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Agoraeus

(103 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀγοραῖος; Agoraîos). The epiclesis of the gods designates the local and functional relationship of the god to the agora as a political and economical institution [1]. Thus Zeus in particular is cultically revered as guarantor of the statutes, and an oath is sworn to him [2; 3. 197-199], sometimes with others, including female deities (Artemis, Ge). Otherwise, Hermes is the market god par excellence (especially in Erythrae [3. 270]; IE 201 = Syll.3 1014, 90-100). Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 R. E. Wycherly, in: Agora 3, 1957, 123a 2 H. Schwabl, s. v. Zeus, RE X A, 256-258; RE Suppl. XV, 1978, 1051-1053 3 F. Graf, Nordionische Kulte, 1985.

Maleus

(209 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
(Μάλεως, Μάλεος; Máleōs, Máleos). The mythography of late antiquity mixed together several persons of this name [1]. [German version] [1] Dedicated a cliff near Phaestus A cliff protecting the harbour of Phaestus on Crete was said to have been dedicated by a M. to Poseidon (schol. Hom. Od. 3,296; Suda s.v. M.); the link to Cape Malea [1], which is established as early as the Odyssee, can be found also in the grave epigram Anth. Pal. 7,275 of the Imperial period. Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Tyrrhenian robber (myth.) Named as one of the Tyrrhenian robbers (also …

Dragon slayers

(519 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] Dragons, from the Greek δράκων ( drákōn) derived from δέρκομαι ( dérkomai) ‘to look at penetratingly’ (Porph. De abstinentia 3,8,3), are mythical beings combining the superhuman qualities of various animals [1]. In mythology the world of humans was threatened by amphibious snakes (synonym: ὄφις; óphis

Bendis

(537 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Βενδῖς; Bendîs). The Thracian goddess B., still known to the Greeks in the 6th cent. (Hipponax fr. 127 W.) (see Hdn. 2, 761 L.; Liv. 38,41,1; only as antiquarian knowledge? [1. 114]), B. is understood in the interpretatio graeca as an  Artemis (Hdt. 4, 33; 5, 7; Palaephat. 31; Hsch.), as  Hecate (Plut. De def. or. 13, 416e, owing to incorrect etymology; Hsch. s.v. Ἀδμήτου κόρη) or Persephone (Orph. Fr. 200 OF; cf. texts in PCG 4, p. 165; cf. 159). The iconography, too, aims at equating her with Artemis as a hunting …

Atheism

(459 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] Modern atheism appeals to ancient models as its authority in its repudiation of the (Christian) religion; it even creates martyrs. While atheism in modern times turns against monotheism and institutions derived from it -- the term atheism first appears in the 16th cent. --, the ancient terms, including ἄθεος (

Bouphonia

(286 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] …

Agamemnon

(936 words)

Author(s): Auffarth, Christoph (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἀγαμέμνων, Agamémnōn). King of the Argives in Mycenae. In the early Greek epics A. led the army of the Argives ( Danai, Achaeans) against Troy, to avenge the kidnapping of the wife of his brother Menelaus. He brings the greatest fleet from the north-eastern Peloponnese (in the ships' catalogue Il. 2,569-575 south-western Argolis belongs to Diomedes, the remainder and as far as to Corinth, to A. In contrast to this, lord of ‘all Argus’ (Il. 2,107; 9,141 [1.180 f.]). In the Iliad he causes his charismatic rule [2] to waver through the theft of Achilles' capti…
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