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Group

(212 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] A group is a limited number of persons between whom repeated direct personal contact is possible over a long period of time. Groups differ from simple systems of interaction by virtue of their durability, and from organizations in …

Groups, Church

(404 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] Alongside or in the context of church structures, spontaneous and unplanned groups often form on the fringes of the church, which are based on the personal relationships among the members of the group and are capable of combining their interests in personal social relationship with topical interests (prayer circles, home groups [House church], peace groups [Peace movement], women's groups, environmental groups). Bacause of the principle of their constitution (cf. Group), they find…

Roles

(461 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] ( in religious studies). Religious roles represent a set of behavioral expectations developed by a religious community; they relate to the perception of particular religious functions, suc…

Church in Socialism,

(1,030 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] term for the political position of the Evangelical churches in the German Democratic Republic. While the SED (Socialist Unity Party) state used the formula to oblige the churches to accept socialism, for the churches it served a variety of functions. In the first instance, the churches used it to signal their renunciation of public opposition to GDR socialism and thus their fundamental loyalty to the system of ¶ the GDR. At the same time, the formula avoided acclamation. It did not signify a preferential option for socialism. Above all, it …

Value Change

(464 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] The expression value change usually refers to the change of attitude from materialistic to post-materialistic values that took place in highly industrialized Western societies in the 1960s and 1970s. Ronald Inglehart, whose work substantially influenced the theory of value change, spoke of a “silent revolution.” What he meant was that despite structural continuity during these decades, a change in fundamental cultural orientation took place among the populations of Western Europe and…

Systems Theory

(3,570 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef | Hesse, Heidrun | Herms, Eilert | Dinkel, Christoph | Evers, Dirk
[German Version] I. Religious Studies

Modernization

(3,401 words)

Author(s): Pollack, Detlef | Ludwig, Frieder | Münch, Richard | Gräb, Wilhelm | Hock, Klaus
[German Version] I. Study of Religion – II. History – III. Sociology – IV. Practical Theology – V. Missiology I. Study of Religion The term modernization usually refers to mutually reinforcing structural chan…

Germany

(25,084 words)

Author(s): Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Brenner, Beatus | Dehn, Ulrich | Pollack, Detlef
[German Version] I. General – II. Church History and Denominations – III. Non-Christian Religions – IV. Society, Culture, Religion, and the Churches in the Present I. General 1. Name The term Germany ( Deutschland) has been shaped by the history of the area it denotes. From the beginnings until 1945 it was closely associated with the German or Holy Roman Empire, so that it underwent many transformations. Since 1949 it has referred primarily to the Federal Republic of Germany, which since the joining of the German Democratic…

Evolution

(3,425 words)

Author(s): Polkinghorne, John | Pollack, Detlef | Hübner, Jürgen | Kubon-Gilke, Gisela | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. History and Cosmology – II. Religious Studies – III. Evolution and Creation – IV. Social Sciences – V. Ethics I. History and Cosmology The significance of the notion of evolution as a historical process taking place through the interaction of contingent factors and regular laws first attracted attention in 18th-century geology, where it served to mediate between the theory of uniformity, espoused by James Hutton (…