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Olevian, Caspar

(289 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1536, Trier–Mar 15, 1587, Herborn). Olevian came from a Roman Catholic family; c. 1557, during his study of law in France, he became a Protestant and joined the Huguenot community in Bourges. After taking his law examination, he studied in Geneva, Zürich, and Lausanne. His most important teacher was his “father in Christ,” Calvin. In 1559 Olevian became a teacher of philosophy in his home town. However, his private teaching of the catechism and his sermons aroused opposit…

World Alliance of Reformed Churches (WARC)

(1,506 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] …

Netherlands, The

(2,867 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] I. General The Netherlands is a constitutional monarchy in northwest Europe. The name Netherlands is attested since the Roman period, but origina…

Creation, Christ as Agent of

(684 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] The doctrine of Christ as the agent of creation relates God's actions in the con¶ texts of creation and redemption to one another and opposes an understanding of creation that is not associated with Jesus Christ as well as a conception of redemption that bears no relationship to creation. The concept of the agent of creation is defined in reference to 1 Cor 8:6: all things are through Jesus Christ. The notion that the second person of the Trinity created the world is also attested in Col 1:15–17; Heb 1:3; John 1:3, 10; Rev 3:14. In terms of religious history, it is conceivable here that Jewish concepts of wisdom were transferred to Christ. On the other hand, it is also necessary to examine the concept in a wider context: in the Gospels, Jesus manifests himself as the Lord of creation (e.g. in the miracles); the resurrection (…

Miskotte, Kornelis Heiko

(267 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg
[German Version] (Sep 23, 1894, Utrecht, the Netherlands – Aug 31, 1976, Voorst, the Netherlands), studied theology in Leiden (1914–1920), was pastor from 1921 to 1945 in Kortgene, Meppel, Haarlem, and Amsterdam, and from 1945 to 1959 he taught dogmatics at…

Pre-existence of Christ

(2,068 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Brendan | Plasger, Georg
[German Version] I. New Testament New Testament allusions to Christ as preexistent occur chiefly in material of a hymnic nature, in clear continuity with the Old Testament presentation of divine wisdom (Wisdom literature: II). The transfer to Christ of the protological role (Protology) originally ascribed to hypostasized Wisdom appears in 1 Cor 8:6; also Col 1:15–17; Eph 1:3–4; 1 Pet 1:20. A midrashic allusion in 1 Cor 10:4 suggests, typologically, that Christ functions for believers as the rock of …


(1,863 words)

Author(s): Plasger, Georg | Necker, Gerold | Dan, Joseph | Radtke, Bernd
[German Version] I. The Concept Pre-existence refers to the existence of …

Reformed Churches

(9,343 words)

Author(s): Busch, Eberhard | Plasger, Georg | Strohm, Christoph | Guder, Darrell | Veddeler, Berend | Et al.
[German Version] I. History and Theology 1. Terminology. For programmatic theological reasons, the Reformed churches rejected the exonym Calvinist churches. They referred to themselves as Reformed churches because they did not think of themselves as new churchdoms alongside the one holy church but as a part of that church, albeit as part of it renewed according to God’s Word in Holy Scripture. In speaking of themselves, therefore, they eschewed refer…


(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies