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Agraii

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀγραῖοι; Agraíoi). Tribe in north-western Aetolia between the Amphilochi and Aperanti. Independent in the 5th cent. BC (‘kingship’, Thuc. 3,111,4); two centuries later member of the koinon of the  Aetolians. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Agraioi, in: Dialogues d'histoire ancienne 13, 1987, 199-236.

Chalcis

(736 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Χαλκίς; Chalkís). [German version] [1] Settlement in Euboea on the Euripus This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Dark Ages | Ionic | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Marble | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources | Boeotia, Boeotians In Euboea on the Euripus; by its especially strategic position the most important town on the island. It remains uncertain whether the name C. derives from the or…

Tymphaea

(163 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Τυμφαία; Tymphaía). Region in Epirus, to the east of Mount Tymphe (2497 m high, modern Mavrovouni) in the Pindus [1]. T. extended in the northeast from the source rivers of the Veneticus to the basin region of the upper Haliacmon as far as modern Grevená, in the south as far as the area of the source of the Peneius around modern Kalabáka. The Tymphaei were originally considered as Epeirotae (Arr. An. 1,7,5; Str. 7,7,8f.; Plin. HN 4,6), and from the time of Philippus [4] II (cf. [1…

Stratos

(246 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (ὁ or ἡ Στράτος/ Strátos (m/f)). The most important city of Acarnania (Thuc. 2,80; Acarnanians, Acarnania, with map); on the right bank of the Achelous [1], upstream of the modern Stratos; chief city of the Acarnanian confederacy in the 5th and 4th cents. BC. After the partition of Acarnania in 260 BC, S. became Aetolian; with the foundation of Nicopolis [3] in 30 BC, …

Metropolis

(1,797 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meriç, Recep (Izmir) | Et al.
(μητρόπολις/ mētrópolis, literally ‘mother city’). [German version] [1] Mother city of colonies in the era of the ‘Great’ Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC) Since the so-called Great Colonisation (c. 750-500 BC, Colonization IV, cf. the overview there), in numerous Greek communities an oikistḗs (‘founder’) and further ápoikoi (‘settlers’, ‘colonists’) were selected from the citizenry of the future metropolis as starting point for a colonisation enterprise (or they left on their own initiative) and entrusted with the establishment of an apoikía outside the …

Zacynthos

(656 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (ἡ Ζάκυνθος; hē Zákynthos). The southernmost of the Ionian islands (401 km2; approximately 37 km in length, 19 km in width); the southeastern coast is 16 km from the mainland (Elis [1] in the Peloponnesus). Three zones cross Z. from northwest to southeast: in the west a broad almost uninhabited limestone mountain range (Vrachionas, up to 756 m high) with a steep harbourless coast, …

Onchesmus

(62 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀγχεσμός/ Onchesmós). Port in Epirus, today's Sarandë (Hagioi Saranda) in Albania. O. served as harbour for Phoenice, the main city of the district of Chaonia. In Roman times, O. was the ferry port between Epirus and Italy (Cic. Att. 7,2,1; Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,2; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,51,2). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976  N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967.

Ithaca

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Persian Wars (Ἰθάκη; Ithákē, Lat. Ithaca). [German version] A. Geography One of the central Ionian islands west of Greece, nowadays also known as Thiaki; it is 23 km long and c. 6 km wide, with a total area of c. 94 sq km, east of the island of  Cephallenia and separated from the latter by a 2-5 km wide sound. I. is divided into a larger northern half with Mt. Neriton (808 m), and a southern half with Mt. Merovigli (671 m); they are joined by a narrow isthmus (600 m wide) with Mt. Aetus…

Epirus

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος; Ḗpeiros, Epirus) [German version] I. Region E. is located at the north-western fringe of the Greek cultural sphere, nowadays comprising northern Greece and southern Albania. From Homer (8th cent. BC) to the late 5th cent., the geographical term ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) referred to the mainland north of the Gulf of Ambracia. There is a wide variation in the attribution of individual tribes to E. both in ancient and modern literature, making it impossible clearly to define E.'s geographic expansion [1]. E. was bordered in the west by…

Aous

(127 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀῶος, Ἄωος; Aôos, Áōos). River in northern  Epirus (the modern Viosa, Albanian Vijosë); also called Aias (FGrH 1 Hecat. F 102b; Plin. HN 3,26). Sources on the Lacmon in the Pindus; on the upper reaches in the territory of the Molossi a bridge (Pol. 27,16; [2. 280, 628]); on the middle reaches the Paravaea (Arr. Anab. 1,7,5); here west of Tepelena (as a river border [1. 115 f.]) the gorge at the river's entry onto the plain (Liv. 32,5,11; 10,2). The A. was navigable from Apollonia [1] to its mouth (Plut. Caesar 38); here an asphalt spring with  nymphaeum and oracle [1. 494]. St…

Palaeste

(46 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Παλαίστη/ Palaíst ē). Town in Acroceraunia on the coast of Epirus, modern Palasë in Albania, where Caesar landed his troops during his Dyrrhachium campaign on 4 January 48 BC (Caes. B. Civ. 3,6,3; Luc. 5,460). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1967, 125f.

Pullaria

(59 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] Island in the  Ionios Kolpos off the southern extremity of  Histria (Plin. HN 3,151; Tab. Peut. 5,39; Geogr. Rav. 5,24). P. can be identified either with modern Lošinj (in Croatia) or with the Brioni Islands to the northwest of ancient Pola. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography J. J. Wilkes, Dalmatia, 1969, 4, 196  Id., The Illyrians, 1992, 185.

Elea

(99 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ἐλέα; Eléa). [German version] [1] Coastal town in Epirus Coastal town in Epirus at the mouth of the Acheron near modern Veliani, main settlement of the Eleatis region (wrongly Elaia/Elaiatis in Thuc. 1,46,4) in Thesprotia. Origin of the pólis before 350 BC, first minting between 360 and 335 BC. Of the 10-ha. town mainly the 1.5-km-long walls are preserved. Documents: Scyl. 30; Str. 7,7,5. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography Archaeological Reports 41, 1994/5, 26 P. Cabanes, L'Épire, 1976 S. I. Dakaris, Thesprotia, 1972 P. R. Franke, Die ant. Mz. von Epirus, 1961, 300-307. …

Evenus

(688 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Εὔηνος, Εύηνός; Eúēnos, Euēnós) [1] of Paros [German version] A. Personal Data Eratosthenes distinguishes between two elegiac poets from Paros, both named E. (Harpocr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), others maintain that there had only been one [1]. Plato mentions an E. of Paros, a poet and ‘philosopher’ (Pl. Phd. 60d; 61b), a teacher of political rhetoric around 400 BC (Pl. Ap. 20a-b), who had ‘discovered’ a number of tropes (Pl. Phdr. 267a). Both his language and the subject matter of some of the extant fra…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Acroceraunia

(106 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (τὰ Ἀκροκεραύνια; tá Akrokeraúnia). Mountain range on the coast of  Epirus (modern Karaburun in Albania), as a continuation of the Ceraunian Mountains on the territory of the  Chaones, border to Illyria (Str. 7,7,5; Plin. HN 3,97,1; 145,2), also a peninsula with a length of 16 km and a breadth of 3-5 km, and up to 800 m in height, protecting the Gulf of Aulon (Vlores) and the port of  Oricus. Because of its inhospitality and frequent storms metonymous for ‘dangerous places’ (Ov. Rem. am. 739; cf. ThLL 1, 42). Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography N.G.L. Hammond, Epirus, 1…

Agrinium

(95 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania (Ἀγρίνιον; Agrínion). Originally an Acarnanian town, in 314 BC under Cassander   synoikismos of the  Derieis in A., then, after capture by the  Aetolians (Diod. Sic. 19,67 f.), it became a member of the Aetolian koinon (several strategoi hailed from A.). Remains of the town (walls, stoa, houses) localized near Megali Chora, 3 km north-west of the modern A. (regional museum).  Acarnania;  Strategos Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography C. Antonetti, Les Étoliens, 1990, 23…

Ambracia

(566 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (Ἀμβρακία; Ambrakía). South Epirote town in Thesprotia, originally about 80 stades upriver of the mouth of the Arachthus (navigable up to A.) into the Gulf of A. (Scyl. 33), the location of the modern Arta. The older form of its name, up to the 4th cent. BC, was Ἀμπρακία ( Amprakía; Hdt.; Thuc.; coins), derived from the castle of Ambrakos in the lagoons south of the town (Pol. 4,61,4 ff…

Aeginium

(140 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Αἰγίνιον; Aigínion). Town in Tymphania, originally taken as belonging to Epirus (Str. 7,7,9), but from 191 BC belonging to Macedonia, from 167 BC to the Thessalonian Hestiaiotis. Strategically important location in the upper valley of the Peneius (impregnable according to Liv. 32,15,4), destroyed by the Romans in the Third Macedonian War in 167 BC (Liv. 45,27). Its localization close to the modern Kalambaka [3. 121-123; 1. 898] (medieval Stagoi [4. 262 f.]) seems to be certain, de…

Amphilochi, Amphilochia

(306 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀμφίλοχοι, Ἀμφιλοχία; Amphílochoi, Amphilochía). Region and tribe east of the Gulf of  Ambracia, mainly mountainous, only a narrow coastal plain, bordering to the east on the   Agraei, to the south on  Acarnania. Str. 7,7,1; 7,8 ranked them amongst the Epirotes, but generally, they were considered to be a separate ‘Barbarian’ tribe (Dionysius Calliphontus 46 f.; Str. 9,5,1; Thuc. 2,68; [2. 351 f.]). According to older tradition, the main town of Argos Amphilochicum was founded by  A…
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