Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Bosworth, C.E." ) OR dc_contributor:( "Bosworth, C.E." )' returned 1,363 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Swāt

(704 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a region of the North-West Frontier region of what is now Pākistān, lying roughly between lats. 34° 30′ and 35° 50′ N. and long. 72° and 73° E. It is bounded on the north-west by Čitrāl, on the west by Dīr, on the east by Bunēr and Hazāra and on the south by Mardān. It comprises essentially the basin of the Swāt River, from its headwaters down to the Malakand Pass, after which it runs into the Kabul River below Pes̲h̲awar and near Naws̲h̲ēra. The nor…

Tad̲j̲mīr

(178 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the verbal noun of form II of d̲j̲-m-r meaning basically “to come together”. In early Islamic military and administrative ¶ usage, d̲j̲ammara had the meaning of “to keep the troops quartered on distant frontiers, far away from their families” (see LʿA 1, v, 217). The caliph ʿUmar is said to have disapproved of this, as leading to discontent and rebelliousness amongst the Arab warriors. But once the initial phase of the Arab conquests was over, the muḳātila found themselves fighting in distant, climatically and topographically difficult environ…

Ibn Farīg̲h̲ūn

(358 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, S̲h̲aʿyā (?), author in the 4th/10th century of a concise Arabic encyclopaedia of the sciences the D̲j̲awāmiʿ al-ʿulūm “Connections of the sciences”. The author wrote in the upper Oxus lands, and dedicated his work to the Muḥtād̲j̲id amīr of Čag̲h̲āniyān [ q.v.], Abū ʿAlī Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Muẓaffar (d. 344/955). Minorsky surmised from his name (if this has been interpreted correctly) that he was a scion of the Farīg̲h̲ūnids [ q.v.] in northern Afg̲h̲ānistān, rulers of the district of Gūzgān [ q.v.] as tributaries of the Sāmānids, and latterly, of the G̲h̲aznawids; a co…

Masʿūd b. Muḥammad b. Malik-s̲h̲ah

(767 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Fatḥ G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dunyā wa ’l-Din , Sald̲j̲ūḳ sultan in ʿIrāḳ and western Persia 529-47/1134-52. Like the other sons of Muḥammad b. Malik-S̲h̲ah [ q.v.], Masʿūd was entrusted as a child to the tutelage of Turkish Atabegs [see atabak ], latterly with Ay-Aba D̲j̲uyūs̲h̲ Beg acting thus, and given the appanage of Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān and al-D̲j̲azīra: at D̲j̲uyūs̲h̲ Beg’s prompting, Masʿūd unsuccessfully rebelled in 514/1120 at the age of 12 against his elder brother Sultan Maḥmūd b. Malik-S̲h̲āh [ q.v.], but was pardoned. When Maḥmūd died in 525/1131, a period of confusio…

Tungans

(491 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Dungans , in Chinese, T’ung-kan, the Turkic name given to those Hui (i.e. ethnically Chinese Muslims) settled within Chinese Turkestan or Sinkiang [ q.v.], especially in the northern Sinkiang regions of Dzungaria and Kumul, but numerous also in the northwestern provinces of China proper such as Kansu [ q.v.] (Gansu), Ninghsia [ q.v.], Shensi [ q.v.] (Shaanxi) and Tsinghai. The Tungans in Sinkiang were estimated at 92,000 in the mid-1940s, and played a considerable political and military role there during the Chinese Republican or Kuomintang period (191…

Ötüken

(525 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a forested, mountain area of Inner Asia which had a special religious and moral significance for the early Turkish peoples. It seems to have been located in the eastern part of the Khangai Mts. around the headwaters of the Orkhon and Tamir rivers (the latter river corresponding, according to R. Giraud, L’Empire des Turcs célestes . Les règnes d’Elterich , Qapghan et Bilga ( 680-734), Paris 1960, 207, to the i̊duḳ yer sub “sacred places and watercourses” of the old Turkish inscriptions), generally along the co-ordinates of…

S̲h̲ims̲h̲āṭ

(200 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a mediaeval Islamic town in eastern Anatolia/western Armenia. It lay, at a site whose definite location is unknown, on the left bank of the southern headwater of the upper Euphrates, the classical Arsanias, modern Murad Su. Its location was, according to Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iii, 362-3, between Bālūya (modern Palu) and Hiṣn Ziyād or K̲h̲artpirt [ q.v.] (modern Harput), and it is not to be confused with Sumaysāṭ [ q.v.] on the Euphrates further south. It was in the borderland between the Arabs and the Greeks, and possession of it must have oscillated between…

Yulbārs K̲h̲ān

(357 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the Uyg̲h̲ur Turkish leader of a Muslim rebellion at Ḳomul [ q.v. in Suppl.] in Eastern Turkistan or Sinkiang [ q.v.] during the 1930s, b. 1888, d. ? in the mid-1970s. In 1928 the second Republican Chinese governor of Sinkiang, Chin Shu-jen, overthrew the last autonomous k̲h̲ānate of Central Asia, that of Ḳomul in the extreme eastern end of the province, adjacent to the frontiers ¶ with Mongolia and Kansu. His anti-Muslim policies provoked a rebellion there in April 1931 of the Uyg̲h̲urs, and possibly some of the Tungans [ q.v.], under the joint leadership of Yulbārs K̲h̲ān, who had…

K̲h̲awla bt. Ḥakīm

(189 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Umayya b. Ḥārit̲h̲a al-Sulamiyya, an early supporter of Muḥammad’s cause at Mecca and an associate of his. She was the daughter of a man of Sulaym [ q.v.] who had come to Mecca and had become a confederate there of ʿAbd Manāf, and of a woman of ʿAbd S̲h̲ams b. ʿAbd Manāf; hence K̲h̲awla was related maternally to the Prophet himself. She was an early convert to the new teaching, in company with her husband, the ascetic ʿUt̲h̲mān b. Maẓʿūn [ q.v.]. When he died in 3/624-5, K̲h̲awla is said to have “offered herself” ( wahabatnafsahā ) to Muḥammad, but the latter “put her off” ( ard̲j̲aʾahā

Kurram

(928 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Kuram , the name of a river which flows down from the western end of the Safīd Kūh or Spīn G̲h̲ar range of the Hindū Kus̲h̲-Koh-i Bābā massif of eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān and which joins the Indus River in modern Pakistan just below ʿĪsā K̲h̲ēl. The lower course of the river flows through Bannū [ q.v.], and the middle reaches through the northernmost part of Wazīristān [ q.v.]. The upper valley, beyond the railhead of Thāl, forms what in British India and now in Pakistan is the administrative region of the Kurram Agency, a thin wedge of territory some 70 miles lo…

Maḥmūd b. Sebüktigin

(1,966 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Sultan of the G̲h̲aznawid dynasty [ q.v.], reigned 388-421/998-1030 in the eastern Islamic lands. Abu ’l-Ḳāsim Maḥmūd was the eldest son of the Turkish commander Sebüktigin, who had risen from being one of the slave personal guards of the Ḥād̲j̲ib-i buzurg or commander-in-chief Alptigin [see alp takīn ] under the Sāmānids to becoming the virtually independent amīr of a principality centred on G̲h̲azna [ q.v.], at that time on the far eastern fringe of the Sāmānid empire. Maḥmūd was born in 361/971, his mother being from the local Iranian (?) gentry stock of Zābulistān [ q.v.], the distri…

Fayd

(934 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, an important settlement in Nad̲j̲d during mediaeval times, now a village, situated in lat. 27° 8’ N. and long 42° 28’ E. It lies on a plain in the borderlands between the two regions of the D̲j̲abal S̲h̲ammar to the north-west and al-Ḳaṣīm [ q.v.] to the south-east, some 80 miles/130 km. south-east of Ḥāʾil [ q.v.]. The early Islamic geographers locate it in the territory where the pasture grounds of the B. Ṭayyiʾ and the B. Asad marched together, near to the frequently-mentioned “two mountains of Ṭayyiʾ”, sc. Salmā and Ad̲j̲āʾ. Bakrī, followed by Samhūdī, describes it as a famous ḥimā [ q.v.] o…

Narāḳ

(169 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Nirāḳ , a small town of Persia (lat. 34° 00′ N., long. 50° 49′ E.), in the modern province of Ḳum, 60 km/38 miles to the west of Kās̲h̲ān and at the northwestern end of the Kūh-i Kargas. It is not mentioned in the classical Islamic geographers, but has some fame as the origin of the scholar Muḥammad Mahdī b. Abī D̲h̲arr Nirāḳī (d. ?1209/1794-5), author of Persian and Arabic works on rhetoric, the S̲h̲īʿī martyrs, mathematics, etc. (Storey, i, 219-20, iii, 213; Brockelmann, S II, 824) and of his son Mullā Aḥmad Nirāḳī (d. 1244/1828-9), theologian and poet with the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Ṣafāʾī (Browne, LHP…

al-Ziyādī

(220 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Ḥassān al-Ḥasan b. ‘Ut̲h̲mān al-S̲h̲īrāzī (this nisba from some apparent connection with the Persian city; see Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, iii, 381), judge, traditionist and historian of the early ʿAbbāsid period, b. 156/773 in Bag̲h̲dād and died there Rad̲j̲ab 242/Nov.-Dec. 856 (al-Ṭabarī, iii, ¶ 1434, and al-K̲h̲aṭīb al-Bag̲h̲dādī) or the following year. A traditionalist in his views and associate of al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, he was questioned under the Miḥna [ q.v.] at the end of al-Maʾmūn’s reign (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 1121-5, 1128, 1132). But he came into his own under th…

Dabīr

(325 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
(p.) “scribe, secretary”, the term generally used in the Persian cultural world, including the Indo-Muslim one (although in the later centuries it tended to be supplanted by the term munshī , so that Yule-Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossary of Anglo-Indian colloquial words and phrases, London 1886, 328, record “dubeer” as being in their time “quite obsolete in Indian usage”), as the equivalent of Arabic kātib and Turkish yazi̊d̲j̲i̊ ,. The word appears as dipīr / dibīr (Pahlavi orthography dpy ( w) r, see D.N. MacKenzie, A concise Pahlavi dictionary, London 1971, 26) in Sāsānid Per…

Ḳābūs b. Wus̲h̲magīr b. Ziyār

(901 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, S̲h̲ams al-Maʿālī Abu’l-Ḥasan (reigned 366-71/977-81 and ¶ 388-403/998 to 1012-13), fourth ruler of the Ziyārid dynasty which had been founded by Mardāwīd̲j̲ b. Ziyār [ q.v.] and which ruled in Ṭabaristān and Gurgān (Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān). Like other families rising to prominence in the “Daylamī interlude” of Persian history, the Ziyārids endeavoured to attach themselves to the pre-Islamic Iranian past, and Ḳābūs’s grandson Kay Kāʾūs makes Ḳābūs’s ancestors rulers of Gīlān in the time of Kay K̲h̲usraw ( Ḳābūs-nāma , Preface). As under his predecessors, suze…

Rad̲j̲aʾ b. Ḥaywa

(940 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Ḵh̲anzal al-Kindī, Abu ’l-Miḳdām or Abū Naṣr (full nasab in Gottschalk, 331, from Ibn ʿAsākir), a rather mysterious mawlā or client who seems to have been influential as a religious and political adviser at the courts of the early Marwānid caliphs, from ʿAbd al-Malik to ʿUmar b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz. His birth date is unknown, but he died in 112/730, probably around the age of seventy. According to one account, Rad̲j̲ahʾ’s family stemmed from Maysān in Lower ʿIrāḳ, hence from the local Nabaṭ or Aramaeans, where the bond of walā with the Arab tribe of Kinda [ q.v.] must have been made, the Kinda…

Hazāras

(1,175 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, the name of a group of peoples inhabiting the central mountains of Afghānistān; they form one of the principal population elements of the country, amounting perhaps to 900,000. The Hazāras are almost certainly an Ethnically mixed group, whose components may or may not be related to each other. In appearance, Hazāras are predominantly brachycephalous, with Mongoloid facial features, though this is by no means universal. There is therefore much in favour of Schurmann’s hypothesis that the Hazāras of the core region, the Hazārad̲j̲āt [ q.v. above], at least, are a mixed populatio…

Sarhang

(127 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), a term denoting a rank of officer or commander in mediaeval Persian armies and paramilitary groups (cf. Vuller, Lexicon persicolatinum, ii, 261-2, 293; dux exercitus, praefectus ). Thus the sarhangs were leaders of bands of ʿayyārs [ q.v.] or Sunnī orthodox vigilantes combatting the K̲h̲ārid̲j̲īs in 3rd/9th century Sīstān, and Yaʿḳūb b. al-Layt̲h̲, founder of the Ṣaffārid dynasty [ q.v.], embarked on his rise to power by becoming a sarhang in the ʿayyār forces of a local leader in Bust, Ṣāliḥ b. al-Naḍr al-Kinānī ( Taʾrīk̲h̲-i Sīstān , ed. Bahār, passim; Gardīzī, Zayn al-ak̲h̲bār

Zābul, Zābulistān

(534 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name found in early Islamic times for a region of what is now eastern Afg̲h̲anistān, roughly covering the modern Afg̲h̲ān provinces of G̲h̲aznī and Zābul. The early geographers describe what was a remote region on the far eastern frontiers of the Dār al-Islām in understandably vague terms as an extensive province with G̲h̲azna [ q.v.] as its centre. It thus emerges that it lay between Kābul and the Kābul river valley on the north and the territories around the confluence of the Helmand river and Arg̲h̲andāb known as Zamīndāwar and al-Ruk̲h̲k̲h̲ad̲j̲ [ q.vv.], but the boundaries her…

al-Ḳalḳas̲h̲andī

(2,416 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
the nisba or gentilic of several Egyptian scholars of the Mamlūk and early Ottoman periods, the most important of whom are as follows: (1.) S̲h̲ihāb al-Dīn Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī (ʿAbd Allāh?) b. Aḥmad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Fazārī al-S̲h̲āfiʿī, legal scholar and secretary in the Mamlūk chancery, and author of several books. The main sources for his life are the fairly brief mentions of him in biographical and historical sources of the late Mamlūk period by al-ʿAynī, al-Maḳrīzī, Ibn Tag̲h̲rībirdī, al-Sak̲h̲āwī and Ibn …

Tak̲h̲t-i Ṭawūs

(548 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), the Peacock Throne, a name given to various highly-decorated and much bejewelled royal thrones in the eastern Islamic world, ¶ in particular, to that constructed for the Mug̲h̲al Emperor S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān (1037-68/1628-57 [ q.v.]). There are relevant accounts in the contemporary Indo-Muslim sources, e.g. in ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd Lāhawrī’s Bāds̲h̲āh-nāma and Muḥammad Ṣāliḥ’s ʿAmal-i Ṣāliḥ , and in the accounts of European travellers who claimed to have seen the throne, such as Tavernier, Bernier and Manucci. These last authorities, …

Ḳi̊s̲h̲laḳ

(549 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t., < ḳi̊s̲h̲ “winter”), winter quarters, originally applied to the winter quarters, often in warmer, low-lying areas, of pastoral nomads in Inner Asia, and thence to those in regions like Persia and Anatolia into which Türkmens and others from Central Asia infiltrated, bringing with them their nomadic ways of life; Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, i, 464-5, defines ḳi̊s̲h̲laḳ as al-mus̲h̲attā . Its antonym is yaylaḳ “summer quarters” (< yay “spring”, later “summer”), denoting the upland pastures favou…

Mīkālīs

(1,102 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an Iranian family of K̲h̲urāsān prominent in the cultural and social worlds there and also active as local administrators and town officials under the Sāmānids and early G̲h̲aznawids [ q.vv.]. They were apparently of Sog̲h̲dian origin, and amongst their pre-Islamic forebears is mentioned the Prince of Pand̲j̲kent S̲h̲īr Dīvāstič, killed at Mount Mug̲h̲ by the Arabs in 104/722-3 [see mā warāʾ al-nahr. 2. History]; al-Samʿānī traces the family back to the Sāsānids Yazdagird II and Bahrām Gūr ( K. al-Ansāb , facs. edn., fols. 548b-549b). It must neverthe…

Ḳufṣ

(723 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised form of Persian Kūfičīs, a people inhabiting south eastern Persia, more exactly the Kirmān-western Balūčistān region, in early mediaeval Islamic times. The name, literally “mountain dwellers”, probably stems ultimately from O. Pers. ākaufačiya — (< O. Pers. kaufa- “mountain”), the name of a people in the Daiva inscription of Xerxes, who are mentioned together with the mačiya “men of Maka” (= Makrān, the coastal region of Balūčistān?), via N. Pers. kūfid̲j̲ / kūfič (cf. R. G. Kent, Old Persian grammar, texts , lexicon 2, New Haven 1953, 151, 165). In early Islamic sour…

Ildeñizids or Eldigüzids

(1,977 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a line of Atabegs or Turkish slave commanders who governed most of northwestern Persia, including Arrān, most of Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ān, and D̲j̲ibāl, during the second half of the 6th/12th century and ¶ the early decades of the 7th/13th. Down to the death in battle in 590/1194 of Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l b. Arslan, last of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs of Iraq and Persia, the Ildeñizids ruled as theoretical subordinates of the Sultans, acknowledging this dependence on their coins almost down to the end of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs. Thereafter, they were in effec…

Muwāḍaʿa

(227 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.). 1. In Islamic law, this means the rescission of a sale or transaction (synonym, mutāraka ); see for lexical aspects of the term, LA 1, x, 282; TA 1, v, 535; Freytag, Lexicon , iv, 476. 2. In mediaeval Eastern Islamic administrative usage, it denotes the contract of service of officials, in accordance with the term’s further meaning of “the laying down of conditions for an agreement with some one”. We possess the texts of two muwāḍaʿa s made by early Ghaznavid viziers with their sovereign: one made by Aḥmad b. Ḥasan al-Maymandī [ q.v.] with Sultan Masʿūd b. Maḥmūd [ q.v.] on his appointment…

Ṣaymara

(152 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of mediaeval Persia, in what later became known as Luristān [ q.v.], and the chef-lieu of the district of Mihrad̲j̲ānkad̲h̲aḳ. A tributary of the Kark̲h̲ā, which flows into the Kārūn river [ q.v.], is still today known as the Saymareh. The district passed peacefully into the hands of Abū Mūsā al-As̲h̲ʿarī’s Arab troops (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 307), and in mediaeval times prospered as a meetingplace of Arab, Persian and Lur ethnic elements, apart from the devastations of a severe earthquake in 258/872 (al-Ṭabarī, iii, 187…

Isfīdjāb

(896 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town and an extensive district of mediaeval Islamic Central Asia, identifiable with the later Islamic town of Sayram. Popular etymologising saw in the name the Persian component sipīd , ispīd “white”. It lay on the Aris river, a right-bank affluent of the Si̊r Daryā [ q.v.], 14 km/8 miles to the east of the later town of Chimkent (lat. 42° 16′ N., long. 69° 05′ E.); Chimkent itself, now in the southernmost part of the Kazakhstan Republic, is mentioned in the historical sources from Tīmūrid times onwards, e.g. in S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī. Isfīd̲j̲āb apparently had a pre-Islamic histo…

Yes̲h̲il I̊rmak

(297 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern Tkish. Yeşil Irmak (“the Green River”), a river of northern Anatolia, the classical Iris in the province of Pontus (see PW, ix/2, col. 2045). The upper course of the river, called the Tozanli Su, rises in the Köse Dağ to the northeast of Sivas and flows westwards by Tokat [ q.v.] and Turhal. Here there is a fertile plain, the Kazova or “Goose Plain”, which is now irrigated by waters from the Almus dam on the river’s course above it, completed in 1966, and a canal running off and parallel to the river, enabling cereals, sugar-beet and vin…

Naṭanz

(326 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town of western Persia (lat. 33° 29’ N., long. 51° 57’ E., altitude 1,372 m/4,500 feet) on the lower, southeastern slopes of the Kūh-i Kargas mountains and just off the modern Tehran—Ḳum— Kās̲h̲ān—Yazd road. The early Islamic geographers do not mention it, but Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am , v, 292, describes it as a small town, administratively dependent on Iṣfahān and in the province of D̲j̲ibāl [ q.v.], and situated 20 farsak̲h̲s to the north of Iṣfahān; and Mustawfī (8th/14th century) describes it as protected by the nearby fortress of Was̲h̲ā…

Zaḳḳūm

(175 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), a tree that figures in Islamic eschatology as growing in Hell, with bitter fruit which the damned are condemned to eat. It is mentioned in the Ḳurʾān three times (XXXVII, 60/62; XLIV, 43; LVI, 52). The lexicographers explain it as an evil-smelling tree that grows in the Tihāma, but also as a medically beneficial one that grows in the Jordan valley around Jericho; and as a foodstuff of the Arabs, composed of fresh butter with dates (see Lane, 1239a-b). Richard Bell, The Qurʾān translated, ii, 556 n. 1, cited as a parallel the same word in Syriac meaning “the hogbean”; Bell…

al-Warkāʾ

(224 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Tall , the Arabic name for what is now an archaeological site in the Nāṣiriyya liwāʾ or governorate of ʿIrāḳ (lat. 31° 18’ N., long. 45° 40’ E.). It is the Sumerian and Babylonian Uruk, Biblical Erech (Gen. x. 10), one of the leading cities and religious centres of ancient Babylonia, first surveyed by W. K. Loftus in the 1850s. In early Islamic times it seems to have been a minor place in the district of Kaskar, with a reputation in Islamic tradition as being the birthplace of the Patriarch Ibrāhīm or Abraham (although many other places were mentioned for this) (Yāḳūt, Buldān

Marāfiḳ

(311 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), sing, marfiḳ , “bribes, douceurs”, literally, “benefits, favours”. In mediaeval Islamic society, various terms in addition to this are found, such as ras̲h̲wa / ris̲h̲wa , manāla , d̲j̲aʿāla , hadiyya , etc., with varying degrees of euphemism, for the inducements given either directly to a potential bestower of benefits or as an inducement for a person’s intercession or mediation ( s̲h̲afāʿa , wasāṭa ). In the ʿAbbāsid caliphate, this form of bribery became institutionalised in the caliphate of al-Muḳtadir (295-320/908-32 [ q.v.]), when the vizier Ibn al-Furāt [ q.v.] institute…

Ob

(862 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, one of the major rivers of Siberia, which flows from sources in the Altai Mountains to the Gulf of Ob and the Kara Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Its course is 3,680 km/2,287 miles long and 5,410 km/3,362 miles long if its main left-bank affluent, the Irtysh [see irtis̲h̲ in Suppl.] is included. Its whole basin covers a huge area of western Siberia. In early historic times, the lands along the lower and middle Ob were thinly peopled with such groups as the Samoyeds and the Ugrian Voguls and Ostiaks (in fact, the indigenous population of these regions today, only…

Yog̲h̲urt

(292 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t.), from older Turkish yug̲h̲ur -, Ottoman yog̲h̲urmaḳ / yoǧurmak “to knead [dough, etc.], yoghourt, a preparation of soured milk made in the pastoralist, more temperate northern tier of the Middle East, Central Asia and the Balkans, appearing as yog̲h̲urt / yog̲h̲rut in Maḥmūd al-Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī ( Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-turk , tr. Atalay, i, 182, ii, 189, iii, 164, 190; Brockelmann, Mitteltürkischer Wortschatz , 92. Cf. also Radloff, Ver such eines Worterbuch der Türk-Dialecte , iii/1, 412-13; Doerfer, Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersichen , iv, 173-5 no. 1866; Clauson, An …

Sardhanā

(234 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town, also the centre of a taḥṣīl , in the Meerut [see mīrat́h ] District of northwestern India, now in the Uttar Pradesh State of the Indian Union. The town is situated in lat. 29° 09′ N., long. 77° 36′ E. and lies some 19 km/12 miles to the northwest of Meerut town. ¶ It achieved fame in the later 18th century, when Walter Reinhardt, called Sombre or Samrū, of Luxemburg origin, after having been a mercenary in both French and British service, received from Mīrzā Nad̲j̲af K̲h̲ān, general of the Mug̲h̲al Emperor S̲h̲āh ʿĀlam II [ q.v.], the pargana [ q.v.] of Sardhanā [ q.v.]. This became, after …

Munādī

(424 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), active participle of the form III verb nādā “to call”, hence crier, herald. In the Ḳurʾān, munādī is used (L, 40/41) for the one who will proclaim the Last Day and give the summons to Judgement, in popular Islam usually identified with the angel Isrāfīl [ q.v]; in another context where one might expect it, the story of Joseph, we find instead muʾad̲h̲d̲h̲in used for Joseph’s herald (XII, 70). In the towns of the pre-modern Islamic world, the munādī or town crier performed a vital function of communication in an age when there were no newspapers or, when these did ten…

ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥassān

(529 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
b. t̲h̲ābit al-anṣārī , poet of Medina and Damascus in the early Islamic period and son of the more famous eulogist of the Prophet, Ḥassān b. T̲h̲ābit [ q.v.]. He seems to have been born in ca. 6/627-8 or 7/628, and apart from visits to the Umayyad capital, to have spent most of his life in Medina. He died there, according to Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb , vi, 162-3, in ca. 104/722-3 at the age of 98 lunar years, long-lived like his father. ¶ His father had latterly become a strong advocate of vengeance for ʿUt̲h̲mān and a supporter of Muʿāwiya’s cause, and ʿAbd al-Raḥmān likewise …

Sandābil

(339 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town said to be the capital of the king of China in the account of the Arab traveller and littérateur Abū Dulaf Misʿar b. Muhalhil [ q.v.] purporting to describe his participation in an embassy of the Chinese king Ḳālīn b. al-S̲h̲ak̲h̲īr returning from the court of the Samānid amīr Naṣr b. Aḥmad (301-31/914-43 [ q.v.]) at Buk̲h̲ārā. Abū Dulaf describes it as an immense city, one day’s journey across, with walls 90 cubits high and an idol temple bigger than the sacred mosque at Jerusalem ( First Risāla , Fr. tr. G. Ferrand, in Relations de voyages ... relatifs à l’Extrême Orient du VIII e au XVIII e s…

Kumīd̲j̲īs

(235 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a people mentioned in the Arabic and Persian historical and geographical sources of the 4th/10th and 5th/11th centuries as dwelling in the Buttaman Mts. at the heads of the valleys running southwards through K̲h̲uttal and Čag̲h̲āniyān down to the course of the upper Oxus. The Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (372/982) describes them as professional brigands and as linked with a smaller group, the Kand̲j̲īna Turks. In fact, these two peoples must be remnants of some earlier waves of invaders from Inner Asia, left behind in the Pamir region, probably of the Hephthalites [see hayāṭila …

Nawwāb

(271 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Nawāb , a title used in Muslim India. The form must be a hypercorrection from A. nuwwāb , pl. of nāʾib [ q.v.], used, as often in Persian usage (cf. arbāb “master”, ʿamala “workman”, and see D.C. Phillott, Higher Persian grammar, Calcutta 1919, 65) as a singular. The title was originally granted by the Mug̲h̲al emperors to denote a viceroy or governor of a province, and was certainly current by the 18th century, often in combination with another title, e.g. the Nawāb-Wazīr of Oudh (Awadh), the Nawāb-Nāẓim of Bengal. A nawāb might be subordi…

Tukarōʾī

(102 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Mug̲h̲almārī , a place near Midnapūr in the southern part of West Bengal, the site of a battle in 982/1574 between Akbar’s finance minister and commander Rād̲j̲ā T́ōd́ar Mal [ q.v.] and the young ruler of Bengal, Dāwūd K̲h̲ān Kararānī [ q.v.], who had repudiated Mug̲h̲al suzerainty. Dāwūd K̲h̲ān was beaten by a ruse [see ḥarb. vi, at Vol. III, 202b] and forced to flee, allowing Akbar formally to annex Bihar, Bengal and Orissa. (C.E. Bosworth) Bibliography See that to dāwūd k̲h̲ān kararānī, and also J.F. Richards, The Mughal empire (= The New Comb. hist, of India, I. 5), Cambridge 1993, 33.

Ilek-K̲h̲āns or Ḳarak̲h̲ānids

(4,341 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a Turkish dynasty which ruled in the lands of Central Asia straddling the T’ien-s̲h̲an Mountains, scil . in both Western Turkestan (Transoxania or Mā warāʾ al-Nahr) and in Eastern Turkestan (Kās̲h̲g̲h̲aria or Sin-kiang), from the 4th/10th to the early 7th/13th centuries. 1. Introductory. The name “Ilek-K̲h̲āns” or “Ilig-K̲h̲āns” stems from 19th century European numismatists. The element Ilek/Ilig (known in Hunnish, Magyar and Uyg̲h̲ur Turkish onomastic) is commonly found on the dynasty’s coins, but is by no means general. The complete phrase Ilek-K̲h̲ān/Ilig-K̲h̲ān

Malik-S̲h̲āh

(2,908 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of various Sald̲j̲ūḳ rulers. 1. Malik-S̲h̲āh I b. Alp Arslan , D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla Muʿizz al-Din Abu ’l-Fatḥ , Great ¶ Sald̲j̲uḳ sultan, born in 447/1055, reigned 465-85/1072-92. During his reign, the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ empire reached its zenith of territorial extent—from Syria in the west to K̲h̲urāsān in the east—and military might. Alp Arslan [ q.v.] had made Malik-S̲h̲āh his walī ’l-ʿahd or heir to the throne in 458/1066, when various governorships on the eastern fringes were at this same time distributed to several members o…

Thānā

(225 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of western peninsular India, 21 km/15 miles from the Arabian Sea coast and 32 km/20 miles to the north-north-east of Bombay (lat. 90° 14′ N., long. 73° 02′ E.; see the map in gud̲j̲arāt , at Vol. II, 1126). Thānā was in pre-Muslim times the centre of a great Hindu kingdom, but was conquered in 718/1318 by the Sultan of Dihlī Mubārak S̲h̲āh K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī It soon afterwards became an outpost of the Bahmanid sultanate of the Deccan, but was at times disputed by the Sultans of Gud̲j̲arāt, who seized it, e.g. in 833/1430 (see hind, iv, at Vol. III, 418b). By 1529 it was tribute to the Por…

Ṣofta

(315 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(t., orthography ṣ.w.f.t.h ), a name given to students of the theological, legal and other sciences in the madrasa [ q.v.] system of Ottoman Turkey. A parallel form is sūk̲h̲te , in Persian literally “burnt, aflame (i.e. with the love of God or of learning)”, which seems to be the earlier form; the relationship between the two words, if any, is unclear (see S̲h̲. Sāmī, Ḳāmūs-i turkī , Istanbul 1318/1900-1, ii, 839 col. 3; Redhouse, Turkish and English dict., 1087, 1192). The term ṣofta was applied to students in the earlier stages of their education; when a student became qualified to act as a muʿ…

Zūn

(443 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Z̲h̲ūn , the name of a deity of the district of Zamīndāwar [ q.v.] in eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān, whose shrine there figures in historical accounts of the Arabs’ and Ṣaffārids’ penetration of the region. In 33/654-5 ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Samura, governor of Sīstān for ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĀmir [ q.v.], raided into Zamīndāwar and attacked the “hill of Zūn” ( d̲j̲abal al-Zūn ), entered the shrine and partially despoiled the idol there, telling the local marzbān that his sole object was to demonstrate the idol’s impotence (al-Balād̲h̲urī, Futūḥ , 394). Over two centuries late…

Rustāḳ

(308 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised form of M. Pers. rōstāg , meaning “rural district, countryside”, and given the broken pl. rasātīḳ . (1) In the mediaeval Islamic usage of the Arabic and Persian geographers and of the Arabic writers on finance and taxation, rustāḳ is used both as a specific administrative term and in a more general sense. Thus, reflecting the more exact usage, in Sāsānid and early Islamic ʿIrāḳ, each kūra [ q.v.] or province was divided into ṭassūd̲j̲ s or sub-provinces, and these last were in turn divided into rustāḳs, districts or cantons, centred on a madīna or town. According to Hilāl al-Ṣābiʾ, K.…

Terken K̲h̲ātūn

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of the wives of various Turkish rulers of the eastern Islamic world in mediaeval (essentially pre-Mongol) times. In old Turkish, terken was a royal title, often but not invariably applied to females, and in these cases being roughly equivalent to “queen”. It may be a loan word in Turkish, being found, according to G. Doerfer, amongst the Kitan or Western Liao, the later Ḳara K̲h̲itay [ q.v.] of Central Asian Islamic history (see his Türkische und mongolische Elemente im Neupersischen , Wiesbaden 1963-7, ii, 495-8 no. 889; Sir Gerard Clauson, An etymological dictionary of pre-…

Naṣr b. Aḥmad b. Ismāʿīl

(439 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Sāmānid amīr of Transoxania and K̲h̲urāsān (301-31/914-43), given after his death the honorific of al-Amīr al-Saʿīd (“the Fortunate”). Naṣr was raised to the throne at the age of eight on the murder of his father by the Turkish g̲h̲ulāms of the army, with a regency of the vizier Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. Aḥmad D̲j̲ayhānī [see al-d̲j̲ayhānī in Suppl.]. The early years of his reign were seriously disturbed by rebellions at Samarḳand, at Nīs̲h̲āpūr and in Farg̲h̲āna by various discontented members of the Sāmānid family, and the amīrate was not at peac…

S̲h̲araf al-Dīn ʿAlī Yazdī

(314 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Persian historian and poet of the Tīmūrid period, born at Yazd, died in 858/1454. He was a favourite of the Tīmūrid ruler S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ [ q.v.] and of his son Mīrzā Abu ’l-Fatḥ Ibrāhīm Sulṭān, governor of Fārs, and in 832/1429 became tutor to the captured young Čingizid Yūnus K̲h̲ān. to whom he dedicated many poems. He was then in the service of the Tīmūrid prince Mīrzā Sulṭān Muḥammad in ʿIrāḳ ʿAd̲j̲amī or western Persia, and narrowly escaped death when that prince rebelled in 850/1447. After S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲’s death he …

al-Wāt̲h̲iḳī

(243 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿUt̲h̲mān, poet and political claimant of the second half of the 4th/10th and the first years of the 5th/11th centuries, who claimed descent from the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Wāt̲h̲iḳ [ q.v.]. His younger contemporary al-T̲h̲aʿālibi gives specimens of his verses plus biographical information ( Yatīma , ed. ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, iv, 192-3). Al-Wāt̲h̲iḳī began his career in ʿIrāḳ and al-D̲j̲azīra as a court witness and preacher, but became involved in political intrigues. He fled eastwards to the Transoxanian lands of the Ḳarak̲h̲ānids [see ilek-k̲h̲āns …

D̲j̲irga

(567 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
(Pas̲h̲to; cf. H.G. Raverty, A dictionary of the Puk̲h̲to , Pus̲h̲to , or language of the Afg̲h̲āns , London 1867, 330b), an informal tribal assembly of the Pafhàns in what are now Afg̲h̲ānistān and Pakistan, with competence to intervene and to adjudicate in practically all aspects of private and public life among the Pat́hāns. In the course of his abortive mission to S̲h̲āh S̲h̲u-d̲j̲āʿ and the Durrānī court of Kabūl in 1809 [see Afg̲h̲ānistān . v. History (3) (A)], Mountstuart Elphinstone described the d̲j̲irga system as alive and vital, with assemblies…

Rūd̲h̲rāwar

(253 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a rural district ( rūstāḳ , nāḥiya ) of the mediaeval Islamic province of D̲j̲ibāl [ q.v.], sc. western Persia. The geographers describe it as a fertile plain below the Kūh-i Alwand, containing 93 villages and producing high-quality saffron which was exported through the nearby towns of Hamad̲h̲ān and Nihāwand. The chef-lieu of the district, in which was situated the d̲j̲āmiʿ and minbar , was known as Karad̲j̲-i Rūd̲h̲rāwar, characterised in the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 132, § 31.8-9, as prosperous and the resort of merchants. The site of this seems…

Salm b. Ziyād b. Abīhi

(448 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Ḥarb, Umayyad commander and governor, the third of the many sons of Abū Sufyān’s bastard son Ziyād b. Abīhi [ q.v.], d. 73/692. The family of Ziyād already had a firm grip on the East in the later years of Muʿāwiya’s caliphate, and when Yazīd I came to the throne, he appointed Salm as governor of Ḵh̲urāsān (61/681), and the latter nominated another of his brothers, Yazid b. Ziyād, as his deputy in Sīstān. Salm proved himself a highly popular governor with the Arab troops in Ḵh̲urāsān. largely on account of his mil…

Ḳul

(277 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, an old Turkish word which came, in Islamic times, to mean “slave boy, male slave”, defined by Maḥmūd Kās̲h̲g̲h̲arī, Dīwān lug̲h̲āt al-Turk , ed. Kilisli Rifʿat Bilge, i, 282, tr. Atalay, i, 336-7, as ʿabd . However, the original meaning of ḳul in Orkhon Turkish was rather “servant, vassal, dependent” (the masculine counterpart of kün “female servant, etc.”, the two words being linked in the Kültegin inscription, text references in Talât Tekin, A grammar of Orkhon Turkish, Bloomington, Ind. 1968, 347), since slavery in the Islamic juridical sense did not exist among the ancient Turks. The…

Sārangpur

(203 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a small town in Central India, before Partition in the Native State of Dewās, now in the Shajapur District of the state of Madhya Pradesh in the Indian Union (lat. 23° 34′ N, long. 76° 24′ E). It is essentially a Muslim town, founded by the sultans of Mālwā [ q.v.], but on an ancient site. It was reputedly the location of a battle in 840/1437 when Maḥmūd K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī I of Mālwā was defeated by the forces of Mēwāŕ [ q.v.], and, of more certain historicity, it was captured in 932/1526 from Maḥmūd II of ¶ Mālwā by Rāṇā Sāṇgā [ q.v.] of Čitawr. Then in 968/1561 it was seized by Akbar from the local…

Zarang

(1,264 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabised as Zarand̲j̲, the main town of the early Islamic province of Sīstān. Its ruins lie a few miles north of what was in the late 19th and early 20th centuries the administrative centre of Persian Sīstān, Nuṣratābād or Nāṣirābād, modern Zābul. Its remaining traces are visible within the vast ruined site known as Nād-i ʿAlī, to the east of the present course of the Hilmand river [ q.v.] before it peters out in the Hāmūn depression [see zirih ] just inside Afg̲h̲an Sīstān; the site has, however, been much depleted by periodic flooding and the re-us…

Simnān

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern Persia (long. 53° 24′ E., lat. 35° 33′ N., alt. 1,138 m/3,734 ft.), in mediaeval Islamic times coming within the province of Ḳūmis [ q.v.] and lying on the great highway connecting Rayy with the administrative centre of Ḳūmis, sc. Dāmg̲h̲ān [ q.v.], and K̲h̲urāsān. To its north is situated the Elburz Mountain chain and to its south, the Great Desert. 1. History. Simnān comes within what was the heartland of the Parthians (whose capital almost certainly was at S̲h̲ahr-i Ḳūmis, southeast of Dāmg̲h̲ān on the Simnān road), but nothing is known o…

al-ʿUtbī

(688 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of a family settled in K̲h̲urāsān, of Arab descent, which provided secretaries and viziers for the Sāmānids and early G̲h̲aznawids [ q.vv.] in the 4th/10th and early 5th/11th centuries (from which of the ʿUtbas of early Islamic times they were descended does not seem to be specified in the sources). 1. Abū d̲j̲aʿfar ( ism and nasab variously given), vizier under the Sāmānid amīr ʿAbd al-Malik I b. Nūḥ I, from 344/956 to 348/959 and again, in company with Abū ʿAlī Muḥammad al-Balʿamī [ q.v.], under his successor Manṣūr I b. Nūḥ I, a few years later. His policy aimed at s…

Ṭabas

(557 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of two places in eastern Persia, denoted in the early mediaeval Islamic sources by the dual form al-Ṭabasāni (e.g. in al-Samʿānī, Ansāb , ed. Ḥaydarābād, ix, 45, and Yāḳūt, Buldān, ed. Beirut, iv, 20) and distinguished as Ṭabas al-Tamr “Ṭ. of the date-palms” and Ṭabas al-ʿUnnāb “Ṭ. of the jujube trees”, later Persian forms Ṭabas Gīlakī and Ṭabas Masīnān respectively. Ṭabas al-Tamr lay to the west of Ḳuhistān [ q.v.] in the central Great Desert at a junction of routes between the Das̲h̲t-i Lūt in the south and the Das̲h̲t-i Kawīr in the north and west. Ṭab…

D̲j̲and

(1,880 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, a mediaeval town on the lower reaches of the Si̊r Daryā in Central Asia, towards its debouchure into the Aral Sea, in what is now the Kazakhstan SSR; its fame was such that the Aral Sea was often called “the Sea of D̲j̲and”. D̲j̲and is first mentioned by certain Muslim geographers of the mid-4th/10th century, in particular, by Ibn Ḥawḳal, and following him, by the anonymous author of the Ḥudūd al-ʿālam (wrote 372/982). Ibn Ḥawḳal mentions three settlements on the lower Si̊r Daryā amongst the Og̲h̲uz Turks of that region: D̲j̲and; the “New Se…

Ḳut̲h̲am b. al-ʿAbbās

(737 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib al-Hās̲h̲imī , Companion of the Prophet, son of the Prophet’s uncle and of Umm al-Faḍl Lubāba al-Hilāliyya, herself Muḥammad’s sister-in-law. Although the Sīra brings him into contact with Muḥammad by making him one of the inner circle of the Hās̲h̲imī family who washed the Prophet’s corpse and descended into his grave, and although his physical resemblance to the Prophet is also stressed, he was obviously a late convert to Islam, doubtless following his father al-ʿAbbās [ q.v.] in this after the conquest of Mecca. Nothing is heard of him during the reigns of t…

Naṣr b. Muzāḥim

(228 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abu ’l-Faḍl al-Minḳarī al-Tamīmī, early S̲h̲īʿī historian (though probably not, as Sezgin rightly observes, the first one) and traditionist; his date of birth is uncertain, but he died in 212/827. He lived originally in Kūfa but later moved to Bag̲h̲dād; amongst those from whom he heard traditions was Sufyān al-T̲h̲awrī [ q.v.]. His own reputation as an ak̲h̲bāri and muḥaddit̲h̲ was, however, weak, and he was regarded by some Sunnī authors as a fervent ( g̲h̲ālī ) S̲h̲īʿī. He is best known for his Kitāb Waḳʿat Ṣiffīn (this has been reconstructed, from the p…

al-Maybudī

(321 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the nisba of two scholars from the small town of Maybud [ q.v.] near Yazd in Persia and also of a vizier of the Great Sald̲j̲ūḳs. 1. ras̲h̲īd al-dīn abu ’l-faḍl aḥmad b. muḥammad , author of an extensive Ḳurʾān commentary in Persian, begun in 520/1126, the Kas̲h̲f al-asrār waʿuddat al-abrār , extant in several mss. Bibliography Storey, i, 1190-1 Storey-Bregel, i, 110-11 and on the nisba in general, al-Samʿānī, Ansāb, f. 547b. 2. mīr ḥusayn b. muʿīn al-dīn al-manṭiḳī , pupil of D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn al-Dawānī [ q.v.], ḳāḍī and philosopher, author of several works on…

Nīs̲h̲āpūrī

(240 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Ẓahīr al-Dīn , Persian author who wrote a valuable history of the Sald̲j̲ūḳs during the reign of the last Great Sald̲j̲ūḳ of Persia, Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l (III) b. Arslan [ q.v.]; he must have died ca. 580/1184-5. Nothing is known of his life except that Rāwandī [ q.v.] states ( Rāḥat al-ṣudūr , ed. M. Iqbál, 54) that he had been tutor to the previous sultans Masʿūd b. Muḥammad [ q.v.] and Arslan b. Ṭog̲h̲ri̊l (II). His Sald̲j̲ūḳ-nāma was long believed lost, but was known as the main source for Rāwandī’s information on the Sald̲j̲ūḳs up to the latter’s own time (see Rāḥat al-ṣudūr, Preface, pp. XXVI, XXI…

Ḳandahār

(3,156 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a city in southeastern Afg̲h̲ānistān (in modern times giving its name to a province) situated in latitude 31°27′ N. and longitude ¶ 65°43′ E. at an altitude of 3,460 ft. (1,000 m.), and lying between the Arg̲h̲andāb and S̲h̲orāb Rivers in the warmer, southern climatic zone ( garmsīr ) of Afg̲h̲ānistān. Hence snow rarely lies there for very long, and in modern times the city has been favoured as a winter residence for Kābulīs wishing to avoid the rigours of their winter (see J. Humlum et al., La géographie de l’Afghanistan , étude d’un pays aride , Copenhagen 1959, 14…

al-Rūd̲h̲rāwarī

(352 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, abū s̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ muḥammad b. al-ḥusayn , zaḥīr al-dīn , vizier to the ʿAbbāsid caliphs and adīb (437-88/1045-95). He was actually born at Kangāwar [see kinkiwar ] in D̲j̲ibāl, but his father, a member of the official classes, stemmed from the nearby district of Rūd̲h̲rāwar [ q.v.]. Abū S̲h̲ud̲j̲āʿ Muḥammad served al-Muḳtadī as vizier very briefly in 471/1078-8 after the dismissal of ʿAmīd al-Dawla Ibn D̲j̲ahīr [see d̲j̲ahīr , banū ] ¶ and then for a longer period, S̲h̲aʿbān 476 Ṣafar or Rabīʿ I 484/December 1083 to January 1084-April or May 1091, after the second …

Nūḥ

(307 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(I) b. Naṣr b. Aḥmad , Sāmānid amīr of Transoxania and Khurāsān (331-43/943-54), given after his death the honorific of al-Amīr al-S̲h̲āhīd (“the Praiseworthy”). ¶ Continuing the anti-S̲h̲īʿī reaction which marked the end of the reign of Nūḥ’s father Naṣr [ q.v.], the early years of the new reign were dominated by the vizierate of the pious Sunnī faḳīh Abu i-Faḍl Muḥammad Sulamī, but very soon, ominous signs of decline began to appear in the state. There were revolts in the tributary kingdom of K̲h̲wārazm [ q.v.] and in K̲h̲urāsān under its governor Abū ʿAlī Čag̲h̲ānī, whom Nūḥ a…

K̲h̲ōst

(523 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Arabic spellings K̲h̲.w.st or K̲h̲.wāst, the name of various places in Afg̲h̲anistān. The most likely etymology for the name is that given by G. Morgenstierne in his An etymological vocabulary of Pashto , Oslo 1928, 98: that it is an Iranised form * hwāstu , cf. Skr. suvāstu- “good site” (which became the place-name Swāt [ q.v.] in the North-West frontier region of Pakistan). The mediaeval Arabic and Persian geographers mention what appear to be two places of this name in northern Afg̲h̲anistān. Those of the 4th/10th century mention K̲h̲as̲h̲t as a town on …

Naṣr b. Sayyār

(743 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
al-Layt̲h̲ī al-Kinānī , the last ¶ governor of K̲h̲urāsān under the Umayyads, d. 131/748. Naṣr’s whole career seems to have been spent in K̲h̲urāsān and the East. In 86/705 he campaigned in the upper Oxus region under Ṣāliḥ, brother of the governor of K̲h̲urāsān Ḳutayba b. Muslim [ q.v.], and received a village there as reward. Then in 106/724 he was campaigning in Farg̲h̲āna under Muslim b. Saʿīd al-Kilābī, and served as governor of Balk̲h̲ for some years. Hence on the death of the governor of the East Asad b. ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳasrī [ q.v.], the caliph His̲h̲ām was advised to appoint as hi…

Ik̲h̲s̲h̲īd

(340 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
the title given to local Iranian rulers of Sog̲h̲dia and Farg̲h̲āna in the pre-Islamic and early Islamic period. Although Justi ( Iranisches Namenbuch , 14 ), Unvala ( The translation of an extract from Mafâtîh al-ʿUlûm of al-K̲h̲wârazmî , in J. of the . Cama Ins xi (1928), 18-19) and Spuler ( Iran , 30-1, 356) derive it from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲aeta- ‘shining, brilliant’, an etymology from O. Pers. k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- ‘king, ruler’ (M. Pers. and N. Pers. s̲h̲āh ) is more probable (Christensen, and Bosworth and Clauson, see below). This O. Pers. term k̲h̲s̲h̲āyat̲h̲iya- penetrated beyond T…

Munād̲j̲āt

(256 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), the verbal noun of the form III verb nād̲j̲ā “to whisper to, talk confidentially with someone”, which is used in Ḳurʾān, LVIII, 13, in this sense, and in the reciprocal form VI in LVIII, 9, 10, of the murmurs of discontent amongst the Prophet’s followers, probably after the Uḥud reverse (see Nöldeke-Schwally, G des Q, i, 212-13). Munād̲j̲āt becomes, however, a technical term of Muslim piety and mystical experience in the sense of “extempore prayer”, as opposed to the corporate addressing of the deity in the ṣalāt (see Hughes, A dictionary of Islam, 420), and of the Ṣūfīs’ communio…

Eličpur

(611 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, Iličpur , modern Ačalpur , a town of the mediaeval Islamic province of Berār [ q.v.] in southern Central India, lying near the headwaters of the Purnā constituent of the Tāptī River in lat. 21° 16ʹ N. and long. 77° 33ʹ E. Up to 1853, Eličpur was generally regarded as the capital of Berār, after when Amraotī became the administrative centre. The pre-Islamic history of Eličpur is semi-legendary, its foundation being attributed to a Jain Rād̲j̲ā called Il in the 10th century. By Baranī’s time (later 7th/13th century), it could be described as one of the fam…

Ḥudūd al-ʿĀlam

(604 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, “The limits of the world”, the title of a concise but very important anonymous Persian geography of the world, Islamic and non-Islamic, composed towards the end of the 4th/10th century in Gūzgān [ q.v.] in what is now northem Afghānistān. The work exists in a unique manuscript of the 7th/13th century (the “Toumansky manuscript”) which came to light in Buk̲h̲ārā in 1892. The Persian text was first edited and published by W. Barthold at Leningrad in 1930 as Ḥudūd al-ʿālem , rukopisi̊ Tumanskago , with an important preface (this last reprinted in his Sočineny̲a̲ , vii…

Rāfiʿ b. Hart̲h̲ama

(153 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a soldier of fortune who disputed control of K̲h̲urāsān with other adventurers and with the Ṣaffārid Amīr ʿAmr b. al-Layt̲h̲ [ q.v.] in the later 3rd/9th century, d. 283/896. Rāfiʿ had been in the service of the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.], and after the death in 268/882 at Nīs̲h̲āpūr of the previous contender for power in K̲h̲urāsān, Aḥmad al-K̲h̲ud̲j̲istānī, he set himself up as de facto ruler of K̲h̲urāsān, subsequently securing legitimisation from the ʿAbbāsid caliphs when al-Muwaffaḳ [ q.v.] broke with the Ṣaffārids. By 283/896, however, ʿAmr managed to defeat Rāfiʿ and to dri…

Sāsān

(554 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Banū , the blanket designation in mediaeval Islamic literature for the practitioners of begging, swindling, confidence tricks, the displaying of disfiguring diseases, mutilated limbs, etc., so that sāsānī has often become a general term in both Arabic and Persian for “beggar, trickster”. Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī K̲h̲alīfa uses sāsānī in the sense of “pertaining to magic or slight-of-hand”, with the ʿilm al-ḥiyal al-sāsāniyya denoting “the science of artifices and trickery”. In his treatise warning the general public against trickery in all forms, al-Muk̲h̲tār min kas̲h̲f al-asrār

Lālā

(477 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Lala (p.), a term found amongst the Turkmen dynasties of Persia and, especially, amongst the Ṣafawids, with the meaning of tutor, specifically, tutor of royal princes, passing also to the Ottoman Turks. Under the Aḳ Ḳoyunlu [ q.v.], both atabeg [see atabak ] and lālā are found, but after the advent of the Ṣafawids (sc. after 907/1501), the latter term becomes more common, with the Arabic term muʿallim “instructor” also found. Such persons were already exalted figures in the state. The lālā of S̲h̲āh Ismāʿīl I’s second son Sām Mīrzā was the īs̲h̲īk-āḳāsī [ q.v.] or Grand Marshal of the great dī…

al-Malik al-ʿAzīz

(194 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Abū Manṣūr K̲h̲usraw-Fīrūz , eldest son of D̲j̲alāl al-Dawla S̲h̲īrzīl. Būyid prince (407-41/1016 or 1017-1049). In the lifetime of his father D̲j̲alal al-Dawla [ q.v.], ruler of Bag̲h̲dād, he was governor of Baṣra and Wāsiṭ and latterly heir to the throne, but when his father died in S̲h̲aʿbān 435/March 1044, K̲h̲usraw-Fīrūz was away from the capital in Wāsiṭ, and superior financial resources enabled his more forceful cousin ʿImād al-Dīn Abū Kālīd̲j̲ār Marzubān [ q.v.] to secure the loyalty of the Būyid troops in Bag̲h̲dād and to establish himself firmly in ʿIrāḳ. …

Pahlawān

(742 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(p.), from Pahlaw , properly “Parthian”, ¶ acquired in pre-modern Persian and thence in Turkish, the sense of “wrestler, one who engages in hand-to-hand physical combat”, becoming subsequently a general term for “hero, warrior, champion in battle”. From this later, broader sense it is used as a personal name in the Persian world, e.g. for the Eldigüzid Atabeg [see ilden̄izids ] Nuṣrat al-Dīn D̲j̲ahān-Pahlawān (reigned in ʿĀd̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān. d. 581 or 582/1186 [see pahlawān , muḥammad b. ilden̄iz ; and see Justi, Iranisches Namenbuch, 237, for other bearers of this name]. The w…

Muḥammad b. Hindū-S̲h̲āh

(212 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
Nak̲h̲čiwānī , S̲h̲ams al-Dīn, Persian official and littérateur of the 8th/14th century and apparendy the son of Hindū-S̲h̲āh b. Sand̲j̲ar Gīrānī or al-D̲j̲īrānī, author of an Arabic adab work (Brockelmann, II2, 245, S II, 256) and of a Persian version of Ibn al-Ṭiḳṭaḳā’s Fak̲h̲rī , the Tad̲j̲ārib al-salaf (see Storey, i, 81, 1233; Storey-Bregel, i, 326-7). Muḥammad was a chancery secretary under the Il-K̲h̲ānids. He wrote a Persian-Persian glossary, Ṣiḥāḥ al-Furṣ , dedicated to his superior G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn, son of the great vizier for the Mongols, Ras̲h̲īd al-Dīn Faḍl Allāh [ q.v.…

Naṣīḥat al-Mulūk

(4,755 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), literally “advice for rulers”, a phrase under which may conveniently be considered the genre of pre-modern Islamic literature which consists of advice to rulers and their executives on politics and statecraft ( siyāsa [ q.v.] or tadbīr al-mulūk ); the ruler’s comportment towards God and towards the subjects or raʿiyya [ q.v.] whom God has entrusted to his charge; the conduct of warfare, diplomacy and espionage; etc. All these themes correspond to the genre of mediaeval European literature known as that of “mirrors for princes” or Fürstenspiegel (see on this, Dict . of the Middle Age…

Ṭāhir b. al-Ḥusayn

(465 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. Muṣʿab b. Ruzayḳ, called D̲h̲u ’l-Yamīhayn (? “the ambidextrous”), b. 159/776, d. 207/822, the founder of a short line of governors in K̲h̲urāsān during the high ʿAbbāsid period, the Ṭāhirids [ q.v.]. His forebears had the aristocratic Arabic nisba of “al-K̲h̲uzāʿī”, but were almost certainly of eastern Persian mawlā stock, Muṣʿab having played a part in the ʿAbbāsid Revolution as secretary to the dāʿī Sulaymān b. Kat̲h̲īr [ q.v.]. He and his son al-Ḥusayn were rewarded with the governorship of Pūs̲h̲ang [see būs̲h̲and̲j̲ ], and Muṣʿab at least apparently governed Harāt also. …

al-Sīrad̲j̲ān

(600 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Sīradtān , one of the principal cities of mediaeval Persian Kirmān and that province’s capital during the first three Islamic centuries. Only from Būyid times onwards (4th/10th century) did Bardasīr or Guwās̲h̲īr (perhaps originally a ¶ Sāsānid foundation, *Weh Ardas̲h̲īr) become the administrative capital, known in the sources also as s̲h̲ahr -i Kirmān [see kirmān, at vol. V, 150]. Sīrad̲j̲ān now exists as the name of a district in the western part of Kirmān province and as a name recently revived and given to the present town of Saʿīdābād on the S̲h̲…

Miyāna

(446 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, in the early Islamic souces more usually Miyānid̲j̲, a town of Persia situated on the Ḳizil-Üzen [ q.v.] affluent of the Safīd-Rūd which drains southeastern Ād̲h̲arbāyd̲j̲ān [ q.v.]. The modern town lies in lat. 37°20′ N. and long. 47°45′ E. at an altitude of 1,100 m./3,514 ft. Being at the confluence of several rivers on the section of the Ḳizil-Üzen known in mediaeval Islamic times as the “river of Miyānid̲j̲” (cf. Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī, Nuzha , 224, tr. 216), Miyāna (literally, “middle place”, cf. Yāḳūt, Buldān , ed. Beirut, v, 240) was in mediaeval times …

Īd̲h̲ad̲j̲

(1,007 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
or Māl-Amīr , town of western Persia, situated on a tributary of the upper reaches of the Dud̲j̲ayl or Kārūn river, in southern Luristān, at 49° 45′ E. and 31° 50′ N. In mediaeval times it was generally reckoned to be part of the province of al-Ahwāz or K̲h̲ūzistān [ q.v.], and under the ʿAbbāsids was the capital of a separate administrative district or kūra . It lay on a plain at an altitude of 3,100 feet, and though reckoned by the geographers to be in the garmsīr or hot zone, the nearby mountains gave it a pleasant and healthy climate; the winter snow from…

Ṭahmūrat̲h̲

(602 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, generally accounted the second king of the Pīs̲h̲dādid dynasty [ q.v.] in legendary Iranian epic history, coming after the first world-king Kayūmart̲h̲ or Gayōmard and the founder of the Pīs̲h̲dādids, Hūs̲h̲ang [ q.v.]. Certain Islamic sources make him the first king of his line, and the length of the reign attributed to him—such figures as an entire millennium or 600 years are given—shows the importance attached to him. His name appears in the Avesta as Tak̲h̲mō urupa azinavε̇a , with the first element tak̲h̲ma , meaning “strong, courageous” (cf. the name Rustam/Rustahm) and urupi . azi…

Sarak̲h̲s

(916 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a town of northern K̲h̲urāsān, lying in the steppe land to the north of the eastern end of the Köpet Dag̲h̲ mountain chain. It was situated on the right or eastern bank of the Tad̲j̲ant (modern Ted̲j̲en) river, whose uncertain flow received the waters of the Harī Rūd before finally petering out in the Ḳara Ḳum desert [ q.v.]. According to the mediaeval Islamic geographers, the river bed only contained water at the time of floods, i.e. winter and early spring. Various channels were taken off the river for irrigation, but scantiness of water supply alwa…

Ḳūčān

(1,278 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, modern form of the mediaeval Islamic K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān/K̲h̲ūd̲j̲ān, a town of northern K̲h̲urasān on the main highway connecting Tehran and Mas̲h̲had. It lies at an altitude of 4,060 feet in the fertile and populous Atrek River-Kas̲h̲af Rūd corridors, on the headwaters of the Atrek and between the parallel mountain ranges of the Kūh-i Hazār Masd̲j̲id on the north and the Kūh-i S̲h̲āh D̲j̲ahān and Kūh-i Bīnālūd on the south; the modern town ¶ lies several miles upstream, sc. to the east-south-east, of the mediaeval town. K̲h̲abūs̲h̲ān was apparently the earliest Islamic form of the…

Rifāʿiyya

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, the name of one of the most prominent Ṣūfī orders from the period of the institutionalisation of the ṭarīḳas [ q.v.], and one which came to be noted in pre-modern times for the extravagance of some of its practices. It is unclear whether the founder, Aḥmad al-Rifāʿī [ q.v.], was a mystic of the thaumaturgie, miracle-mongering type, but the order which he founded and which was developed by his kinsmen certainly acquired its extravagant reputation during the course of the 6th/12th century; it may not be without significance that the order grew…

Ḳāwurd

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
b. čag̲h̲ri̊ beg dāwūd , called also Ḳara Arslan Beg on his coins and by authors like Mīrk̲h̲wand, the founder of a line of virtually independent Sald̲j̲ūḳ amīrs in Kirmān which endured for some 140 years until the irruption into the province of Og̲h̲uz from K̲h̲urāsān. The origins of Sald̲j̲ūḳ rule in Kirmān are obscure: there are discrepancies in the accounts of the sources, and the opening pages of Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm’s local history of Kirmān are missing. Kirmān had been recovered by the Būyids after the G̲h̲aznavid occupation of 422-5/1031-4 (on which see E. Merçil, Gaznelilerʾin Kirm…

Özkend

(332 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, ūzkend , sometimes written in the sources Yūzkand or Ūzd̲j̲and, a town of mediaeval Islamic Farg̲h̲āna [ q.v.] in Central Asia, lying at the eastern end of the Farg̲h̲āna valley and regarded as being near the frontier with the pagan Turks. Already in the mid-3rd/9th century, Özkend had a local ruler called by the Turkish name K̲h̲ūrtigin (?Čūr-tigin) (Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih, 30). The geographers of the next century (i.e. that of the Sāmānids) describe it as having the tripartite pattern typical of eastern Islamic towns, with a citadel in the madīna or inner cit…

Buzāk̲h̲a

(172 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, a well in Nad̲j̲d in the territory of Asad or their neighbours Ṭayyiʾ (cf. Mufaḍḍalīyāt , 361, n. 3). The forces of the Banū Asad, who, led by the false prophet Ṭulayḥa, had relapsed from Islam on Muḥammad’s death, were defeated at Buzāk̲h̲a in 11/632 by Abū Bakr’s general Ḵh̲ālid b. al-Walīd. Ḵh̲ālid’s army was reinforced for the battle by 1000 men of Ṭayyiʾ, detached from Ṭulayḥa’s side; Ṭulayḥa had the help of ʿUyayna b. Ḥiṣn and 700 men from Fazāra of G̲h̲aṭafān, old allies of Asad’s…

Sikandar b. Ḳuṭb al-Dīn Hindāl, called Buts̲h̲ikan

(220 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, sultan of Kas̲h̲mīr ( r. 791-813/1389-1410), who derived his name of “idol breaker” from his rigorist Muslim policies and draconian measures against the local Hindus. As a minor, he had his mother as regent until 795/1393 when, with the support of the Bayhaḳī Sayyids [ q.v. in Suppl.], refugees who had fled before Tīmūr [ q.v.], he threw off this tutelage and became the effective ruler, now having the k̲h̲uṭba read in his own name and minting coins. The campaigns of Tīmūr brought a considerable number of immigrants into India, and the most …

Māʾ

(1,772 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
10. Irrigation in Transoxania. The rivers of Inner Asia, extending from Ḵh̲wārazm in the west through Transoxania to eastern Turkistān (the later Sinkiang) and northwards to the Semirečye, have all been extensively used for irrigation purposes in the lands along those rivers and in oasis centres, providing a possibility for agriculture in favoured spots which were not too open to attack from the steppe nomads or more northerly forest peoples. Hence, as elsewhere in the Old World, the maintenance of irrigation works, surface canals and kārīz s or subterranean ¶ channels (these last t…

Faḳīr of Ipi

(238 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C. E.
, the name given in popular parlance to Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Mīrzā ʿAlī K̲h̲ān, Pathan mullah and agitator along the Northwestern Frontier of the Indo-Pakistan subcontinent in both the later British Indian and the early Pakistani periods, d. 1960. A member of the Torī K̲h̲ēl group of the ʿUt̲h̲mānzay Wazīrs of North Wazīrīstān, probably one of the most unreconciled of the Pathan tribes of the Frontier in British times, he came to especial prominence in 1936-7, inflaming the Tōrī Ḵh̲ēls and the Mahsūds of the Tochi valley against the British…

Inʿām

(1,884 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(a.), “favour, beneficence”, more specifically donatives, largesse, given to troops, etc. The problem of keeping armies in the field, once mustered and brought forward for action, was a perennial one for Islamic rulers and commanders. Unless inducements such as extra pay awards, ¶ promises of unusually attractive plunder, etc. could be dangled in front of the troops, there was danger that an army might disband itself and melt away once the immediate battle or object of a campaign had been achieved; not infrequently, it was difficult to …

Sebüktigin

(352 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
(Tkish. sevük tégin “beloved prince”), Abū Manṣūr, Turkish slave commander of the Sāmānids [ q.v.] and founder of the G̲h̲aznawid dynasty [ q.v.] in eastern Afg̲h̲ānistān. What little is known of his early life stems mainly from his alleged Pand-nāma or testament of advice to his successor (preserved in a later Persian historian; see s̲h̲abānkāraʾī ) and from D̲j̲ūzd̲j̲ānī’s quotations from a lost part of the Mud̲j̲alladāt of Abu ’l-Faḍl Bayhaḳī [ q.v.] which dealt with Sebüktigin’s governorship. He came from the Barsk̲h̲ān district of the Semirečye [see yeti su …

Philby

(733 words)

Author(s): Bosworth, C.E.
, Harry St. John Bridger (1885-1960), Arabian explorer and traveller, adviser to King ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Suʿūd (Ibn Suʿūd) [see suʿūd , āl ] and British convert to Islam. Born of parents connected with planting and with ¶ official service in the Indian subcontinent, he had a conventional public school and Cambridge University education, and himself entered the Indian Civil Service in 1908. Already he showed a flare for learning Indian languages and for immersing himself in the cultures of India, until the First World War found him in…
▲   Back to top   ▲