Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)" )' returned 256 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Mathurā

(187 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
The Old Indian name M. designates two towns. [German version] [1] Indian locality at the confluence of the Yamuna and the Ganges This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | Mauryas The northern M. (also Méthōra/Μέθωρα in Megasthenes fr. 13a apud Arr. Ind. 8,5) in the land of Śūrasena, at the confluence of the Yamuna and the Ganges. It was an old and important centre of the cult of Kṛsṇa, but also of that of the Indian Heracles; the latter may not, however, be simply identified with Kṛsṇa. Ptol. 7,1,…

Indus Culture

(113 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Prehistoric high culture in the 3rd millennium in northwestern South Asia, from Punjab to Baluchistan and Gujarat, with Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro as the most likely important centres. There was lively overseas trade (a harbour was excavated at Lothal in Gujarat) with Makan (modern Oman),  Dilmun (modern Bahrain), the island of Failaka (now part of Kuwait) and Mesopotamia [1. 107ff.]. The famous Indus script is only attested in the form of very short seal legends; the language on wh…

Swat

(161 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] Region (Σουαστηνή/ Souastēnḗ at Ptol. 7,1,42) around the homonymous tributary of the River Kabul (Greek Σό(υ)αστος/ Só(u)astos, Sanskrit Suvāstu) in modern northwestern Pakistan. After fierce fighting, the area was conquered by Alexander [4] the Great. Later it became part of the Indo-Greek kingdom and a centre of Buddhism. The exact location of the ancient capital Massaga is unknown, but excavations in Birkot Ghwandai (probably Bazira at Arr.  Anab. 4,27,5 ff.) have revealed remains of Hellenistic…

Magnus Sinus

(88 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (μέγας κόλπος/ mégas kólpos, Ptol. 7,2,1; 7,3,1). A large ocean gulf in India extra Gangem, adjoining the Sinae, i.e. south-east Asia, with three rivers: Daonas, Dorias and Seros (Ptol. 7,2,7). Although the geography of south-east Asia seems hopelessly distorted in Ptolemy, and all interpretations of place names in that region must remain highly hypothetical, nonetheless the Magnus Sinus can be identified with the waters lying between the Malacca Peninsula and southern China. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography H. Treidler, s.v. Μέγας κόλπος, RE Suppl…

Musarna

(173 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Port in Gedrosia (Μουσάρνα; Mousárna). Port in Gedrosia, visited by Nearchus [2] (Arr. Ind. 26,10-27,2). He found a pilot here who was able to guide the fleet as far as Carmania. According to Ptol. Geog. 6,8,9, M. was the easternmost settlement of Carmania, west of the Gedrosian frontier. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) [German version] [2] Settlement at Viterbo The civitas of M. is generally identified with a small, late Etruscan settlement discovered in 1849 on the Poggio della Civita, 10 km west of Viterbo. French excavations undertake…

Hydaspes

(163 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ὑδάσπης; Hydáspēs; Βιδάσπης; Bidáspēs in Ptol.), probably from Old Indian, Old Indo-Aryan Vitastā (apparently through Iranian mediation); one of the main rivers of the Punjab, modern Jhelum in Pakistan - it rises in the western Himalayas and flows into the  Acesines [2]. At a place on its left shore that can no longer be identified, Alexander fought against  Porus after having traversed the river during a heavy monsoon rain. After the battle, the twin cities of  Nicaea and  Bucephala were fo…

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Barabara

(56 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] ( Barbara, also Barbare). Port city at the mouth of the Indus (Ptol. 7,1,59), Ἐμπόριον Βαρβαρικόν or Βαρβαρική ( Empórion Barbarikón, Barbarikḗ), Peripl. M. Rubr. 38f., old Indian Varvara. B. appears to have been the main port of the Indus region, but has disappeared without a trace within the delta area. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)

Pantaleon

(501 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πανταλέων/ Pantaléōn). [German version] [1] King of the Pisates, middle of the 7th cent. BC Son of Omphalion, king of the Pisates (middle of the 7th cent. BC); P.'s rule may have been perceived as tyranny already in his own lifetime (cf. Paus. 6,21,1). He temporarily wrested the organisation of the Olympic Games from the Eleians (Olympia IV.; Paus. 6,22,2) [1. 220f.]. His support of the Messenians in the second of the Messenian Wars (Str. 8,4,10) is a later invention [2. 153f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996 2 K. Tausend, Amphikty…

Telephus

(789 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich)
(Τήλεφος /Tḗlephos). [German version] [1] Son of Heracles and Auge Son of Heracles [1] and Auge [2] (Hes. fr. 165,8-10 M./W.). There are two legendary versions of his youth. According to one version (probably in essence epic, but also assumed by Euripides [1] in his T.), Auge of Tegea, a priestess of Athena, was made pregnant by Heracles [1], gave birth to T. and hid him in the sanctuary. When, as a consequence of this, the goddess imposed a famine and the child was discovered, Auge's father Aleus [1] had the child exposed (Exposure, myths…

Peucolaus

(35 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] ( P. Díkaios kaì Sōtḗr/'the righteous one and deliverer'; Middle Indian Peukalaüsa). Indo-Greek King of Gandhāra (Gandaritis), beginning of 1st cent. BC, known only from coins. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 106, 309.

Barygaza

(136 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria | India, trade with | Mauryas (Βαρύγαζα ἐμπόριον; Barýgaza empórion, Ptol. 7,1,62 and Steph. Byz.), harbour town at the Gulf of Cambay in Gujarat, Old and Middle Indian: Bharukaccha, modern Broach. Peripl. m. rubr. 43-49 provides an extensive report on route and commerce; a coin find confirms his statements on the validity of Indo-Greek coins [1]. B. was the port of Ozene, and its trade links extended to Gandhāra and  Bactria. Probably identical with Βαργόση ( Bargόsē) in Str. 15,1,73. Karttun…

Massaga

(64 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Graeco-Bactria | Graeco-Bactria (Massaka). Capitol city of the Assaceni in modern Swat west of the Indus, Old Indian Maósakāvatī; conquered by Alexander the Great. Hellenistic wall remains were found in excavations of neighbouring sites. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography P. Callieri et al., Bir-Kot-Ghwandai 1990-1992 (Annali. Istituto Universitario Orientale 52, Supplemento 73), 1994.

Xylinepolis

(85 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] One of Alexander [4] the Great's settlements (Plin. HN 6,26,96; perhaps following Onesicritus), where his fleet set off under Nearchus [2] on its coastal voyage westwards; according to [2] identical with Ἀλεξάνδρου λιμήν/ Alexándrou limḗn ('Alexander's port') in Arr. Ind. 21,10 where the western branch of the Indus flows into the Arabian Sea [1. 127]. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 J. André, J. Filliozat (ed.), Pline l'ancien, Histoire naturelle. Livre VI, 2e partie, 1980 (with French transl. and comm.) 2 H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2164-2172.

Nicias

(1,775 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Νικίας; Nikías). [German version] [1] Important commander in the Peloponnesian War, c.470-413 BC Son of Niceratus of Athens, born c.470 BC, died 413; one of the most important commanders in the Peloponnesian War. After the death of Pericles, N. competed with Cleon [1] for influence in the popular assembly and the assignment of military commands. His policy was directed towards ending the aggressive Athenian politics of expansion and towards reconciliation with Sparta. From 427, N. was regularly elected stratēgós . He led expeditions against Minoa [4…

Artemidorus

(1,271 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Ἀρτεμίδωρος; Artemídōros). [German version] [1] Indo-Greek King in 1st cent. BC. Coins are the only evidence of his existence, middle Indian Artemitora. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography Bopearachchi, 110, 316-318. [German version] [2] Elegiac poet Writer of elegies Περὶ Ἔρωτος in which, among others, the katasterismós of the dolphin was narrated. He had helped Poseidon win Amphitrite as his wife (Ps.-Eratosth. Catasterismus 31 S. 158 Robert, cf. schol. ad Germanicus, Aratea, S. 92,2ff. Breysig = SH 214). Even if this is only a hy…

Camara [II]

(116 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Καμάρα; Kamára). [German version] [1] Harbour settlement in eastern Crete Harbour settlement in eastern Crete, originally Lato (Λατὼ πρὸς or ἐπὶ Καμάραι, Ptol. 3,17,5; Hierocles, Synekdemos 650,1), modern Agios Nikolaos. Close political links with  Lato [1. no. 72, p. 428]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996. F. Gschnitzer, Abhängige Orte im griech. Alt., 1958, 49-51. [German version] [2] Empórion on India's south-eastern coast According to Peripl. M. Rubr. 60, an   empórion

Calliope

(291 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] [1] A Muse (Greek Καλλιόπη, Καλλιόπεια; Kalliópē, Kalliópeia; Lat. Calliopa; on the etymology Diod. Sic. 4.3). Of the nine  Muses (Hes. Theog. 79), C. is mentioned most often and is particularly depicted on an individual level. She was originally the Muse of epic poetry honouring warfare, but later, in a paradoxical turnaround, of the ‘peaceful’ Roman love elegy (Prop. 3.3) or of lofty poetry in general (Ov. Tr. 2, 568). C. is considered the patroness of poetry and, among others, is appe…

Namades

(82 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ναμάδης; Namád ēs). River in Gujarāt, rising in the Vindhya mountains (Οὐίνδιον; Ouíndion) and reaching the sea to the east of  Barygaza (Ptol. 7,1,31, briefly also 7,1,65), modern Narmadā. The so-called river Namnadios (Peripl. m.r. 42) [1] is only an emendation by C. Müller (GGM 291) for manuscript Lamnaíos and can hardly be connected with N., although it may be that here, too, the river Narmadā is meant. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 O. Stein, s.v. Ναμάδης, RE 16, 1609.

Xandrames

(129 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
[German version] (Ξανδράμης/ Xandrámēs). Indian king (in Diod. Sic. 17,93,2; Latin Agrammes in Curt. 9,2,3; Sacram(es) in the Epitome Mettensis 68), second half of the 4th cent. BC. He was described to Alexander [4] as the most powerful king in the Ganges valley. It is therefore probably Nandrus, the last king of the Nanda dynasty in Indian sources, that is meant (Nandas). The account in Just. Epit. 15,4,12-19 of the fall of Nandrus Chandragupta (Sandracottus; Mauryas), although differing in detail, in general…
▲   Back to top   ▲