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(2,847 words)

Author(s): Hübnerr, Ulrich | Uehlinger, Christoph | Sommer, Andreas Urs | Hübner, Ulrich | Ilisch, Lutz
[German Version] I. Definition Numismatics is the historical science of money and coinage. The name derives from the Greek and Latin words for “coin”: νόμισμα/ nómisma, nummus. Following some pioneering work in the Renaissance, numismatics has established itself as a modern science at least since Johann Hilarius Eckhel (1737–1798), with its own methodological tools. II. Importance 1. Archaeology. As usually authorized official documents, coins with their epigraphic and iconographic information are of great value as sources for the history of civilizati…

Tzschirner, Heinrich Gottlieb

(162 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Andreas Urs
[German Version] (Nov 14, 1778, Mittweida, near Leipzig – Feb 17, 1828, Leipzig), Protestant theologian. After appointment to a chair at Wittenberg, he moved to Leipzig in 1809, where he also served as pastor and superintendent. Tzschirner conceptualized a critical ethical rationalism, open to revelation, in which the substance of Christianity was deemed rational but its revealed form in the Bible supernatural. A noted preacher and successful commentator on ecclesiastical politics, he opposed the …

Gernler, Lukas

(196 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Andreas Urs
[German Version] (Aug 19, 1625, Basel – Feb 9, 1675, Basel). A Reformed theologian, Gernler became diaconus communis in 1649 and president of the church in Basel in 1656; in the same year he was made professor of Loci communes and Controversiae theologicae at the University of Basel. He also held the OT chair from 1665. He vigorously opposed the irenic proposals of John Durie and the moderate doctrine of grace espoused by the seminary at Saumur. The Syllabus controversiarum (1662), whose primary author was Gernler, defended a strictly orthodox Reformed theology (Orthodoxy:…

Grynaeus, Johann Jakob

(312 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Andreas Urs
[German Version] (Gryner; Oct 1, 1540, Bern – Aug 13, 1617, Basel) was a Protestant theologian, appointed in 1559, after studying in the University of Basel, as curate for his father, Thomas Grynaeus (1512–1564), who was chaplain of the Margrave of Baden. He received the Dr.theol. from Tübingen in 1564 and succeeded his father in Röteln in 1565. Increasingly, Grynaeus, who originally sympathized with the Lutheran doctrine of communion, turned to the Reformed understanding and away from the dogma o…

Frey, Johann Ludwig

(178 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Andreas Urs
[German Version] (Nov 16, 1682, Basel – Feb 28, 1759, Basel), Reformed theologian, and, as a student of S. Werenfels, a proponent of “rational orthodoxy” (Orthodoxy: II, 2.b). From 1711 as professor of history and associate professor of theology, and in 1737 as professor of Old Testament at the University of Basel, Frey endeavored to integrate the results of secular studies into theology (Frey already employed R.Descartes's philosophy apologetically in his 1699 master's thesis), although he abrupt…

Grynaeus, Johannes

(168 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Andreas Urs
[German Version] (Jun 8, 1705, Läufelfingen, Switzerland – Apr 11, 1744, Basel) was a Reformed theologian, initially trained as acanonist, who became professor of loci communes and contoversiae theologicae in 1738, after 1740 professor of NT, at the University of ¶ Basel. As a student of S. Werenfel and Jakob Christoph Iselin a proponent of “rational orthodoxy,” Grynaeus devoted himself, initially guided by J.L. Frey, to the study of Semitic languages and worked to demonstrate the rationality of major Christian dogma…

Schweitzer, Albert

(886 words)

Author(s): Sommer, Andreas Urs
[German Version] (Jan 14, 1875, Kaysersberg, Upper Alsace – Sep 4, 1965, Lambarene, Gabon, Africa). I. Life The son of a liberal Protestant pastor, Schweitzer studied philosophy and theology Strasbourg, Paris, and Berlin, and studied organ with C.-M. Widor (with whom he later prepared the crit. ed. of J.S. Bach’s organ works). He received his Dr.phil. in 1899 with a dissertation on I. Kant’s philosophy of religion. In 1900 he received his Lic.theol.; in the same year, he was appointed assistant at Sankt Nikolai …