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Ducetius

(344 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] One of the few Sicels known by name, mentioned only by Diodorus (11,76-12,30, drawing on Timaeus) in an overly dramatic account (see [1. 50ff.] and [2. 99ff.]). In 466-461 BC, supported by the Sicels, D. attempted to use the chaotic conditions after the fall of the tyrants to establish a power base in Sicily (cf. Diod. Sic. 11,72,3-73; 76,4-6; 86,2-87). In 461/0 he moved with Syracuse against  Aitne [2] and expelled the mercenaries of the tyrant Hieron. Two years later he founded …

Damarete

(218 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμαρέτη; Damarétē). [German version] [1] Wife of Gelon of Syracuse Daughter of Theron of Acragas and wife of Gelon of Syracuse, after his death wife of Polyzalus. Diod. Sic. (11,26,3) and the schol. 15 (29) to Pindar (Ol. 2) report that after the battle of Himera in 480 BC, D. spoke out in favour of making peace with the Carthaginians and treating them humanely. From the proceeds of the golden wreath weighing 100 talents which she received from them for her actions, she had so-called damareteia minted ─ commemorative coins ─ that each had a value of 10 Attic drachmas or 50 litrai (17 specimens…

Theotimus

(55 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Θεότιμος; Theótimos). Greek historian of the Hellenistic period. Author of various works of local history: On Cyrene (FGrH 470 F 1 and 2), Italiká (FGrH 834 F 1), Against Aeelurus (FGrH 470 F 3-5), a Rhodean specialist author of unknown period (Aieluros FGrH 528). FGrH 470 and 834. Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Marmor Parium

(369 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Hellenistic chronicle on marble from Paros; two extensive parts have survived: In the year 1627, fragment A (lines 1-93) from Smyrna came into the possession of Earl Thomas Howard of Arundel, but lines 1-45 were lost during the turmoil under Charles I. and are only known from the editio princeps by J. Selden [1]. Lines 46-93 have been in Oxford since 1667. In 1897, fragment B (lines 101-132, FHG 1, 542-555) was discovered on Paros; today, it is kept at the local museum there. The Marmor Parium represents a Greek universal chronicle with the purpose of educating a…

Xenetus

(63 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ξένετος; Xénetos). Prominent citizen of Locri [2] in Lower Italy. In a double wedding in 398 BC Dionysius [1] I of Syracuse married both X.' daughter Doris and the Syracusan Aristomache, bestowing his favour on both women equally. Later he held X.' wife responsible for Aristomache's infertility and had her killed (Diod. 14,44,6-45,1; Plut. Dion 3,3-6). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Hicetas

(519 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich)
(Ἱκέτας; Hikétas). [German version] [1] Syracusan nobleman, tyrant of Leontini, around 350 BC Syracusan nobleman, friend of  Dion [I 1]. In the troubles after Dion's death in 353 BC he won the tyranny of Leontini. He initially supported the Syracusans in their struggle against  Dionysius [2] II. However, during his campaign against Syracuse in 346 he reached an understanding with Dionysius because of the approaching Carthaginians and supported his plea to the Corinthians for help. The superiority of the Cart…

Phoenicussa, Phoenicodes

(107 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Φοινικοῦσσα/ Phoinikoûssa, Φοινικώδης/ Phoinikṓdēs, Latin Phoenicusa). The sixth of the Aeoliae Insulae in Plin. HN 3,94, modern Filicudi, between the islands of Aliculi in the west and Salina in the east. The date-palm island (φοῖνιξ/ phoînix, Aristot. Mir. 132; Str. 6,2,11) was used for pasture, but at times was settled: a prehistorical settlement has been discovered on Cape Graziano in the east of P., and also numerous graves of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. Below sea-level there are remains of buildings surviving from various eras. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) F…

Maeandrius

(177 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μαιάνδριος; Maiándrios). [German version] [1] M. of Samos Tyrant of Samos, 6th cent. BC Confidant of the tyrant Polycrates, conducted negotiations with the Persian satrap Oroetes (Hdt. 3,123; cf. Lucian. Charidemus 14) for him. After the death of Polycrates, M. himself managed to become tyrant in about 521 BC but soon had to give way to Syloson, who was appointed by the Persians (Hdt. 3,142-6). He fled to Sparta but was expelled from the country by the ephors because of his wealth (Hdt. 3,148; Plut. Mor. 224a-b). Beck, Hans (Cologne) Bibliography J. Roisman, M. of Samos, in: Historia …

Sosistratus

(321 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Σωσίστρατος/ Sōsístratos). [German version] [1] Oligarch in Syracuse, second half of the 4th cent. BC From c. 330 BC leader with Heraclides of the Oligarchy of the Six Hundred in Syracusae. Although he was suspected by Agathocles [2] of aspirations to tyranny, his successes in the war of Croton with the Bruttii confirmed his position in Syracuse (Diod. 19,3,3-5). After a military failure against Rhegium he was banished from Syracuse c. 322 (Diod. 19,4,3), but he and his followers were able to return under Acestoridas; after Agathocles seized power in 316/5, howe…

Timagenes

(304 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
(Τιμαγένης/ Timagénēs). [German version] [1] T. of Alexandria Greek rhetor and historian, 1st cent. BC The Greek rhetor and historian T. arrived in Rome in 55 BC as a prisoner of war of A. Gabinius [I 2] and was ransomed by Sulla's son Cornelius [I 87] Faustus (FGrH 88 T 1). He worked there as a respected rhetor, mentioned in the same breath as Caecilius [III 5] of Cale Acte and Craton (T 1 and 2). Initially, he was in great favour with Augustus, but later fell into disgrace with the emperor because of his all…

Hellanicus

(786 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἑλλάνικος; Hellánikos). [German version] [1] H. of Mytilene Greek historian, end of 5th cent. BC (T 1). Contrary to ancient tradition, which sometimes puts his birth date towards the end of the 6th cent. (T 4), sometimes at the beginning of the 5th cent. (T 3) and sometimes in the year 480/479 BC (T 1 and 6), younger rather than older contemporary of  Herodotus. At any rate the datable works belong to the last third of the 5th cent. H. analyzed the Herodotean collection of topics into individual components by a series of monographs and, reverting to  Hecataeus [3], even…

Damophilus

(178 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Δαμόφιλος; Damóphilos). [German version] [1] Coroplast and painter, c. 493 BC Coroplast and painter, probably from Magna Graecia. Together with Gorgasos he decorated the Temple of Ceres in Rome (493 BC) with murals and terracotta pediment figures and added artist's epigrams. Later renovations preserved both of these. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Fuchs/Floren, 427, 440 Overbeck, no. 616, 1647 (sources) I. Scheibler, Griech. Malerei der Ant., 1994. [German version] [2] Rich property owner from Enna 136 BC Rich property owner from Enna, who treated the slaves i…

Ister, Istrus

(810 words)

Author(s): Cabanes, Pierre (Clermont-Ferrand) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Modern Danube (ὁ Ἴστρος/ ho Ístros; Hister, Danuvius, Danubius, Δάνυβις; Dánybis, the modern Danube). According to Apoll. Rhod. 4, the  Argonautae (with map of the journey of the Argonauts) must have returned from the Black Sea by way of the I. and its tributaries, in order to reach the mare Adriaticum. Hdt. 4,33 is probably describing the same route that the  Hyperborei took from Scythia to Dodona. The Greeks long knew primarily the lower reaches of the I. Hdt. 4,48f. describes the I. as the most important of the rivers known…

Deinomenes

(391 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Δεινομένης; Deinoménēs). [German version] [1] Founder of a dynasty from Gela D. from Gela, founder of the Deinomenid dynasty; father of the tyrants Gelon, Hieron, Polyzalus and Thrasybulus (cf. Simonides, fr. 141 Bergk = PLG 3,1166; Pind. Pyth. 1,79; 2,18; Hdt. 7,145; Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97; Diod. Sic. 11,67,2; Paus. 6,12,1ff.; 8,42,8). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Hieron the tyrant, 5th cent. BC Son of Hieron by his first marriage with the daughter of the Syracusan Nicocles (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 97); as a boy he was installed under the gua…

Thermae

(4,525 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[1] Baths [German version] I. Etymology and definition Thermae (fem. pl.) is a Latinization and substantivization of the Greek adjective θερμός/ thermós, 'warm'. The word was used in its Latinized form to describe a bathing establishment, and subsequently passed back into the Greek language in this sense. As in Classical Antiquity, modern scholarship has no precise definition of 'thermal baths' (TB), although it has for the smaller baths ( balnea). TB are normally defined as large, public bathing establishments with a multitude of additional functions. Apart from…

Hermaeus

(162 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἑρμαῖος; Hermaîos). [German version] [1] H. Soter Indo-Greek king, 1st cent. BC (Middle Indian Heramaya). The last of the Indo-Greek kings in Paropamisadai (modern south-east Afghanistan) in the 1st cent. BC, perhaps a son of Amyntas [8]. Like so many of the Indo-Greek kings, he is only known through his coins, a large amount of which were issued postumously by Indo-Scythians from Bactria, who had removed him (according to [1] after 30, according to [2] around 50, according to [3] around 70 BC). He was married to  Calliope. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) Bibliography 1 W. W. Tarn, The Gr…

Polyzelus

(180 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Πολύζηλος/ Polýzēlos). [German version] [1] Comic poet, c. 400 BC Comic poet of the late 5th and early 4th cent. BC; won four victories at the Lenaea [1. test. 2]. 13 frr. and five titles survive. Four of them are mythological (Ἀφροδίτης γοναί/ Aphrodítēs gonaí, 'The Birth of Aphrodite'; Δημοτυνδάρεως/ Dēmotyndáreōs, Διονύσου γοναί/ Dionýsou gonaí, 'The Birth of Dionysus'; Μουσῶν γοναί/ Mousôn gonaí, 'The Birth of the Muses'); he evidently favoured comedic presentations of the births of gods, a special variety of mythological play in vogue at the turn of …

Agesias

(150 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀγησίας; Agēsías). [German version] [1] Seer and captain in the service of Hieron I of Syracuse (5th cent. BC) Son of Sostratus, stemming from one of the branches of the Jamides, who had migrated from Stymphalus (in Arcadia) to Syracuse and functioned in Olympia as priests of Zeus. Active as a seer and captain in the service of  Hieron I of Syracuse, A. was killed by the people after Hieron's death in 467 BC (schol. Pind. Ol. 6,165). Pindar's sixth ode celebrates A.'s victory with the mule team, which probably occurred during the Olympic games in 468. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2…

Daphnaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Bloch, René (Berne)
(Δαφναῖος; Daphnaîos). [German version] [1] Strategos in Syracus 406 BC Strategos in Syracuse, was supposed to relieve Acragas in 406 BC when it was besieged by the Carthaginians, but this went wrong, apparently because of his corruption (Diod. Sic. 13,86,4ff.). This failure led to the removal from office of the group of commanders, the appointment of  Dionysius [1] as an authorized strategos and thereby to the latter's tyrannis. Dionysius killed D. in 405 (Diod. Sic. 13,96,3). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [2] Epiclesis of Apollo Epiclesis of Apollo (Anth. Pal. 9,477…

Menemachus

(174 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μενέμαχος/ Menémachos). [German version] [1] Pontic general, 71 BC Pontic general. When Mithradates [6] VI and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus faced one another at the Lycus in northern Bithynia in 71 BC, Mithradates had a unit under M. and Myron attack a Roman supply column under M. Fabius Hadrianus. The king tried to explain its heavy defeat (the two leaders and almost all the men fell) by the lack of experience of the generals (Plut. Lucullus 17; Sall. fr. IV 8 M.). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] Cavalry leader of Tigranes II of Armenia, 67 BC Cavalry leader of Tigranes II …
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