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Philiskos

(870 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Bern) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος). [English version] [1] Dichter der Mittleren Komödie Dichter der Mittleren Komödie, dem die Suda 7 Stücktitel zuweist: Ἄδωνις (‘Adonis), Διὸς γοναί (‘Die Geburt des Zeus; diesem Stück wird bisweilen das Adespoton 1062 K.-A. zugewiesen [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς (‘Themistokles; dieser Titel ist wohl fälschlicherweise in die Liste gelangt [3. Anm. 37]), Ὄλυμπος (‘Der Olymp), Πανὸς γοναί (‘Die Geburt des Pan), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί (‘Die Geburt des Hermes und der Aphrodite; evtl. zwei Stücke [3. Anm. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀπ…

Krates

(2,329 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Broggiato, Maria (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κράτης). [English version] [1] att. Dichter der Alten Komödie, 5. Jh. v. Chr. Athener, Dichter der Alten Komödie, der um 450 v.Chr. mit Aufführungen begann [1. test. 7]; zuvor war er bereits Schauspieler bei Kratinos [1] gewesen [1. test. 2 und 3]. Die Zahl seiner Stücke wird teils mit sieben [1. test. 1 und 2], teils mit acht [1. test. 4] angegeben; insgesamt sind neun Stücktitel erh. (doch sind Μέτοικοι ‘Die Metöken und Πεδῆται ‘Die Gefangenen, vielleicht falsche Zuschreibungen). Auf der Liste der Dionysi…

Demetrios

(6,917 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος). Bekannte Persönlichkeiten: der maked. König D. [2] Poliorketes; der Politiker und Schriftsteller D. [4] von Phaleron; der jüd.-hell. Chronograph D. [29]. I. Politisch aktive Persönlichkeiten [English version] [1] Offizier unter Alexander d.Gr. Offizier unter Alexandros [4], kämpfte bei Gaugamela als Führer einer Ile der Hetairoi und in Indien als Kommandeur einer Hipparchie. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, Nr. 256. [English version] [2] D. Poliorketes Sohn von Antigonos [1], geb. 337/6 v.Chr. (Diod. 19,96,1). Er heiratete 320 Ph…

Demonax

(428 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Köln) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Δημῶναξ oder Δαμῶναξ). [English version] [1] D. aus Mantineia Schiedsrichter in Kyrene um 550 v.Chr. Angesehener Aristokrat, der um 550 v.Chr. auf Anraten des Delphischen Orakels zum “Schiedsrichter” (καταρτιστήρ) in Kyrene bestellt wurde (Hdt. 4,161). Um die Gegensätze dort beizulegen, reformierte D. die drei Phylen, in die er die verschiedenen Kolonisten- und Zuwanderergruppen - Theraier und Perioiken, Peloponnesier und Kreter, “Nesioten”, d.h. Leute von den (ionischen?) Inseln - neu einteilte [1]. Die Mach…

Monimos

(345 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μόνιμος). [English version] [1] aus Syrakus, Schüler Epikurs M. aus Syrakus, Sklave eines korinthischen Bankiers, hörte Xeniades, einen reichen Bürger Korinths, bei dem Diogenes [14] von Sinope lebte, dessen Tugend rühmen. Um seinen Herrn verlassen und Diogenes folgen zu können, stellte M. sich wahnsinnig; er wurde entlassen und wurde so dessen Schüler. Er verkehrte auch lange mit Krates [4] und ahmte dessen Lebensweise nach (Diog. Laert. 6,82). M. muß berühmt gewesen sein, denn er kommt in einer der K…

Menedemos

(1,281 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος). [English version] [1] mil. Funktionsträger unter Alexandros d.Gr. 329 v.Chr. wurde 329 v.Chr. von Alexandros [4] d.Gr. mit 1500 Mann Söldnerinfanterie, zusammen mit Karanos und dessen 800 berittenen Söldnern und Andromachos mit 60 Hetairoi zum Entsatz der von Spitamenes belagerten Burg von Marakanda geschickt. Pharnuches, ein lykischer (doch sicher von pers. Ansiedlern abstammender) Dolmetscher, wurde ihnen beigegeben, da er mit den Einwohnern und ihrer Sprache vertraut war (Arr. an. 4,3,7). D…

Popularphilosophie

(301 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[English version] Dieser moderne Begriff dient zur Bezeichnung einer kollektiven kulturellen ant. Tradition, welche ein Produkt der ethischen Philos. ist und sich v. a. aus Gemeinplätzen zusammensetzt. Entwickelt wurden diese Topoi in den Schulen der hell. Epoche und der Kaiserzeit, bes. im Kynismus und Stoizismus, und auch von Wanderpredigern. Sie gehen auf die ältere Sophistik, die philos. Lit. des 4. Jh. v. Chr. und die griech. Dichtung zurück (Philosophische Literaturformen), doch die Themen e…

Salustios

(620 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος). [English version] [1] griech. Grammatiker Griech. Grammatiker (vielleicht 4./5. Jh. n. Chr. [3. 31]); Verf. eines Komm. zu Kallimachos' [3] ‘Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), dessen Gebrauch sich noch in der Suda feststellen läßt [4. 13-18]. Die Zuschreibung einer Ed. der Hymnen des Kallimachos [5. 78] sowie der Hypotheseis zu Sophokles' ‘Antigone und ‘Oidipus in Kolonos [6. 17-20] ist wahrscheinlich. Wohl mit dem von Stephanos von Byzanz s. v. Ἄζιλις erwähnten S. identisch. Baumbach, Manuel (Heidelberg) Bibliography Ed.: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, …

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Metrocles

(275 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] (Μητροκλῆς/ Mētroklês). From a rich family in Maronea in Thrace, 3rd cent. BC. In turn a pupil of the Peripatetic Theophrastus, the Academician Xenocrates and the Cynic Crates [4] of Thebes, who married his sister Hipparchia (Teles, Diatribe 4 A). M., who was accustomed to luxury, learned under Crates to lead a simple and economical life, sleeping in temples in the summer and in the baths in the winter. His saying that wealth was damaging if it was not put to appropriate use indica…

Philiscus

(934 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Et al.
(Φιλίσκος; Philískos). [German version] [1] Poet of Middle Comedy Poet of Middle Comedy, to whom the Suda attributes 7 play titles: Ἄδωνις (Á dōnis), Διὸς γοναί ( Diòs gonaí/ 'The Birth of Zeus'; Adespoton 1062 K.-A. is sometimes assigned to this play [4]), Θεμιστοκλῆς ( Themistoklês/ ' Themistocles'; title probably incorrectly included in the list [3. n. 37]), Ὄλυμπος ( Ólympos; ' Olympus'), Πανὸς γοναί ( Panòs gonaí; 'The Birth of Pan'), Ἑρμοῦ καὶ Ἀφροδίτης γοναί ( Hermoû kaì Aphrodítēs gonaí/ ' The Births of Hermes and Aphrodite'; possibly two plays [3. n. 24]), Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ Ἀ…

Hipparchia

(282 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] (Ἱππαρχία; Hipparchía). Cynic philosopher from Maronea in Thrace ( floruit 111th Olympiad = 336-333 BC), of a wealthy family, sister of the Cynic  Metrocles, and pupil of  Crates of Thebes. H. wanted to marry Crates and threatened suicide if her parents refused permission (Diog. Laert. 6,96). She lived the life of a Cynic and constantly accompanied Crates. She had sexual intercourse with him in public (designated as κυνογαμία; kynogamía ‘marriage of dogs’) to demonstrate her indifference (ἀδιαφορία; adiaphoría) to the act. She amazed  Theodorus of Cyrene b…

Popular philosophy

(329 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] This modern term refers to a collective ancient cultural tradition that is a product of ethical philosophy and consists primarily of topoi. These topoi were developed in the schools of the Hellenistic and Imperial periods, particularly in Cynicism and Stoicism, as well as by itinerant preachers. They hark back to the older Sophists, the philosophical literature of the 4th cent. BC and Greek poetry (philosophical literature, genres of), but their subjects were taken primarily from daily life: wealth, ban…

Onesicritus

(263 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] (Ὀνησίκριτος/ Onēsíkritos) of Astypalaea. 380/375-305/300 BC. Cynic philosopher and Alexander historian, pupil of Diogenes [14] of Sinope (Plut. de Alexandri magni fortuna aut virtute 10,331e; Plut. Alexander 65,701c). Ever since antiquity, attempts have been made - certainly incorrectly - to identify him with O. of Aegina, another pupil of Diogenes mentioned in Diog. Laert. 6,75 (cf. 84; see [1] and Philiscus). O. took part in the eastern conquests of Alexander the Great, and was …

Salustius

(665 words)

Author(s): Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Σαλούστιος; Saloústios). [German version] [1] Greek grammarian Greek grammarian (perhaps 4th/5th cents. AD [3. 31]); author of a commentary on Callimachus' [3] Hekale (fr. 9; 29; 179 Hollis), the use of which can still be detected in the Suda [4. 13-18]. The attribution of an edition of the hymns of Callimachus [5. 78] and of the hypothesis to Sophocles' Antigone and Oedipus in Colonus [6. 17-20] is probable. Likely identical to the S. mentioned by Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Ἄζιλις. Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) Bibliography Editions: 1 A. S. Hollis, Callimachus. Hekale, 1990 2 R. P…

Heraclitean letters (Ps.)

(298 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] A corpus of nine pseudo-epigraphic letters of the 1st cent. and the 1st half of the 2nd cent. AD, of which two were attributed to the Persian King  Darius [1] and seven to the philosopher  Heraclitus. The topics are political. The first two letters are also recorded by Diog. Laert. 9,13-14. The four letters to  Hermodorus (4; 7-9) are about the addressee's exile, as is the preceding letter 3, in which Darius accuses the Ephesians of having sent the best man in all Ionia into exile…

Monimus

(373 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Μόνιμος/ Mónimos). [German version] [1] From Syracuse, pupil of Diogenes M. from Syracuse, slave of a Corinthian banker, heard Xeniades, a rich citizen of Corinth, extol the virtue of Diogenes [14] of Sinope, who lived with him. In order to be able to leave his master and follow Diogenes, M. made out that he was insane; he was dismissed and so became Diogenes' pupil. He also stayed with Crates [4] for a long time and imitated his way of life (Diog. Laert. 6,82). M. must have been famous, as he appears in…

Sphodrias

(75 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] (Σφοδρίας; Sphodrías). Cynic philosopher, author of a Téchnē erōtikḗ ('art of love') mentioned in Ath. 4,162b-c. The otherwise unknown author is mentioned l.c. along with Archestratus [2] of Gela, the author of a Gastrología ('treatise about the care of the stomach') and with Protagorides, who is attributed with Akroáseis erōtikaí ('lectures about love'), as well as with Zeno's student Persaeus who wrote Sympotikoí diálogoi ('conversations with dinner guests'). Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)

Demonax

(429 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
(Δημῶναξ; Dēmônax or Δαμῶναξ; Damônax). [German version] [1] D. of Mantinea Arbitrator in Cyrene about 550 BC Respected aristocrat who was appointed as ‘arbitrator’ (καταρτιστήρ; katartistḗr) in  Cyrene about 550 BC on the advice of the Delphic Oracle (Hdt. 4,161). To resolve the internal conflicts, D. reformed the three phylai in which he redistributed the different groups of colonists and immigrants, the Theraeans and Perioeci, Peloponnesians and Cretans, ‘Nesiotai’, i.e. people from the (Ionian?) islands [1]. D. restricted the royal power o…

Peregrinus Proteus

(461 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] (Περεγρῖνος Πρωτεύς; Peregrînos Prōteús). Lived c. AD 100-165, born in Parium in Mysia. P. was a philosopher who is known to us primarily through Lucian's (Lucianus [1]) critical, tendentious work 'On the Death of Peregrinus' ( De morte Peregrini). According to Lucian (De morte Peregrini 1), P. himself introduced his byname of Proteus. To the satirist, it was an apposite choice, as like Proteus in the Odyssey, P. underwent numerous transformations (lastly in the fire at his death on a funeral pyre). P. was said to hav…
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