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(110 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] Probably identical with the rhetor Severus Sanctus E. who taught in Rome in AD 395, was of Gallic origin and friends with  Paulinus of Nola. About 400 he composed a bucolic Christian poem ( Bucolics) in 33 stanzas (i.e. the number of years of Christ's life), each of three asclepiads and one glyconeus: Bucolus reports to Aegon the loss of his flock due to a cattle disease while Christ points out to Tityrus that his flock was preserved by the power of the cross. Thereupon, the other two convert to Christianity. Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Edition: D. Korzeniewski, H…

Ennodius, Magnus Felix

(362 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] Born in AD 473-74, probably in Arles, derived from Gaulish aristocracy. Raised in Pavia according to his rank, he entered into the service of the Church in 493 and became bishop of Pavia in 513. In 515 and 517, he was in Constantinople on behalf of Pope Hormisdas for the settlement of the Acacian schism and died in 521 (epitaph CIL VI 16464). His c. 500 writings, among them 297 letters in the manner of  Symmachus, were written before his tenure as bishop and were preserved in the manuscripts in approximately chronological order. Their affected…


(72 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] In the 6th cent. AD, he probably arranged (in Africa or Rome) a systematic collection ( Concordia canonum) of synodal laws ( Canones) and papal decisions ( Decretales), based on the collection of  Dionysius Exiguus. An extended version with the inclusion of texts from Gaul exists from the Carolingian period (so-called Gaulic Cresconius). Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Edition: PL 88, 829-942 (critical ed. is missing) Bibliography: H. Mordek, s.v. C., LMA 3, 345f.

Auspicius of Toul

(85 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] Fifth bishop of the city, correspondent of  Sidonius (Epist. 7,10, pre 475). In the epistle to  Arbogastes, comes in Trier, A. praises him for his lineage and noble attitude and warns him of the omnipresent problem of greed. The poetically simple composition (164 iambic dimeters) is an early example of rhythmic hymn stanzas in which the dominating aspect is the accent placed on the words. Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Edition: MGH PL 4,2, 1914, 614. Bibliography: Schanz/Hosius, 4,2,380-382 HLL § 784.2.

Carmen de ponderibus et mensuris

(116 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] Anonymous Latin poem, dated between the end of the 4th and beginning of the 6th cent. AD, and dedicated to a Symmachus, perhaps the father-in-law of  Boethius; it is a skilfully formed and clearly structured didactic poem ( Didactic poetry) in 208 hexameters about weights and measures, the procedure for ascertaining the specific weight of fluids as well as the relative proportions of metals, especially of gold-silver alloys. Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Editions: 1 F. Hultsch, Metrologicorum scriptorum reliquiae 2, 1866, 88-98 2 PLM 5, 71-82. Secondary…


(102 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] see Historia Augusta see Historia Augusta Gruber, Joachim (Munich) [German version] [2] Poet and teacher of rhetoric in Burdigala, 5th cent. AD Poet and teacher of rhetoric in Burdigala (Bordeaux), a friend of Sidonius Apollinaris who is the only source of information about him: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 8,9 is addressed to L. Around AD 460 he was invited to Arles by the emperor Maiorianus (ibid. 9,13,4); he was murdered soon after 475 (8,11,3). Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Bibliography: O. Seeck, s.v. L. (2), RE 12, 586 C. E. Stevens, Sidonius Apollinaris and h…

Somnium Neronis

(142 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] A Latin text, appended in the 6th cent. to the so-called Gospel of Nicodemus ( Acta Pilati, see New Testament Apocrypha), whose narrative sections can be traced by way of Rufinus [6] and Eusebius [7] to Iosephus [4] Flavius. It is about Jesus appearing in a dream to the emperor Nero and announcing to him Vespasian's revenge on the Jews (ch. 1), the omens of the destruction of Jerusalem (ch. 2), the destruction itself and the killing of the Jews (ch. 3). The remainder (ch. 4-12) consists of a cent…


(89 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] from Thagaste, son of Romanianus, a patron of Augustinus, probably accompanied him to Carthage and Rome. He is involved in the debate in the latter's dialogue Contra Academicos. A poem in 154 hexameters is extant in which L. asks Augustine for sending his work De musica, since he expects to get help for reading Varro's Disciplinae. After AD 395 there are no longer any records about him. Gruber, Joachim (Munich) Bibliography Editions: A. Goldbacher, CSEL 34,1, 89-95. Bibliography: F. W. Levy, s.v. L., RE 13, 204-210.


(495 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Governor of Britannia Superior, 3rd cent. AD V. was governor of the province of Britannia Superior (Zos. 1,66,2; Zon. 12,29 D.) and may be identical with Pomponius Victori(a)nus, cos. ord. and praefectus urbi in AD 282 (Chron. Min. 1,66 Mommsen). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Birley, 180 f.  PIR2 P 762  PLRE 1, 962, nr. 3 and 963, nr. 2. [German version] [2] Imp. Caesar M. Piavonius V. Invictus Augustus Emperor of Imperium Galliarum from the end of AD 269 to the spring of 271 (RIC 5,2, 379-398; CIL XIII 9040), son of Victoria, from ri…


(167 words)

Author(s): Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich)
[German version] [1] Patriarch of Constantinople 5th cent. AD (Γεννάδιος, Gennádios) Patriarch of  Constantinople AD 458-471. As an advocate at the Council of  Calchedon (451), he opposed acceptance of the Christology of  Cyrillus of Alexandria. Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) Bibliography F. Diekamp, Analecta Patristica, 1938, 54-72 (73-108). [German version] [2] Priest in Marseilles, 5th cent. AD Priest in Marseilles associated with the Semipelagians, who died between 492 and 505. Complementary to  Hieronymus' De viris illustribus, he compiled under the same title a c…

Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus

(2,318 words)

Author(s): Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Zaminer, Frieder (Berlin)
[German version] A. Life Son of the consul for 487, B. was born around 480. After his father's early death he was adopted into the household of  Symmachus, whose daughter, Rusticiana, he married. Given an excellent education, he was as familiar with the writings of Plato, Aristotle and the Neoplatonists, especially Porphyry and the Athenian School, as with Augustine, and he soon acquired a reputation as a scholar. In 510 he became consul sine collega, and in 522 his two sons, not fully grown-up, obtained the consulate. Probably in the same year he became magister officiorum, but evidentl…


(1,710 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Roberts, Michael (Middletown, CT) | Günther, Matthias (Bielefeld) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Military tribune in the army of Vespasianus in Iudaea Military tribune in the army of Vespasianus in Iudaea. in AD 67, following the conquest of Iotapata, he was instructed to convince Iosephus [4], the leader of the Jewish army, to surrender to Vespasianus, but proved unsuccessful (Jos. BI 3, 344f.). Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [2] Curator aedium sacrarum in AD 214 Senator. Curator aedium sacrarum in AD 214 (CIL VI 36899 = ILS 452). His nomen gentile was probably Max[imius]. PIR2 M 436. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] P. of Milan Secretary to…


(2,172 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
(Εὐσέβιος; Eusébios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eusebius Consul AD 347 Mention is made in the statute Cod. Theod. 11,1,1 of AD 360 of the former cos. et mag. equitum et peditum Eusebius. This probably refers to cos. E. of 347, who may perhaps be identified as the father of the empress Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,107d-110d). PLRE 1, 307f. Eusebius (39). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Eusebius Roman official about AD 355 Son of E. [1]. Like his brother Hypatius, he enjoyed the patronage of his sister  Eusebia [1] (cf. Julian Or. 3,116a). In AD 355 he was consularis Hellespon…


(2,145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main) | Gruber, Joachim (Munich) | Et al.
Name of a widely-branched Roman plebeian family who became well known from the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC on, but only achieved the consulate for the first time at the end of the cent. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] R. Lupus, P. Consul in 90 BC Praetor no later than 93 BC; consul in 90. During the Social War [3], he received the command of the northern army; against the advice of his legate C. Marius [I 1], he was lured into an ambush by the Marsi and was killed in the valley of the Tolnus (modern Turano; Liv. Per. 73; App. B Civ. 1,191-194; Oros. 5,18,11 f.). MRR 2,25. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig…


(23,376 words)

Author(s): Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt) | Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Hazenbos, Joost (Leipzig) | Hose, Martin (Munich) | Et al.
[German version] I. General Literary communication is communication by means of texts - stabilized, coherent and substantial statements. These may be written or eventually put down in writing, but they may also remain oral ( Literacy). Since for earlier societies as a rule only written texts can be studied, the term ‘literature’ focusses on such sedimented media of literary communication. Nevertheless, particularly for ancient societies the mainly oral character of literary communication must be emp…