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Personality of God

(1,138 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] Discourse of God as person in the Early Church, which first appears in the writings of Hippolytus of Rome ( Contra Noetum 7.1f.), was from the outset intended to express the distinguishing individuation characteristics of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit within the framework of the doctrine of the Trinity (Trinity/Doctrine of…

Personalism

(1,499 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. General The term personalism denotes a view that places particular value on the personality of God and/or human beings. F.D.E. Schleiermacher ( Reden über die Religion, 1799, 256–258; ET: On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers, 1988) and L. Feuerbach (

Novum

(346 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] The problem of the philosophical understanding of newness aroused increasing interest at the beginning of the 20th century – among such thinkers as H. Bergson, N. Berdyayev, C.S. Peirce, A.N. Whitehead, and E. Grisebach – and Ernst Bloch created the category of the novum. “To the new belongs… not only the abstract opposite of mechanical repetition,” as in Emile Boutroux and Bergson, but “a kind of specific repetition: namely of the not yet achieved content of an aim that is meant and intended, attempted and processed into …

Pneumatology

(371 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin

Emergence

(723 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip | Evers, Dirk | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Theology and Science – II. Systematic Theology – III. Ethics I. Theology and Science Emergence (from Lat. emergere, “to arise”), an idea that describes the appearance of novel and higher forms, represents an alternative to mechanistic, vitalist (Vitalism and mechanism), reductionist, and preformationist explanations. Emergence claims that complex structur…

Evolution

(3,425 words)

Author(s): Polkinghorne, John | Pollack, Detlef | Hübner, Jürgen | Kubon-Gilke, Gisela | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. History and Cosmology – II. Religious Studies – III. Evolution and Creation – IV. Social Sciences – V. Ethics I. History and Cosmology The significance of the notion of evolution as a historical process taking place through the interaction of contingent factors and regular laws first attracted attentio…

Paradise

(5,515 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Leiner, Martin | Rebiger, Bill | Heine, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. History of Doctrine and Dogmatics – IV. Judaism – V. Islam – VI. Buddhism – VII. History of Art and Literature I. Religious Studies The history of the term “paradise” is informative for determining its meaning. The word “paradise” is derived from the ancient Iranian * paridaēza, literally “surrounding wall.” It appears as a loanword in many other languages, for example as the Akkadian pardēsu, the Hebrew פַּרְדֵּס/ pardes or the Greek παράδεισος/ parádeisos. These terms denote an enclosed park or garden (cf. Xeno-¶ phon, Anabasis V…