive the royal title (Paus. 5,4,4f.). A…

Lacedaemon

(132 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λακεδαίμων; Lakedaímōn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Taygete Son of Zeus and Taygete (Apollod. 3,116), name-giver of the Taygetus, mountain range; L. inherits the rule from the childless Eurotas (Paus. 3,1,1f.), gives his name to the region, and founds the city of Sparta, which he names after his spouse Sparte. One of their sons, Amyclas, founds the city of Amyclae [1] (Eust. AD Hom. Il. 295,14f.). One of their daughters, Eurydice, marries Acrisius, king of Argus, and becomes mother of Danae…

Melisseus

(109 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Μελισσεύς; Melisseús). Mythical king of Crete, father of the nymphs Adrastea and Ide [2] (Apollod. 1,5; Hyg. Fab. 182) or Amalthea [1] and Melissa [1] (Didymus In Lact. inst. 1,22,19 f.). After Rhe(i)a gives birth to Zeus in a cave of Mt Dicte on Crete, she hands them the baby and they raise him on goat's milk and honey. The names of M. and Melissa are derived from Greek méli (honey). According to Didymus (l.c.), M. was the first to sacrifice to the gods and to introduce rites and religious festivals. He appointed his daughter Melissa the first priestess of Mater Magna. Frey, Ale…

Mygdon

(131 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μύγδων; Mýgdōn). [German version] [1] King of the Bebrycians King of the Bebrycians, brother of Amycus [1]; killed by Heracles when he attacked Heracles' host, Lycus [5]. After M.'s death, Heracles gives Lycus a large part of the land of the Bebrycians, which is renamed Herakleia (Apollod. 2,100). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Ruler of the Phrygians Along with Otreus, M. rules over the Phrygians at the Sangarius river. These Phrygians are also called Mygdonians, after M. (Paus. 10,27,1; schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,786f.). Priamus aids them in…

Neikos

(111 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νεῖκος; Neîkos). Personification of hate and strife in Hesiod's creation mythology (Hes. Theog. 229). The goddess Eris, the daughter of Nyx, gives birth to the forces of evil: N., Pseudeis ( pseudeís, lies) and Logoi ( lógoi, wicked talk). In Timon [1. fr. 21], he is named as the brother and servant of Eris. In Empedocles' [1] theory of the origins of the world, N. is the principle of repulsion and separation, the antithesis of Philotes ( philótēs, love). N.  causes the cosmos and the current world to be created from the sphairos where all the forces were mixed together. Frey, …

Panchaea

(84 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (παγχαΐα/ panchaía sc. χώρα/ chṓra, ‘a very splendid land’). P. is the main island in a fictional archipelago first mentioned by Euhemerus and located in the Indian Ocean: “Sailing from happy Arabia out into the Ocean”, one arrives “in a still more blessed land”, the “very splendid land” (Diod. Sic. 5,41,3; 6,1,4). P. is  seen as the ideal of a country both for its natural qualities and for its political and economic conditions (Euhemerus FGrH 63 F 2). Utopia Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Mimas

(231 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Μίμας). [German version] [1] Titan Giant, killed either by Zeus' thunderbolt in the fight to rule Olympus (Eur. Ion 212ff.), or by Ares' lance, after M. had torn the island of Lemnos out of the sea and hurled it at the god (Apoll. Rhod. 3,1227 with scholia). The field of battle was Phlegra on the Macedonian peninsula of Pallene; the struggle of M. and the Giants against other gods such as Pallas Athena and Hera was equally fruitless (schol. Apoll. Rhod. loc. cit.; Hor. Carm. …

Cragaleus

(126 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κραγαλεύς). Son of  Dryops in the land of Dryope. C., who is wise and just, is chosen by  Apollo,  Artemis, and  Hercules to act as arbitrator in their dispute about the Epirote city  Ambracia. Apollo demands the city for himself because his son rules the land of Dryope. Artemis demands it because she had liberated the city from a tyrant, and Hercules because he defeated the Celts, the Thesproteans and the Epiroteans. C. awards the city to Hercules and in return is changed into a…

Cillas

(72 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κίλλας; Kíllas, also Kíllos, Κίλλος). C., who according to the Troezenian legend is called Sphaerus, is the charioteer of  Pelops (Paus. 5,10,7; schol. Eur. Or. 990). On the way to a chariot race with Oenomaus, Cillas falls into the sea at Lesbos and drowns. Pelops erects a memorial to him, a temple of Apollo Killaios and founds the town of Cilla (Theopompus 339 FHG 1). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Lycabas

(199 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Λυκάβας; Lykábas). [German version] [1] One of the Tyrrhenian pirates One of the Tyrrhenian pirates, exiled for murder. The pirates promise the boy Dionysus to take him to the island of Naxos, but intend to abduct him. Their leader Acoetes [1] refuses to support the plan because he recognizes a god in the boy, but L. strikes him down. For their heinous deeds, Dionysus transforms the whole crew into dolphins, apart from Acoetes, whom he spares (Ov. Met. 3,623ff.; Hyg. Fab. 134). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] On of the Centaurs One of the Centaurs who sexually assault th…

Oechalia

(347 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰχαλία; Oichalía). [German version] [1] Mythical place in Homer, Catalogue of the Pylians Mythical place in Homer, in the Catalogue of the Pylians (Hom. Il. 2,594ff.). According to the narrative context, O. must be located in north western Messenia. It was from O. that the Thracian singer Thamyris came to Dorium, where the Muses robbed him of his gift of song. Homer's interpreters equate O. with Andania (Str. 8,3,6; 8,4,5; Plin. HN 4,15; Paus. 4,2,2f.). Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 82a) assumed that O. was 'somewh…

Peithagoras

(81 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Πειθαγόρας; Peithagóras). Soothsayer of Amphipolis (inspecting the entrails of sacrificed animals), brother of Apollodorus, one of the hetaíroi of Alexander [4] the Great; in 323 BC P. foretold the impending death of Hephaestion [1] (Arr. Anab. 7,18; App. Civ. 2,152) and later also that of Alexander (Arr. l.c.; App. l.c.). Alexander received this news from P.'s brother and praised both of them (Arr. l.c.). P. was obviously Aristobulus' [7] direct source (Arr. Anab. 7,18,5). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
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