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(3,868 words)

Author(s): Raymond, A.
(a.), urbanism, the structure and planning of the Arab town and city. This can be reconstructed as an historical reality from a vast body of literature, including chronicles and archival documents. It embodies enlightened ideas which seem to be commented on, as it were, by the remains of all the great Arab cities that can still be seen. The concept of a Muslim “city” was formulated chiefly by French orientalists (on this subject see R.S. Humphreys, Islamic history: a framework for inquiry, Princeton 1991, 228) between 1920 and 1950; in particular see G. and W. Marçais, J. Sa…


(2,789 words)

Author(s): Algar, Hamid | Raymond, A.
(a.) either the act of girding with aninitiatic belt or girdle, as practised by the chivalrous sodalities (the exponents of futuwwa [ q.v.]), the trade guilds ( aṣnāf , see below, 2., and ṣinf ), and certain Ṣūfī orders, or the belt or girdle itself. To the Arabic s̲h̲add in its verbal meaning correspond the Turkish expressions şedd kuşatmak , kuşak kuşatmak , and bel bağlamak , and the Persian kamar bastan. The origin of the custom has been attributed to the kustī , the sacred girdle of the Zoroastrians, for whom, however, girding on the kustī was a rite of passage into manhood, not of in…

S̲h̲āh Bandar

(1,474 words)

Author(s): Raymond, A. | Hooker, M.B.
(p.), literally “harbour, port master”. The term was used before the Ottoman period to denote the chief of the merchants, and sometimes the representative of foreign merchant communities, at the Indian Ocean ports of India; the form Xabandar is found in the Portuguese chronicles. It appears in Ibn Baṭṭūṭa in regard to the Muslim chief of the merchants ( amīr al-tud̲j̲d̲j̲ār ) at Calicut [see kalikat in Suppl.], “Ibrāhīm S̲h̲āh Bandar (the king or chief of the port), originally from Baḥrayn” (tr. Gibb and Beckingham, iv, London 1994, 812). See also Yule and Burnell, Hobson-Jobson , a glossa…


(3,284 words)

Author(s): Raymond, A. | Floor, W. | Nutku, Özdemir
(a.), pl. aṣnāf , a term denoting “profession” (synonyms ḥirfa , pl. ḥiraf , and kār , pl. kārāt ), and not “corporation”. 1. In the Arab world. In Cairo, in the Ottoman period, ṣinf is not used in this sense, except by the Turkish traveller Ewliyā Čelebi, in his renowned description of professional corporations ( Seyāḥat-nāme , x, 358-86). There is no word in Arabic specifically denoting the professional corporation: texts frequently use the word ṭāʾifa , pl. ṭawāʾif , which has the much more general connotation of “group”, “community”. It is only in the expression arbāb al-ḥiraf wa ’l-ṣan…


(17,433 words)

Author(s): Bianquis, Th. | Guichard, P. | Raymond, A. | Atassi, Sarab | Pascual, J.P. | Et al.
(a.), pl. aswāḳ , market. 1. In the traditional Arab world. Sūḳ , market, is a loanword from Aramaic s̲h̲ūḳā with the same meaning. Like the French term marché and the English market , the Arabic word sūḳ has acquired a double meaning: it denotes both the commercial exchange of goods or services and the place in which this exchange is normally conducted. Analysis of the sūḳ is thus of interest to the economic and social historian as well as to the archaeologist and the urban topographer. The substantial textual documentation which is available has as yet been …