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(842 words)

Author(s): Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Brock, Sebastian P. (Oxford)
[German version] [1] The prophet Elijah (Elijah, prophet). The biblical character of E., according to the evidence of the Deuteronomic History, appears as a prophet of the northern kingdom at the time of king Ahab (871-852 BC) (cf. the E. traditions in 1 Kgs 17-19; 21; 2 Kgs 1-2); probably because of his miraculous translation to heaven (2 Kgs 2), E. comes to play a very important role in post-biblical Judaism. Thus, even in early Judaism, the notion arose of E.'s eschatological return (cf. Mal 3,23; …


(1,246 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
(Ἱεροκλῆς; Hieroklês). [German version] [1] Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC Carian mercenary leader of the 3rd cent. BC. In 287/6 together with Heraclides he foiled the attempt of Athenian democrats to take the Piraeus and the Munychia (Polyaenus, Strat. 5,17). Under  Antigonus [2] Gonatas, H. held the position of a Macedonian phroúrarchos (‘commandant of a garrison’) in Piraeus and repeatedly was host to the king. He was a friend of the leader of the Academy, Arcesilaus [5] (Diog. Laert. 4,39f.) and acquainted with Menedemus (Diog. Laert. 2,127).  Demetrius [2] Engels, Joh…


(247 words)

Author(s): Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] (not Chalcidius). Christian philosopher; his dates are disputed: he either lived from the second half of the 3rd to the first half of the 4th cent. AD [1] or from the first half to the middle of 4th cent. [2]. Assigning his commentary on Plato's Timaeus to a particular school of thought (for Middle Platonism see [1] or Neoplatonism, see [2; 3; 4; 5]), is further complicated by the fact that important tenets, like those on providence and fatum, have basically remained unchanged from Middle Platonism to the end of Neoplatonism [6]. C.'s Timaeus commentary is also the first …


(208 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Neoplatonist from Cappadocia Neoplatonist from Cappadocia († before AD 355), pupil of  Iamblichus. Only source: Eunapius, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum. After the death of Iamblichus, he apparently took over Iamblichus' pupils and then retired back to Cappadocia, and finally ended up teaching in Pergamum together with the philosopher Sosipatra. As he considered himself too old, after a short time he transferred the responsibility of the philosophical education of Julian, the future emperor, …


(2,436 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] A. Definition The term ‘Neoplatonism’ was coined in the 19th cent. and originally referred to a specific form of Platonism (Plato) in the 3rd to 5th cents. AD; in a wider sense, the term refers to the intellectual trends of the same period or later that share some of Platonism's characteristics. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) [German version] B. General characteristics Like most ancient philosophical schools, the Neoplatonic schools in Rome, Athens, Alexandria, Apamea etc. were communities of teaching and learning that imposed on their members a…


(1,726 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [1] [...]us C. s. M.  Arruntius Claudianus Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Claudius C. Graeco-Latin poet, c. AD 400 Graeco-Latin poet (about AD 400) from Alexandria. C. first wrote Greek poetry of which the opening of a ‘gigantomachy is preserved, whose praefatio in elegiac distichs indicates recitation in Alexandria. Of the seven epigrams in the  Anthologia Palatina attributed to a Klaudianos (see Claudius  Claudianus [3]), four were written by this C. (5,86,, 9,140. 753f.). He may also be the writer of (lost) epic poems…

Philosophical life

(1,518 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
Ancient Greek and Latin philosophy was characterized not only by the fact that it formulated theories about the world and mankind; it also represented a way of life. Hence choosing to adhere to a certain philosophical school meant not so much the adopting a particular doctrine as it did the realization of a particular way of life [1; 2; 3; 4; 5] (cf. Sext. Emp. Adv. math. 9,178-180), i.e. living in a way that outsiders might regard strange and even absurd. This was often realized within the philosophical schools - communities in which teachers and pupils had daily contact with one another ( contu…


(217 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[German version] [1] C., Ti. Teacher of Latin rhetoric and orator, 2nd cent. AD Teacher of Latin rhetoric and orator of high-flown speeches at the time of Antonines who was even listened to by  Gellius (13,22); befriended by  Fronto (ep. ad am. 2,2), highly regarded by  Hadrianus because of his fine education and moral attitudes. C. favoured the reading of Republican authors (Sallust, Metellus Numidicus, C. Gracchus: Gell. NA 2,27; 1,6; 11,13) is linked with the revival of old Roman virtues: Stylistic and moral judgment go hand in hand in the spirit of Cato's vir bonus, peritus dicendi; C. …


(1,637 words)

Author(s): Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] [1] [...]us C. s. M. Arruntius Claudianus Hofmann, Heinz (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Claudius C. griech.-lat. Dichter, um 400 Griech.-lat. Dichter (um 400 n. Chr.) aus Alexandreia. C. schrieb erst griech. Gedichte; erh. ist der Anfang einer ‘Gigantomachie, deren Praefatio in elegischen Distichen auf Rezitation in Alexandreia weist. Von den in der Anthologia Palatina einem Klaudianos (s. Claudius Claudianus [3]) zugeschriebenen sieben Epigrammen stammen vier von unserem C. (5,86; 9,140. 753f.); er dürfte auch Verf. (verlorener…


(82 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] Neuplatoniker (4.Jh. n.Chr.), Schüler des Iamblichos-Schülers Aidesios [1] in Pergamon. Er unterrichtete zunächst dort zusammen mit Eusebios von Myndos, dann in Ephesos zusammen mit dem neuplatonischen Philosophen Maximos, den künftigen Kaiser Julian. Ch. war auch der Lehrer des Eunapios, der in seinen Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum (cap. 23 p. 90,21-101,16 Giangrande) Eunapios, Vitae philosophorum et sophistarum, cap. XXIII, S. 90,21-101,16 Giangrande ein äußerst lebendiges Portrait von ihm entwirft. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) Bibliography R. Goule…


(2,389 words)

Author(s): Hadot, Pierre (Limours)
[English version] A. Begriff Der Begriff des “N.” wurde zu Beginn des 19. Jh. geprägt und bezeichnet im eigentlichen Sinne die spezifische Form des Platonismus (Platon) vom 3. bis 5. Jh.n.Chr., in erweitertem Sinne die geistigen Strömungen, die gleichzeitig oder später Analogien zu dessen charakteristischen Aspekten aufweisen. Hadot, Pierre (Limours) [English version] B. Allgemeine Kennzeichen Wie die meisten philos. Schulen des Alt. waren auch die neuplaton. Schulen in Rom, Athen, Alexandreia, Apameia usw. Lehr- und Lerngemeinschaften, die ihren …
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