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Exarch,

(165 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Greek ἔξαρχος, leader, was originally a military rank (officer) in the Roman Empire. In the time of Justinian I,…

Archimandrite

(120 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] from the Greek ἀρχιμανδρίτης, literally, leader of a flock, is translated from the Syriac Riš-dayra. Originally (4th cent.) a designation for the abbot of a Syrian monastery, the Greek term Archimandrite spread throughout the entire Christian East. From the 6th century, the Archimandrite was the leader of an important monastery, and from the 11th…

Saguna, Andrei

(185 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (baptized Anastasiu; Jan 1, 1809, Miskolc – Jun 28, 1873, Sibiu/Herrmanstadt). Saguna, born to an Aromanian merchant family, studied law and philosophy in Pest and attended the Serbian Orthodox seminary in Vršac. A monk since 1833, he was ordained priest in 1837 and consecrated bishop of the Orthodox Romanians in Transylvania in 1848 in Sremski Karlovci. In 1864 he became the first archbishop of the autonomous Romanian Orthodox metropolitanate in Hungary. He created an independent…

Greek Catholic Church

(202 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Greek Catholic Church, a term used for what were formerly referred to as Uniate Christians and churches in eastern and southern Europe that were regarded as being part of the Roman Catholic Church as a result of unions with Rome. “Greek” implies the Orthodox liturgy (VI), which the Uniate churches celebrate in a modified form, while “Catholic” refers to the Roman Catholic confessional church. In the Habsburg monarchy, Greek Catholic was the official designation of the churches uni…

Eleutherius, Saint,

(136 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Greek ᾿Ελευϑέριος, stemmed from the region of Paphlagonia in Asia Minor (according to Konstantin Harmenopulos's Häretikertraktat, PG 150, 25D). Apparently, he was active in the 10th century as a monk and founded a monastery in the region of Lycaonia. According to Harmenopulos, he is supposed to have proposed radically ascetic to libertine doctrines concerning the cohabitation of monks with women. He a…

Joseph Bryennios

(228 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (c. 1350, probably Constantinople – between 1431 and 1438, Constantinople), monk and a learned Byzantine theologian. Joseph worked on the island of Crete, which belonged to Venice, from c. 1382/1383 to 1402/1403 as a preacher and Orthodox missionary. Afterwards, he lived primarily in Constantinople, c. 1402–1406 in the Studios monastery and 1416–1427 in the Charsianites monastery. As a representative of the ecumenical patriarch (Constantinople: V), he was supposed to strengthen th…

Romania

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. General 1. State. The name of the state of Romania (România) is derived from (Daco-)Romanian, which because of its Latin origin belongs to the Romance branch of languages. The modern state of Romania, with its capital Bucharest (Bucureşti), arose after 1859 to th…

Peasants, Liberation of

(954 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. General Peasant liberation is a collective term for a variety of measures taken between 1777 and 1817 to break up the traditional lifelong bonds of seigniory and serfdom; they gave the peasants personal freedom, eliminatin…

Akathistos Hymn

(200 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] , Gk ʾΑκάθιστος ῞Υμνος, “not sitting,” i.e. a song of…

Cross, Exaltation of the

(359 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (also Triumph of …

Subdeacon

(136 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (Gk ὑποδιάκοvος). In the liturgical hierarchy (II, 2) of the Orthodox Church, the subdeacon stands in fourth place: in first place stands the bishop (III, 2); then follow priest/presbyter (Priesthood: III, 2), deacon (VII), subdeacon ( Ipodiakon), reader, psalm singer, baptized laypersons, and, finally, catechumens. The subdeacon assists the bishop serving at the altar in a particular manner. He receives the Eucharist (Communion: III, 3), as do baptized laypersons, before the iconostasis (wall of images). In the worship service today, the subdeacon wears the stoi…

Walachia

(387 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Walachia, region in southern Romania divided by the Olt into Greater Walachia (Muntenia) and Lesser Walachia (Oltenia). An extension of the Eurasian Steppe, until well into the modern era Walachia was settled by various steppe peoples. In the context of the Danube Bulgarian Empire (Bulgaria), historical sources also mention Orthodox Vlachs/Walachians (Romanians) in Walachia, canonically under Ochrid or Târnovo. In the 12th century, pagan Cumans ruled Walachia; they were evangelize…

Hierodeacon

(133 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] A hierodeacon (Gk ἱεροδιάκονος) is an Orthodox monk (Monasticism: III) who officiates as deacon (VII) during the liturgy of the hours (IV) and the regular liturgy (VI). The number of deacons consecrated as hierodeacons or …

Ektenia

(277 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] “Ektenia” is derived from Gk ἐκτενής/ ektenḗs, lit. “outstretched, unceasing, fervent” (cf. ¶ Acts 12:5). In Orthodox worship, it designates the intercessions that are sung in antiphonous alternation, in the form of a litany. The deacon (Diaconate: V…

Užhorod

(192 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Užgorod (Czech Užhorod, Hung. Ungvár), in western Ukraine, belonged politically to the kingdom of Hungary from the Middle Ages to 1918; it went to Czechoslovakia in 1919 but was returned to Hungary in 1940.…

Hieromonk

(132 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] A hieromonk (Gk ἱερομόναχος/ hieromónachos) is an Orthodox monk (Monasticism: III) who also serves as a priest (Priesthood: III, 3). Since its beginnings in Late Antiquity, Eastern monasticism has remained fundamen…

Sremski Karlovci

(196 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (Hung. Karlócza), a city on the Danube in Syrmia (Srem), Serbia, a Baroque ecclesiastical center of Orthodox Serbs within the Catholic Habsburg …

Iaşi

(222 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann

Peć

(168 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Peć, city on the Bistrica in Kosovo. It appears in documents from the early 13th century, when the archbishop of Žiča moved his see to Peć. Tsar Stefan Dushan (1331–1355) of Serbia named Archbishop Janićije I patriarch of the Serbs and Greeks, thus creating the first Serbian patriarchate of Peć, not recognized by Constantinople. The so-called Patriaršija, with the churches of the Holy Apostles (c. 1230), the Theotokos (before 1337), and St. Demetrius (before 1324), still bears witness to the golden age of Serbo-Byzantine art. After 1389, when Peć fell into Ottoman hands, its importance faded. The second patriarchate of Peć was erected in 1557 by the grand vizier Mehmet S…

Archdeacon,

(124 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] from the Greek ἀρχιδιάκονος, is the leader of the deacons in an episcopal see. The a…

Metropolitan

(919 words)

Author(s): Schöllgen, Georg | Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Orthodox Canon Law I. Early Church The metropolitanate is an outgrowth of the emergence of synods, which in the late 2nd century slowly began to develop into the most important regional ecclesiastical authorities (see also Church polity: I, 3.a). As soon as synods began to assemble regularly on a provincial level (Ecclesiastical province), the bishop of the provincial capital acquired new authority, which increasingly became legally codified. At the beginning of the 4…

Seelsorge

(3,694 words)

Date: 2019-11-19

Pietismus

(3,072 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Evangelische Kirchen 1.1. Begriff und AbgrenzungDer aus dem lat. pietas (›Frömmigkeit‹) abgeleitete Begriff P. setzte sich seit der sog. Leipziger Bewegung um August Hermann Francke (1689/90) zur Bezeichnung der bedeutendsten religiösen Reformbewegung innerhalb des kontinentaleurop. Protestantismus nach der Reformation durch. Unter Aufnahme v. a. vorreformatorischer und radikaler Einflüsse des 16. und 17. Jh.s (Täufer; Spiritualisten) zielte der P. auf eine Weiterführung der Reformation der Lehre durch eine ›Reformation des Lebens‹.Trotz unterschiedlicher konfessioneller, regionaler und individueller Prägungen lassen sich gemeinsame Merkmale erkennen: (1) Der P. forderte eine Erneuerung des Frömmigkeitslebens (lat. praxis pietatis) der Christen in Gebet, Meditation und gemäßigtem oder enthaltsamem Lebenswandel (Askese). Dies konnte mit neuen Gemeinschaftsformen (Konventikeln, vgl. Collegium) oder Gemeinde- und Kirchenbil…
Date: 2019-11-19

Pastoral care

(3,956 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Möller, Christian | Schneider, Johann
1. IntroductionPastoral care refers to the assistance church officials (pastors) provide for individuals and groups of the faithful in questions of faith and the religious conduct of life. The  Regula pastoralis (“Pastoral Rule,” c. 590) of Pope Gregory I, the normative guide to pastoral care well into the early modern period, uses the Latin terms  cura pastoralis (“pastoral care,” French  la pastorale) and regimen animarum (“guidance of souls”). The literal Latin equivalent of German Seelsorgecura animarum (…
Date: 2020-10-06

Pietism

(2,996 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Protestant churches 1.1. TerminologyThe term Pietism, from Latin  pietas (piety), came into use after the so-called Leipzig movement spearheaded by August Hermann Francke (1689/1690); it denoted the most significant religious reform movement within continental Protestantism after the Reformation. Adopting primarily pre-Reformation and radical 16th- and 17th-century ideas (Anabaptists; Spiritualism [Protestantism]), Pietism aimed to complement the reformation of doctrine with a “reformation of life.”Despite confessional, regional, and individual variations, certain common features stand out. (1) Pietism demanded renewal of the practice of piety (Latin  praxis pietatis) of Christian…
Date: 2020-10-06

Pfarramt

(1,951 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. Begriff und geschichtliche Entwicklung bis zum 15. Jh.P. bezeichnet zum einen das Amt des Pfarrers, zum anderen das Pfarrhaus als Verwaltungszentrum einer Pfarrei, die entweder die Gläubigen eines bestimmten Bezirks (Territorialgemeinde) oder einer bestimmten Gruppe (Personalgem…
Date: 2019-11-19

Pastorate

(2,146 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. To the 15th centuryThe term “pastorate” in English refers to the office of pastor, but the German term Pfarramt encompasses in a kind of personal union both the pastorate and the  rectory or parish house as the administrative center of a parish, which comprises either the faithful within a specific area (territorial parish) or belonging to a specific group (personal parish). (On the etymology of the German words 
Date: 2020-10-06

Ordination and Post-Ordination Education and Training

(5,505 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Karl-Adolf | Rau, Stefan | Schneider, Johann | Pobee, John
[German Version] I. Early Church and Middle Ages – II. Protestantism (Germany) – III. Roman Catholic Church after Trent – IV. Orthodox Church – V. Non-Catholic Churches outside Germany I. Early Church and Middle Ages The New Testament contains scattered statements about the personal qualifications required of someone holding ministerial office in the church (e.g. 1 Tim 3:2–13; Tit 1:6–9) but says nothing about their training. Since the gospel implies understand…

Piety

(3,477 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Sparn, Walter | Koch, Traugott | Seiferlein, Alfred | Weismayer, Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Piety (recently often also “spirituality”) is understood, first, as the forms of expression of lived religiosity; research in this area is particularly the subject of folklore studies and church history for the idividual, secondly, piety has to do with particular qualities of feeling, such as reverence, with which the psychology of religion (Gruehn, Sundén) is concerned. Objective and subjective components are combined in var…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…

Episcopal Titles

(878 words)

Author(s): Rees, Wilhelm | Ohme, Heinz | Müller, Ludger | Pree, Helmuth | Schima, Stefan | Et al.
[German Version] I. Auxiliary Bishop – II. Chorbishop – III. Regional Bishop – IV. Suffragan Bishop – V. Titular Bishop – VI. Vicar Bishop I. Auxiliary Bishop An auxiliary bishop is a bishop appointed at the request of a diocesan bishop to assist him in administration of the diocese. His rights, duties, and official functions are defined by canon law ( CIC cc. 403–411) and his letter of appointment. An auxiliary bishop is a member of the Bishops' Conference. Unlike a coadjutor, an auxiliary bishop does not have the right of succession. Wilhelm Rees Bibliography J. Listl, “Koadjutor-…

Clergy and Laity

(3,439 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter | Schneider, Johann | Winkler, Eberhard | Guder, Darrell | Denis, Philippe | Et al.
[German Version] I. European Christian Churches – II. Churches Worldwide – III. Islam I. European Christian Churches 1. Catholic Church A division of the church into clergy and laity does not coincide with New Testament evidence. The designation “laity” derives from laikós, the adjective form of λαός/ laós, “people.” In the Septuagint (LXX), this term describes the people of Israel in contrast to the (pagan) nations. In a…

Laity

(5,415 words)

Author(s): Freiberger, Oliver | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Karrer, Leo | Schneider, Johann | Plasger, Georg | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Practical Theology – V. North America – VI. Missiology I. Religious Studies Generally speaking, the term laity (from Gk λαος/ laós, “people”) denotes adherents of a religious tradition who do not act as religious specialists or function within a defined socio-religious class (Priesthood, Monasticism). The use of the term is therefore inappropriate in religions without religious specialists, for example Islam. In some religions, the laity, who…
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