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(361 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Wolfgang
[German Version] (Gk ἀπορία), originally hopelessness, or in philosophy the embarrassing situation into which one can fall when the solution of a problem seems to be currently or ultimately impossible. The oldest aporias of philosophy go back to Zenon of Elea. From the assumption of the reality of movement, Zenon developed contradictory consequences. A flying arrow rests at every point along its path; in competition Achilles can never catch u…

Act and Potency

(1,153 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Wolfgang | Knuuttila, Simo
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Philosophy Act and potency ( actus, realization, reality – potentia, predisposition, possibility), one of the pairs of concepts introduced by Aristotle. It is intended to do justice to the circumstance that not only that which actually exists belongs to the category of being as a whole, but also the sphere of tendencies, dispositions, and cap…


(1,311 words)

Author(s): Wieland, Wolfgang | Dierken, Jörg | Korsch, Dietrich
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Dogmatics I. Philosophy In philosophy, the concept of dialectics serves to characterize various types of thought which share the tendency to seek out contradictions or other oppositions and render them fruitful for cognition. Dialectics takes contradictions as the occasion to develop viewpoints as conditions under which the contra…