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Ilerda

(181 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian city on the Sicoris (modern Segre), modern Lérida (loss of the Iberian prefix I). Remains are mostly found above the modern city. Inscriptions: CIL II Suppl. p. 1146. Possibly already mentioned in Avien. 475. I. repeatedly played a role in Roman military history, especially in Caesar's battles with Pompey's legates. Augustus raised I. to the status of municipium (coins, Plin. HN 3,24). It is still mentioned several times in Ausonius (e.g. commemoratio professoru…

Caesaraugusta

(154 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Pilgrimage Modern Zaragoza on the Iberus. Originally the likely location of the Iberian settlement of Saduia (Plin. HN 3,24: Salduba) in the tribal area of the Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62). The Roman colony, founded under Augustus, developed into one of Spain's most important urban centres (cf. Mela 2,88; Str. 3,2,15; 4,10; 13). Important road junction. Possibly the garrison of the 10th legion up to the time of Nero. C.…

Edetani

(198 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe on the Spanish east coast. The main city was Liria, today still known as Liria on the Guadalaviar (CIL II p. 509), and the tribal area corresponded roughly to the hinterland of Valencia and Saguntum ([1. 111]). Schulten [2. 326] refers to them as the inhabitants of the province of Teruel further to the north. The location can be deduced from that of the main city and from other sources (cf. also [3. 58]: Edeta[nia]). The E. are mentioned for the years of 209 and 141 BC: Pol. 10,34,2 (uncertain reading); App. Ib. 330f. (here, Sedetania should clearly be read as Edet…

Ilergetes

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe around  Ilerda in the modern province of Huesca. The I. are often mentioned in the context of the Second Punic War. They initially supported the Carthaginians, were defeated by the Romans in 205 BC (Liv. 29,3) and later became socii (Liv. 34,11). Mentioned in Str. 3,4,10 and Plin. HN 3,21, but not later. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 232 Tovar 3, 1989, 46f. Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 21974, 309 A. Vives, La moneda hispánica 2, 1924, 52.

Carmo

(107 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pyrenean peninsula Settlement of the  Turdetani, modern Carmona (province of Sevilla in Spain). C. rose to importance during the conflicts between Rome and Carthage (3rd/2nd cents. BC; App. Ib. 25; Liv. 33,21,6ff.). Caes. B Civ. 2,19,4 and Str. 3,2,2 refer to C. as one of the most important towns of Baetica. The names of some of the officials of this   municipium civium Romanorum or Latinorum are known from coins [1. 199] and from inscriptions (CIL II 1378ff.; 5120). Barceló, Pedro (Pots…

Lancia

(300 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Town near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain Town of the Astures near modern Mansilla de las Mulas, northern Spain, approximately 20 km from León (on the Celtic place name [1; 2], also [3; 4]). Conquered in 25 BC by P. Carisius, but spared (Cass. Dio 53,25,8; Flor. Epit. 2,33,37f.; Oros. 6,21,10; cf. also Plin. HN 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,28; It. Ant. 395,3; [5]). Substantial, almost exclusively Roman remains; Roman coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures ..., 1943, 107, 151 3 F. Abbad Rios, F. Jordá Cerdá, In…

Bergistani, Bargusii

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe in Hispania Tarraconensis (now Cataluña); the place name Berga (province of Barcelona) commemorates it. On his march to Italy Hannibal passed through the tribe's territory (Pol. 3,35; Liv. 21,19; 23). In the first phase of the Roman conquest of Spain the B. put up resistance, but were subdued by Cato in 195 BC (Liv. 34,16ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 39f.

Grac(c)urris

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in the upper Ebro valley; precise location unknown. In 179 BC founded as a Gracchuris by Tib. Sempronius Gracchus in place of the Iberian town of Ilurcis (Liv. Epitome 41; Festus p. 86,5). G. is mentioned later in the war against Sertorius in 76 BC (Liv. Epitome 41). Pliny (HN 3,24) names G. among the oppida Latii veteris of the conventus of Caesaraugusta. There are no inscriptions, but G. appears on several coins from the time of Tiberius as a municipium [1. 113f.]. Later G. is no longer mentioned. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives, La moneda hispánic…

Cempsi

(70 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Only mentioned by Avien. 182ff. and by Dionys. Per. 338. They were probably a Celtic tribe (different in [1. 978]), who originally lived on the island of Cartare (probably in the  Baetis delta), later south of the Tagus and in the Anas valley. Possibly identical with the Celtici (cf. Str. 3,1,6). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1. A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955, 104ff. Tovar 2, 195f.

Callaici

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtic tribe in north-western Hispania, giving its name to the modern region of Galicia. First mentioned in connection with the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) (App. Ib. 300). The Roman governor Iunius Brutus, who crushed them between 138 and 136 BC, was given the cognomen Callaicus. Caesar, too, had dealings with them during his propraetorship in 60 BC. For a time, the C. appeared alongside the  Astures and  Cantabri, when Augustus was at war with these and subjugated them finally …

Cauca

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian town, modern Coca (province of Segovia). First mentioned in the context of the brutal war conducted by  Lucullus in 151 BC (App. Ib. 51f.). Scipio, too, laid the town to ruins in the course of his battle against Numantia (App. Ib. 89). In the imperial age, the town belonged to the conventus of  Clunia (Plin. HN 3,26), and gained fame as the birthplace of emperor  Theodosius I (Zos. 4,24,4). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 334 F. Wattemberg, La región vaccea, 1959.

Bilbilis

(131 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Celtiberian settlement on the Cerro de Bámbola near Calatayd (province of Zaragoza); its name is possibly derived from the river Birbilis (Just. Epit. 44,38), an alternative name for the Salo, or the name of one of its tributaries. In Roman times, the road from Augusta [2] Emerita to Caesaraugusta passed through B. It is a matter of debate whether B. was a   colonia or a   municipium . It is the birthplace of Martial, who extolled the wealth of his homeland. The town fell into ruin in…

Baecula

(73 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Settlement in the mining area on the upper  Baetis (modern Bailen). In 208 BC, it was the location of one of the decisive battles of the Second Punic War, in which Hasdrubal was defeated by P.C. Scipio Africanus. Hasdrubal subsequently departed from Spain (Pol. 10,38,7; 11,20,5; Liv. 27,18,1; 28,13,5; App. Ib. 24). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 153-154.

Pyrene

(485 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in the easternmost Pyrenees near Rhode (Πυρήνη; Pyrḗnē). City of Iberian or Phocaean origin in the region between the Sordi and the Ceretes peoples (Avien. 559), therefore in the easternmost Pyrenees (P. [2]) near Rhode. Here, according to Hdt. 2,33, was the source of the Istrus [2] (Danube); P. was a rich city, seven days' journey from Pylae [1] Gadeirides (Avien. 562-565) and often visited by merchants from Massalia. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 460. [German version] [2] Mountains, modern Pyrenees (Πυρήνη/ Pyrḗnē, Πυρηναῖα/ Pyrēnaîa, Πυρ…

Cerretani

(69 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe of the southern Pyrenees, province of Cerona (Str. 3,4,11). Earliest mention in Avien. Or. mar. 550 ( Ceretes). Steph. Byz. knows of a city called Brachyle in the land of the C. They were famous for the quality of their ham (Mart. 13,54). In the imperial age, the tribe divided into Iuliani and Augustani (Plin. HN 3,23). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 44f., 447.

Maesesses

(63 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Tribe of the Bastetani (Liv. 28,3,3) in eastern Andalusia in a fertile region with silver mines. In 207 BC their region was conquered by P. Cornelius [I 71] Scipio [1]. Orongis (probably identical with Aurgi, modern Jaén [2]) was situated here. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 131 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1, 84.

Calagurris

(168 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Fibularia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity A settlement of the  Vascones, probably the modern Loarre in the Spanish province of Huesca in Spain. Bishop Ianuarius, one of the participants in the Council of Iliberis, may have come from C. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 381-382. [German version] [2] Nasica This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Iberian town on the Iberus in the Spanish province of Zaragoza, modern Calahorra. It played a part in the Celtiberian Wars (181-133 BC) and i…

Sicoris

(49 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Left-hand tributary of the Iberus [2] (Ebro) in Hispania Tarraconensis (Caes. Civ. 1,40,1; 48,3; 61,1; 63,1; Plin.  HN 3,24), modern Segre. It rises in the territory of the Cerretani and in its course passes through Ilerda (Lérida). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography TIR K/J 31 Tarraco 146 f.

Ilurcavones

(54 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ilercavones). An Iberian tribe around Dertosa, on the lower Ebro. They submitted to the Romans in 218 BC (Liv. 21,60,3; for later times cf. also Liv. 22,21,6; Caes. B Civ. 1,60,2; Ptol. 2,6,16; Plin. HN 3,21). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4-8, 1925ff. (Index) Tovar 3, 34f.

Murgis

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: City in southern Spain, since the Augustan provincial reform on the border between Hispania Baetica and Hispania Tarraconensis. The city's name, according to [2], is Iberian. Its location on the Campo de Dalias, 31 km to the west of Almería, is documented in inscriptions (CIL II Suppl. 5489f.; cf. Plin. HN 3,8; 17, Baeticae finis; Itin. Anton. 405,2; Ptol. 2,4,9; [2. 84f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Tovar 2, 1974 2 Holder, s.v. M.

Ercavica

(165 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian settlement. The origin of the name is uncertain: it may be Celtiberian ([1. 1485] or Basque [2. 72]). Despite being attested in several sources, the precise location of E. cannot be established ([3]: on the Cabeza del Griego west of Cuenca? A contrary view is [2. 331,5]; cf. also CIL II p. 419, 425). It belonged to the conventus of Caesaraugusta (Plin. HN 3,24; CIL II 4203). The nobilis et potens civitas (‘noble and mighty city’) surrendered in 179 BC without resistance to the propraetor Tib. Gracchus (Liv. 40,50,1). It was a municipium (coins: [4. 109]) an…

Centobriga

(68 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town mentioned only in the context of the anecdote about  Metellus' mild treatment of the besieged population of C. (142 BC; Val. Max. 5,1,5; Liv. POxy. 161-163). C. -- the name is Celtic [1. 989] -- was probably situated in the valley of the Jalón [3. 354]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937, 33f. 3 Id., Numantia 1, 1914 4 Tovar 3, 369-370.

Lusitani, Lusitania

(554 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Name Iberian [1], similarly the people with a marked Celtic element which is evaluated in various ways [2]. Originally the L. settled between the Durius and the Tagus (cf. [3]) and advanced to the Anas (App. Hisp. 239). The later Roman province of L. set up by Augustus corresponds approximately to modern Portugal and therefore comprises a much bigger region than the original settlement area. The country encompasses only a few towns [4] which presumably, as with the Celtiberi, originally served as refuges. Especially in the north there are numerous castros, i.e. ring wa…

Accis

(177 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Town of the  Bastetani (Ptol. 2,6,60), on the crossing of the road from  Tarraco via  Carthago Nova to  Castulo and  Malaca. The ancient settlement was built along the slopes of the western Guadix (province of Granada). Its Roman name of Colonia Iulia Gemella or Gemellensis (CIL II 3391; 3393 f.) points to its origins as a military colony, founded either by Caesar in 45 BC or later by Augustus. A. was under the jurisdiction of the conventus Carthaginiensis. Its inhabitants had the ius Italiae (Plin. HN 3,25); CIL II…

Lyco

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] City of the Bastetani, name probably Iberian. A more precise location cannot be determined and identification with Ilugo, Ilucia, Ἴλουνον/ Ílounon remains problematical [1]. At L. the Lusitani inflicted heavy losses on L. Aemilius [I 32] Paullus in 190 (Liv. 37,46,7). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 199ff. Tovar 3, 157.

Saguntia

(31 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town in western Hispania Baetica (Liv. 34,19,10; Plin. HN 3,15) on the Guadalete; modern Baños de Gigonza (Paterna de Rivera). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 1, 54 f.

Ilipa

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Punic Wars Modern Alcalá del Río (from the Arabic for ‘river fortification’) on the right bank of the  Baetis. The name and town are Iberian [1. 1221]. I. was important for navigation (Str. 3,2,3; CIL II 1085), but also because of nearby silver mines (Str. l.c.), agriculture and fishing (coins), which earned it the epithet Magna (Ptol. 2,4,10; Plin. HN 3,11?). P. Cornelius Scipio defeated the Carthaginians near I. in 206 BC. I. was mentioned as a diocese in the Visigothic period [2. 216]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 …

Ilici

(182 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula Ancient Iberian town, in late antiquity Elece, modern Elche. It is assumed that Hamilcar [3] Barka died here in 228 BC; however, this must be corrected in favour of Helice (Elche de la Sierra) [2. 11f.]. In the Roman era, I. was colonia immunis (Plin. HN 3,19). In its harbour the fleet of Maiorianus was destroyed by Vandali in AD 460 [3. 81f.]. In the Visigothic period, I. is often mentioned as a diocese [3. 449]. The ancient site lay somewhat close…

M(a)enaca

(288 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Phoenicians, Poeni (Μαινάκη/ Mainákē, Lat. Menace), city in southern Spain. The name is probably derived from μαίνη/ maínē or Lat. maena, a salted fish (Avien. 426-431 confused M. with Malaca [1. 80]; Scymn. 147; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ., where M. is called Celtic). According to Str. 3,4,2 M. was a colony of Phocaea, which no longer existed at that time. Schulten [2. 35-38] assumed it was located west of the mouth of the Vélez on the hill Cerro del Peñón. This hypothes…

Carthago Nova

(350 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hispania, Iberia | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula | Rome | Rome Carthago Nova (CN) was founded by  Hasdrubal in c. 225 BC as his new centre of power in the location of Mastia (with the best harbour of the entire Spanish Mediterranean coast; modern Cartagena). The Carthaginian town was adorned with many representative buildings: a temple to the Punic deities  Baal and  Eshmun, palaces, docks, as well as a massi…

Iuliobriga

(109 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Celtic for ‘castle of Iulius’; [1. 87]). Probably a foundation by Augustus dating from the Cantabrian campaign [2. 195]. Remains near the village of Retortillo, 3 km south of Reinosa, not far from the source of the Ebro. References: Plin. HN 3,21; 27; 4,111; Ptol. 2,6,50; Not. Dign. Occ. 42,30; CIL II Suppl. p. 1148. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 1919 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures, 1943. A. García y Bellido, Excavaciones en Iuliobriga, in: Archivio español de arqueo…

Arx Gerontis

(130 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Place name, originating from Geron/Theron, a king of  Tartessus ( fani est prominens et ... Gerontis arx est eminens: Avien. Ora maritima 261; 263; 304). The sanctuary was supposedly located within the delta area of the  Baetis [1. 237], the Arx Gerontis to the south of it, possibly on the Salmedina peninsula, of which these days only a few cliffs remain, washed over by the sea [2. 39, 41, map 1; 1. 236f.]. According to a later source (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 2,767), the place was also called ἄκρα Γλαύκου ( ákra Glaúkou), showing the identification of King Geron with the…

Laeetani

(134 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe ( laiescon [1. 19]) on the Spanish east coast between Barcelona and Blanes; regarding the various spellings and misspellings of the name ( Laietani, Leetani, Lacetani, Laletani, Lasetani) cf. [2. vol. 6, 235; 3; 4]; Plin. HN 3,21; Str. 3,4,8; Ptol. 2,6,18; 72; ILS 2714a; CIL II Suppl. 6171. Wine of inferior quality was cultivated there in large amounts (Plin. HN 14,71; Mart. 1,26; [2. vol. 1, 136, vol. 3, 51, vol. 6, 235f.; 5. vol. 8, 184, 195, 292]). Viticulture Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Hübner, Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, 1893 2 A. Schulten (…

Nertobriga

(148 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] City in northern Spain City in northern Spain (Celtic place name: narto, ‘strength’, briga, ‘fortress’ [1]), modern Calatorao in the Jalón valley, 30 km to the northeast of Bilbilis. The consul M. Claudius [I 13] Marcellus conquered N. in 152 BC. The city was finally subjugated in 143 BC (App. Ib. 48; 50; Flor. Epit. 1,33,10). Itin. Anton. 437,4; 439,2; coins. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1, 533; 2, 723. Tovar 2, 414  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 158f. [German version] [2] City in central Spain City in central Spain, as a Roman colony N. Concordia Iulia (Pli…

Iliberis

(242 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] I., Iliberri This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Pyrenean peninsula Iberian town, probably near Granada in the Sierra de Elvira. Mentioned in Plin. HN 3,10 and Ptol. 2,4,9. Diocese in the Christian era, site of the concilium Eliberitanum (AD 306 ?) [1]. Often mentioned on coins and in inscriptions, here several times as municipium Florentinum (e.g. CIL II 1572; 2070). After the Arab invasion, the town appears to have steadily declined and the population to have moved to Garnatha, modern Granada. Inscriptions: CIL II p. 285ff., Suppl. p. 1146. Ba…

Lacetani

(88 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe (not to be confused with the Iaccetani; e.g. Ptol. 2,6,71; [1]), who settled the southern foothills of the eastern Pyrenees, west of Llobregat, east of Segre, south of Noya and Cervera (Liv. 21,61,8; 28,24,4; 34,20,1; Plin. HN 3,21). They were one of the earliest tribes to be subjugated by the Romans (Plut. Cato Maior 11,2; cf. Cass. Dio 45,10; Sall. Hist. 2,98,5; [2. 50f.]). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. iaccos 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935. Tovar 3, 35ff.

Asturia

(108 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Region on the Atlantic coast of northern Spain. It corresponds with the modern provinces of Asturias, Leon and Valladolid. The Astures split up into tribal groups ( populi), first reported by Posidonius (in Str. 3,3,7). Like the  Cantabri, they were subjugated by Augustus. The gold reserves of the country were legendary. In the town of Astorga, there was a military unit under the command of the procurator metallorum (Flor. Epit. 2,33,60; ILS 9125ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturias preromana y altoimperial, 1989 N. Santos Yang…

Ebora

(236 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Whether the name E. is Iberian, Ligurian or Celtic, remains unclear [1. vol. 1, 1394; vol. 2, 205; 2. 68; 3. 150]. [German version] [1] Town of the Carpetani, modern Montalba Town of the Carpetani, today Montalba on the Tajo. The town Aebura referred to in Livy (40,30; 32f.) is probably identical with Libora (Ptol. 2,6,56; Geogr. Rav. 4,44, Lebura; but cf. CIL II p. 111 s. Caesarobriga). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Modern Évora in Portugal Today Évora in Portugal (Alentejo); its identity is confirmed by inscriptions and archaeological remains (fort, …

Minius

(119 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Spanish river (Str. 3,3,4: also Βαῖνις/ Baínis; App. Hisp. 301: also Βαίτις/ Baítis), modern Miño; Name according to [1] perhaps Iberian, according to [2] Etruscan, though this is unlikely [1. 595, 2354ff.; 3. 361]. The ancient derivation from minium (‘cinnabar’, Just. Epit. 44,3,4; Isid. Orig. 19,17,7) is unfounded. M. and its tributaries had the same course as they do now [4. 276], but contained more water. According to Str. l.c. it was navigable for 800 stages (i.e. 160 km), but today this is only about 100 km. On its banks was the Mons Medullius. Barceló, Pedro (P…

Carpetani

(180 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The C. are mentioned by Pol. 3,14,2 in the context of  Hannibal's expansion into central Spain as the most powerful tribal group of that region. Hannibal clashed with them when he went to war against the Olcades in 221 BC, and against the Vaccaei a year later. When he wanted to cross the Tagus, he faced opposition from the C. (Pol. 3,14,5-9). Hannibal attacked them again in 219 BC during the siege of  Saguntum, alongside the  Oretani (Liv. 21,11,13). In line with most Spanish trib…

Sexi

(162 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars Phoenician settlement (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 43: Σίξος/ Síxos; Str. 3,4,2; 3,5,5: Ἐξιτανοί/ Exitanoí; Mela 2,94; Plin. HN 3,8: Sexi Firmum Iulium; Ptol. 2,4,7: Σέξ/ Séx; It. Ant. 405,3: Saxetanum) on the southern coast of the Iberian peninsula, probably at modern Almuñécar, to date not excavated. It is scarcely recognisable today owing to considerable sedimentation that the Phoenician settlement was originally on a peninsula or island, su…

Acra Leuce

(225 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hispania, Iberia (Ἀκρα Λευκή; Ákra Leukḗ) Because of its Greek name, García y Bellido [2. 5925,10,3] took the town's foundation by  Hamilcar, as reported in Diod. Sic. 25,10,3 f.; 25,10,12, as evidence for the existence of a preceding Greek settlement at A. Generally, based on a rather questionable interpretation of the toponymy of Acra -- Castrum Album/Lucentum/Alicante -- its location is supposed to be within the municipal area of Alicante; other …

Massieni

(105 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Mastieni). Iberian tribe on the southeast coast of Spain (Avien. 422; 425; 450), with dwelling places from the Chrysus (modern Guadiaro) River to Carthago Nova [1. 52, 197, 186f.]. The principal town was Mastia (cf. Pol. 3,24,2; 4, here called Ταρσήιον/ Tarsḗion, indicating that it probably belonged to Tartessus' sphere of influence). Hasdrubal [2] may have founded Carthago Nova on the site of Mastia around 221 BC. The Bastetani, which may possibly be identified with the M., later appeared in their place [2]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (ed.),…

Bebryces

(52 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The Spanish B. are mentioned by Scymn. 201 (prior to 202 BC). Avien. 485 describes the ‘Berybrakes’ as a rough, wild people, whose areas of settlement are not clearly known. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography F. J. Fernández Nieto, Beribraces, edetanos e ilercaones, in: Zephyrus 19/20, 1968/69, 115-142 Tovar 3, 64.

Mons Medullius

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Mountain in north-eastern Spain; the name is Celtic [1]. Here, in 25 BC, the Cantabri put up the last resistance against the army of Augustus (Flor. 2,33,50; Oros. 6,21,7). Schulten [2. 170] identified the MM, probably wrongly, with the Monte S. Julián at Tuy on the Miño; it is much more likely to have been (cf. [3. 153ff.]) on the Sil near  Las Médulas (Prov. León). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 528 2 Schulten, Landeskunde 1 3 F.J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989. P. Barceló, Das Kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olsh…

Belli

(58 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Celtiberian tribe on the Jalón, a tributary of the Duero, with the main city of Segeda. The B. played a pre-eminent role in the Celtiberian Wars (154-133 BC); after that, they are no longer mentioned (Pol. 35,2,3; 11; App. Ib. 44ff.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography H. Simon, Roms Kriege in Spanien, 1962, 200 Tovar 3, 92.

Mellaria

(153 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Μελλαρία; Mellaría). The name of two cities. According to [3], it is uncertain whether it is Iberian, Celtic or Latin; according to [1; 2. vol. 8, 352] it is Latin for ‘City of Honey’). [German version] [1] City in the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar In the western part of the Strait of Gibraltar, between Traducta (near modern Tarifa) and Baelo, known from Sertorius' landing near M. in 80 BC (Plut. Sertorius 12; [2. vol. 4, 169]; cf. Strab. 3,1,8; Mela 2,96; Plin. HN 3,7; Ptol. 2,4,6; It. Ant. 407,2). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City near modern Fuente Ovejuna M. (Baetu…

Mirobriga

(169 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Merobriga). Name of three towns in Spain (celtic ‘fort of Miro’ [1. 599]). [German version] [1] Town near modern Capilla This item can be found on the following maps: Town near modern Capilla east of Mérida near Almadén (cf. CIL II 2365f.), located by Plin. HN 3,14 in Baeturia Turdolorum and mentioned among the oppida non ignobilia (cf. Ptol. 2,4,10; 6,58; Itin. Anton. 444,6) [2; 3] Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] Town in the area of Salmantica Town in the area of Salmantica (modern Salamanca) and Bletisa (modern Ledesma): CIL II 858f. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) …

Astigi(s)

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae The modern Ecija on the Genil river (province of Seville), capital of one of the four conventus of the Baetica (Plin. HN 3,12); after 27 BC, it became an Augustan colony with the epithet Firma (CIL II 1471; 1630), part of the tribus Papiria. A. was probably the most important exporter of oil in Hispania, as demonstrated by the numerous broken amphorae found on Monte Testaccio in Rome. In late antiquity, A. was an important diocese, whose bishops attended most of the Hispanic councils. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliograph…

Baetulo

(37 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] River (modern Besos) and municipium (modern Badalona) of the  Lacetani on the eastern coast of Spain (Mela 2,90; Plin. HN 3,22; Ptol. 2,6,19; CIL II 4606-4608; 4611). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Schulten 1, 1974, 305.

Salpensa

(72 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Salpesa). Iberian city, in the Roman era municipium Flavium Salpensanum, modern Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, province of Sevilla). An inscription with the municipal charter of S. (AD 82/84) was found near Malaca (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Carteia

(127 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Located close to the mouth of the Guadarranque near Algeciras in Spain (near Cieza, province of Murcia), C. played an important role because of its Phoenician acculturation. During the Second Punic War, the Romans defeated the fleet of the Carthaginian  Adherbal [3] near C. in 206 BC. From the base of C., the Roman general  Laelius began the negotiations which were to lead to the surrender of  Gades (Liv. 28,30,3). In 171 BC, C. became a colonia Latina libertorum, the first outside Italy. The town remained loyal to Rome throughout, e.g. in the war against V…

Contrebia

(204 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Celtic for ‘communal dwelling’ [1. 1109]). Fortress retreat of the Celtiberian  Lusones [1. 136]. Its location cannot be accurately established; probably not identical with today's Daroca, C. was nevertheless nearby, in the Hiloca valley south-west of Zaragoza ([1. 136; 2. 212]; see also the conjectures in [4. 247]). Epigraphical evidence is almost entirely lacking (only CIL II 4935?), but, on the other hand, coins have been found with Iberian legends [5. 93]. C. is mentioned fairly often in the context of the Celtiberian wars (181 BC: Liv. 40,33; App. Ib. 42 [ Co…

Baetis

(113 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Modern river Guadalquivir. Its ancient course was the same as today, but originally, its delta had four branches (Avien. 288ff.), and two in the Augustan period (Str. 3,1,9; 2,11); nowadays, it discharges into the Atlantic from a single course; the silted branches of the delta can still be detected. Its high water levels seem to have remained unchanged: large seagoing vessels sailed upriver to Hispalis, small ones to Ilipa, and river barges to Corduba (Str. 3,2,3). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Casal, El Guadalquivir, 1975 A. Ruiz Rodriguez, M. Molinos…

Osca

(214 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Town of the Ilergetes (Itin. Anton. 391,5; 451,5; Ptol. 2,6,68: in the lands of the Ilergetes, Plin. HN 3,24: of the Suessetani; [1]) on the southern slopes of the Pyrenees, today's Huesca. First mentioned in the ovatio celebrated by Helvius [I 2] in 195 BC after the victory over the Celtiberi near Illiturgis on the Baetis; on that occasion, he brought 119439 coins made of argentum Oscense ('silver from O.') to Aerarium (Liv. 34,10,4). In 180 BC, Fulvius [I 12], too, triumphed over the Celtiberi and brought home 173200 coins from O. in his triu…

Cessetani

(97 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian tribe [2. 1032]. Within its territory was the town of Cissa, which is mentioned for 218 BC (Pol. 3,76,5; Liv. 21,60,7 [1. 57, 60]; appearing as Ces(s)e on many Iberian coins [3. 83f. cf. 65-78]). Its most likely site was north of the Iberus near Tarraco. Undoubtedly, the C. gave their name to the regio Cessetania (Plin. HN 3,21; for comment on the variation of Kossetanio: Ptol. 2,6,17); [4. 1995]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935 2 Holder 1 3 A. Vives, La Moneda Hispánica 2, 1924 4 E. Hübner, s.v. C., R…

Contestani(a)

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Area and tribe between Cartagena and Júcar in the province of Murcia and Valencia; the name appears to be Celtic [1. 1107]. C. is mentioned in the context of the Sertorius war (Liv. fr. bk. 91), also in Plin. HN 3,19f.; Ptol. 2,6,14,61; see also [2. 131; 3. 222]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955 3 Id.., Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 6, 1952. L. Conesa, Contestania ibérica, 1972 Tovar 3, 31.

Palantia

(125 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Principal town of the Vaccaei (ILS 6096; Plin. HN 3,26; Mela 2,88; It. Ant. 449; Παλλαντία/ Pallantía: Str. 3,4,13; App. Ill. 231 ( et al.); Ptol. 2,6,50; Orus. 7,40,8), modern Palencia on the Carrión river in Castilla la Vieja. P. was repeatedly besieged in vain by the Romans in the Celtiberian Wars (153-134 BC). After being subjugated, P. was one of the peregrine communities of the conventus Cluniensis (Plin. l.c.). In AD 409 the Vandals, Suebi and West Goths (Goti) advanced across of the territory of P., plundering as they went (Orus. l.c.): The city was destroyed by …

Celtiberi

(325 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] It used to be the accepted view that C. were ‘Iberian Celts’, i.e. Celts who had migrated into Iberian lands (first in Str. 3,4,5). A. Schulten, by contrast, postulated that they were ‘Celtic Iberians’, i.e. Iberians who had advanced from the east coast into Celtic areas. The C. inhabited a large part of the central Spanish plateau (Meseta). They never formed a political unit; of significance in this context is the fact that they had no collective name for referring to themselves.…

Termes

(146 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Τέρμες/ Térmes). City in the territory of the Celtiberic Arevaci (Plin. HN 3,27; Flor. Epit. 2,19,9; Ptol. 2,6,56), at modern Tiermes (Montejo de Liceras). With Numantia a focus of the Celtiberic Wars in 154-133 BC. T. also asserted itself after the fall of Numantia in 133 BC and was not occupied until 98 BC by T. Didius [I 4] (App. Ib. 431). The latter caused the inhabitants of T. to resettle in the Sobre valley. Remains of a Celtiberic settlement on sandstone rocks survive: rock habitations, rock walls, necropolis in Carratiermes (6th cent. BC to 1st cent. AD…

Pyrenaei Portus

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Port on the northeast coast of Spain, to the north of Rhode (modern Ciutadella de Roses), where Cato [1] broke his voyage to his province of Hispania Citerior in 195 BC (Liv. 34,8,5). PP probably corresponds to Portus Veneris (modern Port-Vendres on Cape Béar). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography J. Jannoray, s. v. Portus Veneris (1), RE 22, 411-418, bes. 415 f.

Dertosa

(268 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Punische Kriege | Straßen Im 6. Jh.v.Chr. lag an der Ebromündung die reiche Handelsstadt Tyrichae (Avien. ora maritima 498-503). Für 215 v.Chr. wird dort wieder eine ‘sehr reiche’ Stadt erwähnt: Hibera (Liv. 23,28,10). Sie ist zweifellos identisch mit der nachmaligen Hibera Iulia Ilercavonia (über den Stamm der Ilercavones s. [4. 1092]) D. (nach [1. 1269] iberisch, nach [2. 63; 3. 4, 233f.] ligurisch). Hibera lag nach Livius auf dem südl. Ufer, was mit der strategischen …

Boletum

(40 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Stadt, nur inschr. (CIL II 5843; 5845) bezeugt, wohl bei Barbastro/Hispania Tarraconensis gelegen. Der ON Boletania überdauerte das MA; arab. Geographen schrieben Bortana, was sich im h. Boltaña erh. hat. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 384f.

Ebora

(220 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Ob der Name E. iberisch, ligurisch oder keltisch ist, bleibt unklar [1. Bd. 1, 1394; Bd. 2, 205; 2. 68; 3. 150]. [English version] [1] Stadt der Carpetani, h. Montalba Stadt der Carpetani, h. Montalba am Tajo. Der bei Livius (40,30; 32f.) gen. Ort Aebura ist wohl ident. mit Libora (Ptol. 2,6,56; Geogr. Rav. 4,44, Lebura; vgl. aber CIL II p. 111 s. Caesarobriga). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [English version] [2] H. Évora in Portugal H. Évora in Portugal (Alentejo); Identität durch Inschr. und arch. Reste (Kastell, Aquädukt, Tempel) gesichert (CIL II p. 13; Nr. 110; 11…

Lancia

(269 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] [1] Stadt bei h. Mansilla de las Mulas/Nordspanien Stadt der Astures bei h. Mansilla de las Mulas/Nordspanien, etwa 20 km von León entfernt (zum kelt. ON [1; 2], außerdem [3; 4]). 25 v.Chr. von P. Carisius erobert, aber verschont (Cass. Dio 53,25,8; Flor. epit. 2,33,37f.; Oros. 6,21,10; vgl. auch Plin. nat. 3,28; Ptol. 2,6,28; Itin. Anton. 395,3; [5]). Bedeutende, fast nur röm. Reste; röm. Mz. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder, s.v. L. 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures ..., 1943, 107, 151 3 F.Abbad Rios, F.Jordá Cerdá, Informe sobre las excavac…

Berones

(39 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Keltischer Stamm am mittleren Iberus in La Rioja. Die wichtigsten Städte der B. waren Tricio, Oliba und Vareia (Liv. fr. 91: validissima urbs). Sertorius besetzte das Stammesgebiet 76 v.Chr. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 77-78.

Ilorci

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Ibererstadt in der Gegend des oberen Baetis mit dem Grabmahl eines der beiden 211 v.Chr. gefallenen Scipiones, wahrscheinlich des Cn. Scipio (Plin. nat. 3,25). Die Gleichsetzung von I. mit h. Lorca (Prov. Murcia) ist nicht unumstritten. CIL II p. 476. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (Hrsg.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 91  J.B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1229  G. Alföldy, Röm. Städtewesen auf der neukastilischen Hochebene, 1981, 38.

Carteia

(109 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Nahe der Mündung des Guadarranque bei Algeciras in Spanien gelegen (bei Cieza, Prov. Murcia), spielte C. aufgrund der phöniz. Akkulturation eine bed. Rolle. Im 2. Pun. Krieg schlugen die Römer 206 v.Chr. bei C. die Flotte des Karthagers Adherbal [3]. Der röm. Feldherr Laelius begann von C. aus die Verhandlungen, die zur Übergabe von Gades führen sollten (Liv. 28,30,3). 171 v.Chr. wurde C. colonia Latina libertorum, die erste außerhalb Italiens. Die Stadt verhielt sich stets treu zu Rom, so etwa im Viriatus-Krieg (147 v.Chr.). Den Fischverarbei…

Contestani(a)

(73 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Landschaft und Stamm zw. Cartagena und dem Júcar in den Prov. Murcia und Valencia; der Name scheint kelt. zu sein [1. 1107]. C. wird im Zusammenhang des Sertorius-Kriegs erwähnt (Liv. fr. B. 91), außerdem Plin. nat. 3,19f.; Ptol. 2,6,14,61; s. auch [2. 131; 3. 222]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1 2 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 1, 21955 3 Ders., Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 6, 1952. L. Conesa, Contestania ibérica, 1972  Tovar 3, 31.

Emporiae

(553 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Etrusci, Etruria | Hispania, Iberia | Kolonisation | Punische Kriege | Pyrenäenhalbinsel | Straßen | Straßen (Emporion). Seehandelshafen, h. Ampurias am Ostrand der Pyrenäen, Prov. Gerona, an der Costa Brava. Quellen: [1; 2]. Hier fand seit Anf. des 20.Jh. eine in Spanien beispiellose Ausgrabungstätigkeit statt, die ihren Niederschlag in einer umfangreichen Lit. gefunden hat [3. 334ff.; 4. 66ff.; 5. 94; 6; 7; 8. 273ff.]. Die Inschr. haben wenig ergeben; …

Mellaria

(130 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Μελλαρία). Name zweier Städte (nach [3] fraglich, ob iberisch, kelt. oder lat., nach [1; 2. Bd. 8, 352] lat. “Honigstadt”). [English version] [1] Stadt im Westen der Meerenge von Gibraltar Im Westen der Meerenge von Gibraltar zw. Traducta (bei h. Tarifa) und Baelo, bekannt durch die Landung des Sertorius 80 v.Chr. nahe bei M. (Plut. Sertorius 12; [2. Bd. 4, 169]; vgl. Strab. 3,1,8; Mela 2,96; Plin. nat. 3,7; Ptol. 2,4,6; Itin. Anton. 407,2). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [English version] [2] Stadt beim h. Fuente Ovejuna M. (Baeturiae) beim h. Fuente Ovejuna (CIL II 2344-2346). Barceló, Pe…

Bilbilis

(112 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Theater | Straßen Keltiberische Siedlung auf dem Cerro de Bámbola nahe Calatayd (Prov. Zaragoza); der Name leitet sich evtl. vom Birbilis (Iust. 44,38), einer anderen Bezeichnung des Salo, oder einem Nebenfluß desselben ab. In röm. Zeit führte die Straße von Augusta [2] Emerita nach Caesaraugusta durch B. Ob B. colonia oder municipium war, ist umstritten. Martialis, der den Reichtum seiner Heimat besungen hat, wurde hier geboren. Die Stadt zerfiel in spätröm. Zeit (Paul. Nol. epist. 2,221-238). Barceló, Pedro (Po…

Laeetani

(115 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Iberischer Volksstamm ( laiescon [1. 19]) an der spanischen Ostküste zw. Barcelona und Blanes; zu den verschiedenen Schreibungen und Verschreibungen des Namens ( Laietani, Leetani, Lacetani, Laletani, Lasetani) vgl. [2. Bd. 6, 235; 3; 4]; Plin. nat. 3,21; Strab. 3,4,8; Ptol. 2,6,18; 72; ILS 2714a; CIL II Suppl. 6171. Dort wuchs viel minderwertiger Wein (Plin. nat. 14,71; Mart. 1,26; [2. Bd. 1, 136, Bd. 3, 51, Bd. 6, 235f.; 5. Bd. 8, 184, 195, 292]). Wein, Weinbau Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Hübner ,Monumenta Linguae Ibericae, 1893 2 A. Schulten (Hr…

Althia

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Laut Pol. 3,13,5 die mächtigste Stadt der Olkades im oberen Guadianatal, von Hannibal 220 v. Chr. erobert. Liv. 21,5,4 nennt sie Cartala. Ihre Lage bleibt unbekannt. Die von [1. 216] vorgeschlagene Identifizierung mit dem h. Altea (Prov. Alicante) ist wenig wahrscheinlich. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 G. V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72,1968,205-246. Tovar 3, 1989,185.

Consabura

(74 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Reste dieser wohl kelt. Stadt [1. 1105] bei Consuegra südl. von Toledo (CIL II p. 431; [3. 177]). Frontin. strat. 4,5,19 erwähnt C. im Zusammenhang mit dem Sertorius-Krieg zum J. 78 v.Chr. Weitere Zeugnisse: Plin. nat. 3,25; Ptol. 2,6,57; Itin. Anton. 446,6; Geogr. Rav. 313,15; CIL II 2,2166; 4211. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 1  E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE 4, 889 3 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 4, 1937. Tovar 3, 222-224.

Olkades

(82 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Iberischer Volksstamm im Gebiet des h. Alcoy nördl. von Alicante in SO-Spanien mit Zentrum in Althaia bzw. Cartana (Pol. 3,13f.; 33,9; Liv. 21,5; Lage unbekannt), von Hannibal [4] gleich nach seiner Ernennung zum Strategen 221 v.Chr. unterworfen. Truppen der O. wurden 219 zur Sicherung der libyschen Küste nach Afrika geschickt. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Hannibal, 1998, 35  G.V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72, 1967, 205-246, bes. 215f.  Tovar 2, 94f.

Palma

(76 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Handel | Hispania, Iberia | Straßen Stadt auf Maiorica (h. Mallorca), der größeren Insel der Baliares, nach einem Sieg über die dortigen Bewohner vom Consul Caecilius [I 19], nachmals Baliaricus, 122 v.Chr. gegr., benannt nach der Siegespalme (Strab. 3,5,1; Mela 2,124; Plin. nat. 3,77f.; Ptol. 2,6,78). Sie hat ihren Namen bis h. behalten. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 2,3, 1989, 277  TIR K/J 31 Tarraco, 1997, 117.

Ilici

(177 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Coloniae | Punische Kriege | Pyrenäenhalbinsel | Straßen Alte Ibererstadt, in der Spätant. Elece, h. Elche. Man nimmt an, daß hier Hamilkar [3] Barkas 228 v.Chr. den Tod fand, doch ist dies zugunsten von Helike (Elche de la Sierra) zu korrigieren [2. 11f.]. In röm. Zeit war I. colonia immunis (Plin. nat. 3,19). In ihrem Hafen wurde 460 n.Chr. die Flotte des Maiorianus von Vandali vernichtet [3. 81f.]. In westgot. Zeit wird I. oft als Bistum gen. [3. 449]. Der ant. Ort lag etwas näher a…

Damania

(108 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] (Name auf iberischen Mz. [1. Nr. 86]: dmaniu) war ein oppidum stipendiarium des conventus von Caesaraugusta (Plin. nat. 3,24) und rechnete zum Stamm der Sedetani oder der Edetani (Ptol. 2,6,62); Hübner [2] vermutet hier zwei verschiedene Stämme, während Schulten beide identifiziert (vgl. [3. 229]). Trotz Inschr. (CIL II 2960; 3990; 4249) läßt sich die Lage nicht genauer feststellen. Span. Lokalforscher haben sie mit h. Mediana (Prov. Zaragoza), andere mit Domeño (Prov. Valencia) identifiziert [4. 859]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 E. Hübner, Mon…

Iuliobriga

(104 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Hispania, Iberia (kelt. “Burg des Iulius”; [1. 87]). Wohl eine Gründung des Augustus aus der Zeit des kantabrischen Feldzugs [2. 195]. Überreste beim Dorf Retortillo, 3 km südl. von Reinosa, nicht weit von der Ebroquelle. Belegstellen: Plin. nat. 3,21; 27; 4,111; Ptol. 2,6,50; Not. Dign. occ. 42,30; CIL II Suppl. p. 1148. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder 2, 1919 2 A. Schulten, Los Cántabros y Astures, 1943. A.García y Bellido, Excavaciones en Iuliobriga, in: Archivio español de arqueologí…

Aeso

(65 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Stadt der Lacetani, h. Isona, gehörte zum conventus Tarraconensis (Plin. nat. 3,23) und wurde der tribus Quirina zugeschlagen, prägte Mz. mit der iberischen Legende E-S-O [1. II,63; MLI, 32]. Ein episcopus ecclesiae Aesonensis nahm am 6. Konzil von Toledo teil (Conc. 246; Fuentes Históricas Aragonenses 9,294). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Vives y Escudero, La moneda hispánica, 1926. Tovar 3, 1989, 451.

Ilerda

(172 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Caesar | Pyrenäenhalbinsel | Straßen Alte Ibererstadt am Sicoris (h. Segre), h. Lérida (Abstoßung der iber. Vorsilbe I). Überreste finden sich hauptsächlich oberhalb der neuen Stadt. Inschr.: CIL II Suppl. p. 1146. Evtl. schon bei Avien. 475 angesprochen. I. spielte in der röm. Kriegsgesch. mehrfach eine Rolle, bes. in den Kämpfen Caesars mit den Legaten des Pompeius. Von Augustus wurde I. zum municipium erhoben (Mz., Plin. nat. 3,24). Noch Ausonius erwähnt I. öfters (z.B. commemoratio professorum B…

Salmantica

(102 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Hispania, Iberia | Straßen Stadt der Vaccaei (Pol. 3,14,1; 3,14,3: Ἑλμαντική; Liv. 21,5,6: Hermandica; Polyain. 7,48: Σαλμαντίς; Ptol. 2,5,9: Σαλμάντικα; Itin. Anton. 434,4: Salmatice; CIL II 857; 859; 870: S.), h. Salamanca. Von Hannibal [4] zur Sicherung der Getreideversorgung seines Heeres im J. 220 v. Chr. erobert. Röm. municipium an der Heeresstraße von Augusta [2] Emerita nach Asturica Augusta. Hier steht noch h. eine röm. Brücke über den Tormes. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Aníbal de…

Minius

(111 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Span. Fluß (Strab. 3,3,4: auch Βαῖνις/ Baínis; App. Ib. 301: auch Βαίτις/ Baítis), h. Miño; Name nach [1] vielleicht iber., nach [2] etr., dies ist jedoch unwahrscheinlich [1. 595, 2354ff.; 3. 361]. Die ant. Ableitung von minium (“Zinnober”, Iust. 44,3,4; Isid. orig. 19,17,7) ist unbegründet. Mit seinen Nebenflüssen hatte der M. denselben Verlauf wie h. [4. 276], war aber wasserreicher. Nach Strab. l.c. 800 Stadien (d.h. 160 km) weit schiffbar, ist er es h. nur noch etwa 100 km. An seinem Ufer lag der Mons Medullius. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 Holder…

Massieni

(93 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] (Mastieni). Iberischer Stamm an der span. SO-Küste (Avien. 422; 425; 450), mit Wohnsitzen vom Flusse Chrysus (h. Guadiaro) bis Carthago Nova [1. 52, 197, 186f.]. Hauptort war Mastia (vgl. Pol. 3,24,2; 4, hier Ταρσήιον/ Tarsḗion gen., gehörte also wohl zum Einflußbereich von Tartessos). Möglicherweise gründete Hasdrubal [2] um 221 v.Chr. Carthago Nova auf dem Boden von Mastia. An die Stelle der M. traten später die Bastetani, die evtl. mit ihnen zu identifizieren sind [2]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten (Hrsg.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 12,…

Salpensa

(70 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] (Salpesa). Iberische Stadt, in röm. Zeit municipium Flavium Salpensanum, h. Cortijo de la Coria (Utrera, Prov. Sevilla). Eine Inschr. mit dem Stadtgesetz von S. (82/84 n. Chr.) wurde bei Malaca gefunden (ILS 6089; [1. 259 ff.]). Lex Salpensana Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. L. López Castro, Hispania Poena, 1995. Tovar 1, 145 f.  A. Caballos, W. Eck, F. Fernández, Das Senatus consultum de Cn. Pisone patre, 1996, 245.

Ercavica

(149 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Keltiber. Siedlung; die Herkunft des Namens ist unsicher ([1. 1485] keltiberisch, [2. 72] baskisch). Trotz mancher Quellenbelege ist die genaue Lage von E. nicht auszumachen ([3]: auf der Cabeza del Griego westl. von Cuenca? Dagegen [2. 331,5]; vgl. auch CIL II p. 419, 425). Sie gehörte zum conventus von Caesaraugusta (Plin. nat. 3,24; CIL II 4203). Die nobilis et potens civitas (‘edle und mächtige Stadt’) ergab sich 179 v.Chr. ohne Widerstand dem propraetor Tib. Gracchus (Liv. 40,50,1). Sie war municipium (Mz.: [4. 109]) und besaß das latin. Bürgerrecht…

Cessetani

(91 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[English version] Iberischer Volksstamm [2. 1032]. In seinem Gebiet lag die Stadt Cissa, die zum Jahr 218 v.Chr. erwähnt wird (Pol. 3,76,5; Liv. 21,60,7 [1. 57, 60]; Ces(s)e auf vielen iber. Mz. [3. 83f. vgl. 65-78]). Sie dürfte nördl. des Iberus bei Tarraco gelegen haben. Zweifellos heißt nach den C. die regio Cessetania (Plin. nat. 3,21; über die Form Kossetanio: Ptol. 2,6,17); [4. 1995]. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935 2 Holder 1 3 A. Vives, La Moneda Hispánica 2, 1924 4 E. Hübner, s.v. C., RE 3, 1995. Tovar 3, 35.

Egelasta

(85 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This Iberian [1. 58] settlement was located near the salines of Men Baca between  Castulo and Linares and Vilches (CIL II 5091, p. 710) and belonged to the conventus of  Carthago Nova (Plin. HN 3,25). The identification with Iniesta in [2. 175] is mistaken. Pliny praised the salt of Egelasta because of its unique medicinal effect (HN 31,80). Otherwise only rarely mentioned (Str. 3,4,9; Ptol. 2,6,56, Egelésta). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 A. Schulten, Numantia 1, 1914 2 Enciclopedia Universal Ilustrada 19. Tovar, 3, 1989, 155f., 234.

Noega

(152 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(Νοῖγα/ Noîga). [German version] [1] Coastal city in northern Spain Coastal city in northern Spain in the territory of the Astures (Asturia), east of the Melsus (= Nelo in Plin. HN 4,111; modern Nalón), possibly near Gijón (Str. 3,4,20; Ptol. 2,6,6: Νοῖγα Οὐκεσία/ Noîga Oukesía). Mela 3,113-15 has the most detailed information on its location; but despite intense discussion the location remains unclear. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography C.Fernández Ochoa, Noega-Gigia: reflexiones sobre dos enclaves astur-romanos, in: Leyenda y arqueología de las ciudades pre…

Ilipula

(183 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
There were several towns with this name in the province of  Hispania Baetica [3. 1225]. Often they are difficult to distinguish from Ilipa, Ilipla, Elepla, Elipla [1]. Only the most important are briefly listed here. [German version] [1] I. Magna (Ptol. 2,4,9) or I. Laus ( Iulia?, Plin. HN 3,10). Location unknown. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] I. Minor (Plin. HN 3,12; CIL II 1469f.), modern Repla, south of Osuna. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [3] I., Ilipla ([2]; Ptol. 2,410). Between  Baetis and Anas, modern Niebla. The ruins of the old town a…

Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Citerior

(251 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] The province Hispania Tarraconensis (HT) was established by the administrative reorganization of the Iberian peninsula by Augustus in 27 BC (Cass. Dio 80,2). Initially it encompassed the northeastern half of Hispania and was the largest of the three Hispanic provinces. In the north it extended to the Atlantic and the Pyrenees, in the east the Mediterranean formed a natural border, including the Balearics, in the south it was bounded by Baetica, and in the west by Lusitania. As the…

Anas

(60 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] (Ἄνας; Ánas) Modern Guadiana, next to the Guadalquivir (Baetis), the most important river of southern Spain. It rises in Ruidera (Ciudad Real province); in antiquity, it branched into two arms (Avien. Or. m. 208; Str. 3,1,9) at its mouth into the Atlantic near Ayamonte, close to the Spanish-Portuguese border. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 1989, 179.

Cinginnia

(46 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Lusitanian settlement of unknown location. Val. Max. 6,4,1 reports an incident when, during his campaign of 136 BC, D. Iunius Brutus offered a large amount of gold to the besieged inhabitants of C., if they capitulated. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography Tovar 3, 270.

Emporiae

(567 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | | Etrusci, Etruria | Hispania, Iberia | Colonization | Punic Wars | Pyrenean peninsula (Emporion). Sea-trading port, now Ampurias, on the eastern edge of the Pyrenees, in the province Gerona, on the Costa Brava. Sources: [1; 2]. Archaeological activity that was unparalleled in Spain took place here from the start of the 20th cent. and has been extensively covered in several publications [3. 334ff.; 4. 66ff.; 5. 94; 6; 7; 8. 273ff.]. The inscriptions have pr…

Munda

(195 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
Iberian [1] name of two cities. [German version] [1] City in southern Spain This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Hispania, Iberia City in southern Spain, modern-day Montilla near Córdoba (Bell. Hisp. 30ff. [2]; Plin. HN 3,12). Scene of two ancient battles: It was there that Cn. Cornelius [I 77] Scipio defeated the Carthaginians (Liv. 24,42,1-4) in 214 BC; in 45 BC Caesar defeated the Pompeians there. The latter occasion probably marked the final destruction of M. (Bell. Hisp. 41). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) [German version] [2] City in Celtiberia City in Celtiberia, con…

Olcades

(86 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian people in the region of modern Alcoy, north of Alicante in southeastern Spain, with a centre in Althaea or Cartana (Pol. 3,13f.; 33,9; Liv. 21,5; site unknown); subjugated by Hannibal [4] straight after he was appointed strategos in 221 BC. In 219 the O. sent troops to Africa to secure the Libyan coast. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Hannibal, 1998, 35  G.V. Sumner, Roman Policy in Spain before the Hannibalic War, in: HSPh 72, 1967, 205-246, esp. 215f.  Tovar 2, 94f.

Segisamo

(64 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Station on the road from Tarraco to Asturica at modern Sasamón (Str. 3,4,13; Plin. HN 3,26; Ptol. 2,6,50; CIL II Suppl. p. 932 f.). Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography P. Barceló, Das kantabrische Gebirge im Altertum, in: E. Olshausen, H. Sonnabend (eds.), Gebirgsland als Lebensraum (Geographica Historica 8), 1996, 53-61, plate XIX  F. J. Lomas Salmonte, Asturia prerromana y altoimperial, 1989, 87  TIR K 30 Madrid, 1993, 207 f.

Ilorci

(78 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Iberian town in the area of the upper  Baetis, with the tomb of one of the two Scipios who fell in 211 BC, probably Cn. Scipio (Plin. HN 3,25). The equation of I. with the modern Lorca (province of Murcia) is disputed. CIL II p. 476. Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam) Bibliography A. Schulten (ed.), Fontes Hispaniae Antiquae 3, 1935, 91 J. B. Keune, s.v. I., RE Suppl. 3, 1229 G. Alföldy, Röm. Städtewesen auf der neukastilischen Hochebene, 1981, 38.

Cantabri

(147 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
[German version] Alongside the  Astures, the C. were the most important tribe of the Spanish Atlantic coastal region. The main income of this tribe, which was split up into various groups, was derived from breeding cattle in the mountainous regions of the modern districts of Asturia and Santander; arable farming was very much of secondary importance only. Food shortages in the mountains may have been the motivation for the C.'s raids on the  Vaccaei, who settled in the fertile Duero valley. The C.…
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