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(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] [1] Small tribe in Flanders Small tribe in Flanders, clientes of the Nervii (Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography C. Goudineau, César et la Gaule, 1990 E. M. Wightman, Gallia Belgica, 1985. [German version] [2] Celtic people in the Alpes Graiae Celtic people in the  Alpes Graiae, in the valley of the Isère (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,4; Str. 4,4,6; Ptol. 3,1,33); known for copper mining (Plin. HN 34,3) and cheese-making (Plin. HN 11,240). Granted   ius Latii , probably under Claudius (Plin. HN 3,135). Main centres were Ax…


(69 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] A navigable river having its source in the Norian Alps (Plin. HN 3,147), flowing into the Danube at Mursa in Pannonia, modern Drava. Some cosmographers also have the Draus rise in the Danube (cosmographia 1,20; 24; Iulius Honorius, cosmographia B 24). The Draus was an important transportation route (Ven. Fort. Vita Martini 4,649) and enjoyed veneration in Pannonia as a river deity. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Mons Poeninus

(251 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Mountain (Ptol. 2,12,1; 3,1,1; 20) and pass (2,469 m) on the route from Italy into Gaul and Rhaetia, the modern Great St. Bernhard. Used from the Neolithic period, traffic increasing from the La Tène period, it served the Celts on their invasion of Italy (Liv. 5,35,2). Liv. 21,38,6ff. was already dismissing speculation concerning the expeditionary route of  Hannibal (with etymological place-name interpretation based on the ethnic). Under Augustus, the MP was occupied by the Romans…

Iugum Cremonis

(36 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern Mont Cramont on the route of the Little St Bernard Pass, over which, according to Coelius Antipater (HRR fr. 14 = Liv. 21,38,7), Hannibal crossed the Alps. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)


(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the Alpes Cottiae, mentioned on the Augustus Arch in Segusio (CIL V 7231) and at the Mausoleum of Escoyères en Queyras (CIL XII 80). It can therefore presumably be located in the region to the southeast of  Briançon. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 175-177, 356 f.

Lacus Pelso

(302 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (also L. Pelsois, L. Pelsodis). Lake in Pannonia (today 591 km2, 106 m above sea level, average depth 3 m), important as a shipping route with many overland connections, modern Balaton in western Hungary. Pliny (HN 3,146) has Lacus Pelso (LP) border on the territory of the Norici ( Noricum) and the deserta Boiorum ( Boiohaemum), which commonly led to the assumption that Lake Neusiedel was also called LP [1. 26f.; 2; 3. 61]. While the area west of LP is supposed to have been dependent on the Norici in the early 1st cent. AD [4. 15f.]…


(148 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Capital of the Veragri on the route through the Great Saint Bernard pass from Italy to Gaul, modern Martigny. In 57 BC the battle between the Twelfth Legion under Sulpicius Galba and the Gauls took place there (Caes. B Gall. 3,1,4); Roman occupation in c. 15 BC. Under Claudius in c. AD 47, O. was refounded as Forum Claudii Augusti or Vallensium with Latin rights (Plin. HN 3,135). In the subsequent period it grew into a reloading point for Alpine traffic, laid out like an insula, with forum (with basilica), baths, nymphaeum, amphitheatre, Gallo-Roman peripteral tem…


(60 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Name of two tributaries of the Po (Plin. HN 3,118). The shorter of the two, today called the Dora Riparia, flows along the Alpine pass at Mont Genèvre (Liv. 5,34,8); the longer, gold-bearing (Str. 4,6,7) Dora Baltea flows through the Aosta valley past Ivrea, and joins the Po near Industria (near modern Crescentino). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)


(98 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pannonia Military base and road junction on the upper Pannonian   limes , at the mouth of the Ar(r)abo (Ptol. 2,11,5; 14,1; 15,1; Tab. Peut. 5,3; Marcianos 2,36) into the Danube (It. Ant. 267,10; Not. Dign. occ. 34,27; Geogr. Rav. 4,19), modern Györ, German name Raab. From the middle of the 1st cent. AD alae fort (on the Káptalan hill), from the 2nd cent. garrison of the   ala I Ulpia Contariorum Milliaria .   Vicus to the south and east, burial and cremation graves. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)


(47 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Subsection of the tribe of the Lepontii living near the source of the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) in the upper Valais (Plin. HN 3,135); conquered by Augustus (Plin. HN 3,137). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 311.


(117 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | Batavian Revolt Mod. Ivrea, Celtic settlement at the confluence of the Dora and the Padus. the Roman citizen colony was founded in 100 BC at the order of the Sibylline oracle (Plin. HN 3,123) within the territory of the  Salassi (Ptol. 3,1,30; falsely Vell. Pat. 1,15,5 in Bagiennis). According to Str. 4,6,7, there was a slave market in E. for the subjugated Alpine tribes, and Plin. HN 21,43 mentions E. for its perfume production. In late antiquity, it becam…


(115 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] (Ἰκτούμουλαι/ Iktoúmoulai). Settlement of Celtic Insubres in the territory of Vercellae [1]. Expanded, fortified and settled with inhabitants of the surrounding area by the Romans as a trade centre in the war with the Galli (225-222 BC) (Liv. 21,57,9 f.). In 218 BC Hannibal [4] pitched camp near V. (Liv. 21,45,3) before conquering the town (Liv. 21,57,9 ff.). In the process the men of the settlement are said to have burned themselves in their houses or killed themselves and their families (Diod. 25,17). A lex censoria prohibited the tenants of nearby rich goldmi…


(74 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Alpine people in the modern Val Trompia (regional name Trumplia: CIL III 7452); subjugated in 16 BC by P. Silius [II 7]  (Plin. HN 3,136) and assigned to the municipium of Brixia. The T. are mentioned in an inscription at the Sebasteion in Aphrodisias [1] (AE 1982, 892 o). A princeps and a praefectus cohortis Trumplinorum (CIL V 4910) attest to recruiting from the tribe by the Roman army. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)


(94 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] City in Pannonia on the amber road, present-day Zalalövő (Hungary; [1. 14]). After the construction of a fort for auxiliary troops in the 1st cent. AD, the civil infrastructure was developed ( municipium Aelium S.). Destroyed in the Marcomannic War (AD 167-182), it was rebuilt later, in the 4th cent., with a villa publica. Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg) Bibliography 1 F. Redö, Zalalövö - Municipium Aelium S., in: G. Hajnóczy et al. (eds.), Pannonia Hungarica Antiqua, 1999, 14 f. 2 J. Šašel, Rimske ceste v Sloveniji (Roman Roads in Slovenia), in: Arheolos̆ka naj…


(157 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Limes | Rome Main centre of the Segusini in the Alpes Cottiae, modern Susa (Plin. HN 3,123: regio XI; Ptol. 3,1,40 erroneously places S. in the Alpes Graiae [2. 393-408; 3. 331-333]). S. commanded the route over Mont Genèvre and was the gateway into Italy (Amm. Marc. 15,10,3; Pan. Lat. 4,17,3; 21; 22,2). S. possessed Latin law probably from the time of Augustus and was a municipium from the time of Nero. Constantinus [1] conquered S. in AD 312. Outstanding monuments are an Augustine arch …


(77 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Modern river Durance, rises in the  Alpes Cottiae and flows into the Rhône (Str. 4,1,3; 11; Ptol. 2,10,4). It was along this torrential river (Str. 4,6,5; Plin. HN 3,33; Auson. Mos. 479) that Hannibal marched with his army (Liv. 21,32,8; 32,6; Sil. Pun. 3,468; Amm. Marc. 15,10,11). Nautae Druentici are mentioned in inscriptions (CIL XII 731; 982). In late antiquity the region's security was maintained by fortresses (Cassiod. Var. 3,41,2). Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)

Lacus Brigantinus

(178 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Lake formed by the river Rhenus at the northern foot of the Alps (538.5 km2, greatest depth 252 m), named after the Brigantii ( Brigantium) who lived there, modern Lake Constance. Mentioned by Str. 4,3,3 without a name of its own (cf. also Str. 4,4,9; 7,1,5; 5,1; Mela 3,24; Cass. Dio 54,22,4; first by Plin. HN 9,63: lacus Raetiae Brigantinus). Inhabitants of the region were the Vindelici, Helvetii and Raeti. Mela 3,24 differentiates between the upper lake ( lacus Venetus) and the lower lake ( lacus Acronus). Plin. HN 9,63 mentions a type of fish, mustela, in the lacus Briganti…

Alpes Cottiae

(129 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] After the entry of the regnum into the Roman empire, administration by means of  Cottius as praefectus civitatium (CIL V 7231), after the death of Cottius II in AD 63, transformation of the Alpes Cottiae (AC) into a procuratorial province (Suet. Nero 1), since the 3rd cent. AD under a praeses; main town  Segusio; other centres were  Eburodunum and Brigantio (today Briançon). Under Diocletian the western part came to the  Alpes Maritimae, the eastern part was allocated under a praeses to the dioecesis Italia (Amm. Marc. 15,10,6). Starting in the 6th cent. AD, Lig…


(118 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Germanic tribe on the Vistula (Plin. HN 4,97), which in the 3rd cent. BC advanced as far as the Black Sea (Syll.3 495, Z. 100 from Olbia). From the 4th cent. AD the S. settled on the northern edge of the Carpathians, came to be dependent on the Hunni and undertook incursions into the Roman Empire (Zos. 4,34,6; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,5,5; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,322). After the death of Attila in AD 453 the S. were defeated by the Goti; some were accepted into Moesia (Iord. Get. 265; Moesi), the rest moved with Odoacer to Italy (Procop. Goth. 1,1,3; Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 209,1). Graßl,…


(122 words)

Author(s): Graßl, Herbert (Salzburg)
[German version] Gallic tribe, settling in the  Alpes Cottiae on the upper course of the Durance, mistakenly placed by Ptol. 3,1,35 in the Alpes Graiae, and by Str. 4,6,6 in the mountains above the Salassi. In Caes. B Gall. 1,10,4, the C. are named as a tribe hostile to Rome. Plin. HN 3,125 sees the C. as expelled  Insubres. They were conquered under Augustus (CIL V 7231; 7817 = Plin. HN 3,137). Their capitals were Caturigomagus (modern Chorges) and Eburodunum (modern Embrun). Since the time of Diocletian (AD 284-305), they belonged to the province of Alpes Maritimae. Graßl, Herbert (Salzbu…
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