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Hagnonides

(119 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἁγνωνίδης; Hagnōnídēs). Son of Nicoxenus of Pergase. In 325/4 BC claimant in a naval document (IG II2 1629a 14f.). Accused in the Harpalus affair by Dinarchus (Hyp. in Demosthenem 40; Dion. Hal. de Dinarcho, 10f.). After the defeat of Athens in 322, the banished H. was able to stay in the Peloponnese through the mediation of Phocion. Later however H. instigated the latter's execution (May 318; Plut. Phocion 33-37; Nepos Phocion 3,3). Attested as the claimant again in 318/7 (IG II2…

Nicippus

(69 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Νίκιππος/ Níkippos). Messenian oligarch, who enforced neutrality as éphoros ( éphoroi ) against a popular majority, when Philippus V sought to win Messene to his Hellenic League against Aetolia in 220 BC. Because Messene was also the reason for the involvement of the league, Polybius denounced this position (4,31,2f.; 32,1; 36,8) [1. 424f.]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 B. Niese, Geschichte der griechischen und makedonischen Staaten, vol. 2, 1899.

Nicocreon

(395 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Νικοκρέων/ Nikokréōn). [German version] [1] Conspirator against Evagoras, c. 375 BC N. plotted unsuccessfully against Evagoras [1], the king of Salamis on Cyprus (Theopompos FGrH 115 F 103,12), and had to flee (around 375 BC). N.'s daughter became the mistress of Evagoras and of the heir to the throne, Pnytagoras. According to [1. 99-101] the result of this union was the future king Pnytagoras II, whose son was Nicocreon [2]. Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Beloch, GG 4,2 2 LGPN 1, 335, nr. 1. [German version] [2] King of the town of Salamis on Cyprus, 332/1 BC Son of Pnytagor…

Nicodemus

(296 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Νικόδημος; Nikódēmos). [German version] [1] Prosecutor of Demosthenes, probably died after 349 BC Athenian from Aphidna, prosecutor of Demosthenes [2] (Aeschin. 2,148), friend of Meidias [2] and of Eubulus [1], was killed by Aristarchus, the son of Moschus (Idomeneus FGrH 338 F 12) in 352 BC: [2]; (according to [1. 112] and [3. 9-12] the preferred date is more likely after 349 BC), for which deed Meidias held Demosthenes responsible (also [1. 102-105]; Aristot. Rh. 1397b 7 see [2]). Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 Schäfer, vol. 2 2 H.E. Stier, s.v. Nikodemos (2), RE 1…

Ismenias

(791 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich)
(Ἰσμηνίας; Ismēnías or Ἱσμηνίας; Ismēnías). [German version] [1] Prominent Theban politician, 5th/4th cent. BC Prominent Theban politician, famous for his wealth (Pl. Men. 90a). After the end of the Peloponnese War (431-404 BC), I., with  Androclidas, came to the fore as leaders of a Hetaeria which opposed the pro-Spartan politics of  Leontiades. The goals were to push back the Leontiades faction and to bring about a new orientation in international politics towards Athens (Hell. Oxy. 12,1f.; 13,1; Xen. Hell.…

Leontiades

(211 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λεοντιάδης; Leontiádēs). [German version] [1] Theban leader at the Battle of Thermopylae, 5th cent. BC Theban, leader of the contingent which, on the order of Leonidas [1], had to take part in the battle about the Thermopylae (480 BC). The Thebans were suspected of pro-Persian sympathies, and during the battle they did indeed defect to the Persians (Hdt. 7,205; 233). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Theban politician, c. 400 BC (Plut.: Λεωντίδης/ Leōntídēs), Theban politician, leader of a party of pro-Spartan property owners (Hell. Oxy. 15 Barto…

Cratesipolis

(97 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[German version] (Κρατησίπολις; Kratēsípolis). Wife of Alexander [8], married before 314 BC. After her husband was murdered in 314, she succeeded in establishing herself in the area he ruled, the centres of Corinth and Sicyon (Diod. Sic. 19,67) and maintained power with the aid of  Polyperchon (Diod. Sic. 19,74). In 308, C. handed the rule of her cities to Ptolemy I (Diod. Sic. 20,37), outwitting the mercenaries on Acrocorinth in the process (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,58), and retired to Pagae, where Demetrius [2] Poliorketes wanted to pay her a visit in 307 BC (Plut. Demetrius 9). Dreyer, B…

Mantitheus

(317 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Μαντίθεος; Mantítheos). [German version] [1] Athenian counciller ca. 415 BC Athenian, involved in the mutilation of the Herms ( Herms, mutilation of the) while a councillor in 415 BC (And. 1,43,4), fled to Sparta and then, like Alcibiades [3], to Asia Minor, where they were arrested at Sardes. They escaped to Clazomenae in 411 (Xen. Hell. 1,1,10). In 409, M. was named as one of a delegation to the Persian King (Xen. Hell. 1,3,13), and in 408 he was entrusted with the supervision (see Epimeletai) of the Athenian conquests on the Hellespont, while Alcibiades returned to Athens. Dreyer, Boris…

Cedon

(138 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Κήδων; Kḗdōn). [German version] [1] Athenian, attempted before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the Peisistratids Athenian, possibly of the  Alcmaeonid family, attempted in vain before 514 BC to topple the tyrannis of the  Peisistratids. This glorious deed was later commemorated at symposia with a  scolion (Aristot. Ath. pol. 20,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography Rhodes, 248. [German version] [2] Athenian, commander of the left wing in the naval battle of Naxos 376 BC Athenian, under Chabrias he commanded the left wing in the naval battle of Naxos (and…

Gelon

(562 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων; Gélōn). [German version] [1] Greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, about 491-479 BC Son of Deinomenes from Gela, greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, period of reign c. 491-478 BC. Firstly bodyguard, later master-of-horse of Hippocrates of Gela, after whose death in 491 he usurped the tyrannis over Gela and brought the east Sicilian archḗ of his predecessor, comprising Gela, Camarina, Callipolis, Leontini, Catana, Naxos and numerous Sicilian communities, into his power (Hdt. 7,154). Called to help around 485 by the Syracusan gamoroi (land owners), who …

Pantaleon

(501 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πανταλέων/ Pantaléōn). [German version] [1] King of the Pisates, middle of the 7th cent. BC Son of Omphalion, king of the Pisates (middle of the 7th cent. BC); P.'s rule may have been perceived as tyranny already in his own lifetime (cf. Paus. 6,21,1). He temporarily wrested the organisation of the Olympic Games from the Eleians (Olympia IV.; Paus. 6,22,2) [1. 220f.]. His support of the Messenians in the second of the Messenian Wars (Str. 8,4,10) is a later invention [2. 153f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996 2 K. Tausend, Amphikty…

Cephisodorus

(622 words)

Author(s): Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
(Κηφισόδωρος; Kēphisódōros). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, for whom Lysias records a not further specified victory in 402 BC (Lys. or. 21,4) and whose name also appears on the list of winners at the Dionysia (after Nicophon and Theopompus) [1. test. 2; 3]. The titles of four pieces are transmitted (Ἀμαζόνες/‘The Amazons, Ἀντιλαΐς/‘Antilaïs, Τροφώνιος/‘Trophonius, Ὕς/‘Hys) as well as a total of 13 verses; the longest fragment of these contains five verses of a dia…

Leaena

(162 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λέαινα; Léaina). [German version] [1] Hetaera of Aristogiton [1], 6th cent. BC Legendary hetaera of Aristogeiton [1]. After the murder of Hipparchus [1], Hippias [1] allegedly raped and killed her (Paus. 1,23,1f.; Plut. Mor. 505E; Ath. 596f; Cic. fr. 8,12 Merguet). In another version, she bit off her tongue while being tortured by Hippias so she would not betray her lover (Polyaenus, Strat. 8,45). A bronze lioness was supposedly erected to commemorate her. The name of the heroine (‘Lioness’) and the mor…

Olympiodoros

(787 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Beck, Hans (Köln) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Brisson, Luc (Paris)
(Ὀλυμπιόδωρος). [English version] [1] Athenischer Politiker (Ende 4. Jh.v. Chr.) Athener, konnte zwischen 307 und 301 v.Chr. gegen Kassandros Aitolien zum Bündnis bewegen und Elateia entsetzen (Paus. 1,26,3; 10,18,7; 34,3). Obgleich Demetrios [2] Poliorketes ihn zweimal (294/3 und 293/2) widerrechtlich als eponymen árchōn einsetzte (Dion. Hal. de Dinarcho 9; IG II2 378 = [1. D 70]; IG II2 389 und SEG 21,354; IG II2 649 = [2. 7f.]; Agora 16, 167; [3. 124 Nr. 9]; vgl. allg. Plut. Demetrios 34), stellte sich N. beim Abfall Athens von Demetrios 287/6 gegen di…

Kedon

(130 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Κήδων). [English version] [1] Athener, versuchte vor 514 v.Chr., die Tyrannis der Peisistratidae zu stürzen Athener, möglicherweise aus der Familie der Alkmaionidai, versuchte vor 514 v.Chr. vergeblich, die Tyrannis der Peisistratidai zu stürzen. Dieser ruhmreichen Tat gedachte man später beim Symposion mit einem Skolion (Aristot. Ath. pol. 20,5). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Köln) Bibliography Rhodes, 248. [English version] [2] Athener, Kommandant über den linken Flügel in der Seeschlacht bei Naxos 376 v. Chr. Athener, befehligte unter dem Kommando des Chabrias den li…

Mikion

(220 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[English version] (Μικίων). Sohn des M., aus Kephisia, sorgte mit seinem Bruder Eurykleides kurz nach 230 v.Chr. für die Bezahlung und damit den Abzug der maked. Truppen im Peiraieus unter Diogenes [1] (IG II2 834, 10ff.; [1. 79ff.; 118ff.]); er hatte auch schon vorher (248/7; damals evtl. agōnothétēs: IG II2 1705) dem von außen bedrohten Athen geholfen (Agora XVI 213 I 35, vgl. [2. 26ff.]). Seit den 240er J. bis in die 220er J. wies M. mit seinem Bruder aus Gründen der Neutralität den Anschluß an Aratos [2] ab (Plut. Aratos 24; 33-34; 41; P…

Ktesippos

(144 words)

Author(s): Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
[English version] [1] Sokratiker s. Sokratiker Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) [English version] [2] Sohn des athen. strategós Chabrias, Trierarch um 334/3 v. Chr. Sohn des athen. stratēgós Chabrias aus Aixione, für den Demosthenes [2] im J. 354 v.Chr. den Antrag des Leptines auf Kassierung der atéleia (Liturgie) bekämpfte (Demosth. or. 20,75; 82). K. ist belegt als Trierarch (IG II2 1623,72f.: 334/3 v.Chr.; in IG II2 1604,87 [377/6] vielleicht der Großvater) und Choregos (IG II2 3040; 320er J. nach [1. 24]). Das eigenwillige Verhalten des K. ist Ziel des Komödienspotts …

Lysandros

(854 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Λύσανδρος). [English version] [1] Spart. Flottenkommandant, Ende 5. Jh. v.Chr. Spartiat, Sohn des Aristokritos. Berichte, die Familie, die ihren Stammbaum auf Herakles zurückführte und durch Gastfreundschaft mit König Libys von Kyrene verbunden war (Diod. 14,13,5-6; Paus. 6,3,14), sei verarmt gewesen (Plut. Lysandros = Lys. 2,1) und L. habe als móthax (“Nährbruder” eines Bürgerknaben, móthakes ) gegolten (Phylarchos FGrH 81 F 43; Ail. var. 12,43), scheinen auf gezielter Diffamierung zu beruhen. L. übernahm im Frühjahr 407 v.Chr. als Flottenkommandant ( naúarchos) die spar…

Pammenes

(440 words)

Author(s): Beck, Hans (Köln) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Παμμένης). [English version] [1] Vertauter des Epameinondas Thebaner, enger Vertrauter des Epameinondas. Auf seinem zweiten Peloponneszug betraute dieser den noch jungen P. mit der Besatzung Sikyons (Polyain. 5,16,3) und im J. 368 v.Chr. mit einer Mission zum Schutz von Megale Polis (Paus. 8,27,2). Von 368 bis 365 hielt sich der etwa gleichaltrige Philippos [4] II. als Geisel in P.' Elternhaus auf ([1. 118] mit Lit.). Nach dem Tod des Epameinondas bei Mantineia wurde P. zum führenden Politiker und Fel…

Nikaia

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Mailand) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια). [English version] [1] Naiade Naiade, Tochter des phrygischen Flußgottes Sangarios und der Göttin Kybele. Als Jägerin verschmäht N. die Liebe und bleibt Jungfrau. Bei Memnon von Herakleia wird Dionysos von ihr nicht erhört, so daß er zu einer List greift und die Quelle, aus der N. zu trinken pflegt, in Wein verwandelt. Sie wird betrunken und schläft ein. Dionysos überwältigt sie im Schlaf und zeugt mit ihr ‘Satyrn und andere’ (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). Bei Nonn. Dion. 15,169-16,405 ist der…
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